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Pedestrian and Cyclist Impact : a Biomechanical Perspective

Author: Ciaran Simms; Denis Wood
Publisher: Dordrecht : Springer Netherlands, 2009.
Series: SpringerLink: Springer e-Books; Solid Mechanics and Its Applications, 166.
Edition/Format:   Computer file : English : Online-ausgView all editions and formats
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This book presents pedestrian injuries from a biomechanical perspective. It gives a detailed treatment of the physics of pedestrian impact plus a review of the accident databases and relevant injury  Read more...

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Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Ciaran Simms; Denis Wood
ISBN: 9789048127436 9048127432 9789048127429 9048127424
OCLC Number: 610144444
Reproduction Notes: Online-Ausg. Berlin [u.a.] Springer, 2009. online-Ressource.
Description: S.
Contents: Foreword; Acknowledgements; About the Authors; Chapter 1: Introduction; Chapter 2: Pedestrian and Cyclist Injuries: Introduction; Global View of Pedestrian and Cyclist Fatality and Injury Rates; Main Pedestrian and Cyclist Injury Database Sources; Distribution of Pedestrian Injuries; Distribution of Cyclist Injuries; Injury Risk as a Function of Age and Sex; The Distribution of Vehicle Impact Speeds; Injuries from Vehicle and from Ground Contact; Injury Risk as a Function of Vehicle Size and Type; Injuries and Disabilities; Pedestrian Injury Trends over Time; Concluding Remarks;Chapter 3: Pedestrian and Cyclist Impact Kinematics: Introduction; Sources for Studying Pedestrian and Cyclist Movement; Classification of Pedestrian and Cyclist Impact Configurations; Pedestrian Sideswipe Collisions; Wrap Projection; Pedestrian/Cyclist Head Contact in Wrap Projections; Forward Projection; Post Head Impact Kinematics for Forward and Wrap Projection Cases; Concluding Remarks; Chapter 4: The Relationship between Vehicle Impact Speed and Pedestrian and Cyclist Projection Distance: Introduction; Stages of Pedestrian and Cyclist Projection; Post Impact Separation from the Vehicle; Effective Coefficient of Retardation in the Ground Contact; Accident Data; Staged Tests; Comparison between Accident Reconstructions and Staged Tests; Regression Models Relating Impact Speed to Pedestrian Projection; Distance; Physics Based Models Relating Impact Speed to Pedestrian; Projection Distance; Theoretical Considerations: The Particle Projection Model;Wrap Projection; Pedestrian Forward Projection; Confidence Limits for Vehicle Impact Speed Prediction; Other Models; Concluding Remarks; Chapter 5: Injury Mechanisms and Injury Criteria: Introduction; Head Injuries; Head Injury Criteria; Spinal Injuries; Thorax Injuries; Abdominal Injuries; Pelvis Injuries; Lower Extremity Injuries; The Long Bones: Femur, Tibia and Fibula; The Knee; The Ankle and Upper Extremities; Concluding Remarks; Chapter 6: Vehicle Design Standards for Pedestrian and Cyclist Safety: Introduction; Bodies Developing Pedestrian Safety Standards; Types of Test Proposed; Subsystem Tests: Legform Impactor to Bumper; Upper Legform to Bonnet Leading Edge; Headform to Bonnet Top: Adult and Child; lmplementation into Legislation; Concluding Remarks; Chapter 7: Mathematical Formulations for Impact Modelling: Introduction; Notation; Timing; Impulse and Momentum; Single Segment Formulation Using Momentum Considerations; Post Primary Impact Kinematics; Head Contact Time; Post Head Impact Kinematics; Pedestrian Formulation Using an Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE) Approach; Rigid Body ODE Approach with a Hinge Segment; Three-Dimensional Effects; Problems with a Rigid Body Approach; A Finite Element Approach to Pedestrian Impact; Concluding Remarks; Chapter 8: Models for Simulating Impact: Introduction; Pedestrian Physical Dummy Models; Mathematical Models; Multibody Models; Finite Element Models; Application of Finite Element Pedestrian and Cyclist Models; Concluding Remarks; Chapter 9: Ground Contact Injuries: Introduction; Relative Severity of Ground Versus Vehicle Impact; Variability of Ground Contact; Vehicle Impact Speed Effects; Influence of Vehicle Design; Possible Methods to Reduce Ground Contact Injuries; Concluding Remarks; Chapter 10: The Influence of Vehicle Design on Pedestrian and Cyclist Injuries: Introduction; Definitions; Influence of Vehicle Mass; Influence of Vehicle Stiffness; Influence of overall Vehicle Shape; Bumper Shape; Influence of Bumper Height on Whole-Body Kinematics; Secondary Bumper; Bumper Lead; Bumper Stiffness; Bullbars; Shape of Bonnet and Bonnet Leading Edge; Bonnet Leading Edge Stiffness; Head Impact on the BonnetIWindscreen; Evaluation of Production Vehicles via Proposed Pedestrian; Safety Regulations; Concluding Remarks; Chapter 11: Conclusions and Future Perspectives : Introduction; Epidemiology and In-Depth Crash Injury Studies; Kinematics ; Population
Series Title: SpringerLink: Springer e-Books; Solid Mechanics and Its Applications, 166.
Responsibility: by Ciaran Simms, Denis Wood.

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