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Personality, individual differences and intelligence

Author: John Maltby; Liz Day; Ann Macaskill
Publisher: Harlow : Prentice Hall, 2006.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
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Highly engaging and lively in presentation, this thought provoking text introduces students to the major theories, methods, research findings and debates in Personality, Individual Differences and  Read more...

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: John Maltby; Liz Day; Ann Macaskill
ISBN: 0131297600 9780131297609
OCLC Number: 156545799
Description: 680 pages ; 27 cm
Contents: Contents Part 1 Personality Chapter 1 Personality Theory in Context Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction General population perspectives: implicit personality theories Problems with implicit theories How is personality defined? Lay definitions of personality Psychological definitions of personality The aims of studying personality The source of the term 'personality' Approaches to studying personality: idiographic versus nomothetic Describing personality Distinctions and assertions in personality research Effects of personality versus situational effects Measurement issues Strands of personality theorising The clinical approach and its history Individual differences emphasis on personality and its history Studying personality as a personal experience Reading critically and evaluating theories The cultural context of personality theories Final comments Summary Going Further Suggestions for further reading Web links Connecting Up Chapter 2 The Basis of the Psychoanalytic Approach to Personality Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Description of Freud's theory of personality Levels of consciousness The nature of human beings and the source of human motivation The structure of the personality The development of personality Defence mechanisms Repression Denial Projection Reaction formation Rationalisation Conversion reaction Phobic avoidance Displacement Regression Isolation Undoing Sublimation Clinical Applications of Freudian theory Evaluation of Freudian theory Description Explanation Empirical validity and testable concepts Comprehensiveness Parsimony Heuristic value Applied value Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion points Essay questions Going Further Suggestions for further reading Web links Film and literature Connecting Up Chapter 3 Developments of Freudian Theorising Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Individual psychology of Alfred Adler Inferiority feelings Personality development in Adlerian terms Birth order Characteristics of the neurotic personality Adlerian treatment approaches Evaluation of Adler's individual psychology theory Carl Jung and analytic psychology Structures within the psyche Jungian personality types Jung's conception of mental illness and its treatment Evaluation of Jung's theory The psychology of Karen Horney Essentials of Horney's theoretical position The development of the personality and the neurotic personality Defence mechanisms Penis envy and female masochism Evaluation of Horney's theory Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Discussion questions Essay questions Going Further Suggestions for further reading Web links Film and literature Connecting Up Chapter 4 Learning Theory Perspectives on Personality Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Introduction to learning theory The clinical perspective within classical conditioning The radical behaviourism of B. F. Skinner Attempts to apply learning theory approaches to personality The stimulus-response model of personality of dollard and miller Albert Bandura and social learning theory Learning within Bandura's model Personality development in social learning theory Self-efficacy as a self-regulatory process Increasing self-efficacy ratings Measuring self-efficacy Julian Rotter and locus of control The impact of locus of control on behaviour Walter Mischel The impact of Mischel Evaluation of learning theory approaches Description Explanation Empirical validity Testable concepts Comprehensiveness Parsimony Heuristic value Applied value Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion questions Essay questions Going Further Suggestions for further reading Web links Film and literature Connecting Up Chapter 5 Cognitive Personality Theories Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Theory of personal constructs of George A. Kelly The view of the person in Kelly's theory Concepts within Kelly's theory Personality development according to Kelly Assessing personality in personal construct theory Clinical applications of personal construct theory Albert Ellis and Rational-Emotive Behaviour therapy Origins of the theory of Rational Emotive Behaviour therapy Rational and irrational thoughts The importance of perception and the subjective world view Development of the individual The basic model of rational emotive behaviour therapy Sources of psychological disturbance Applications of rational emotive behavioural therapy Research evidence for effectiveness of rational emotive behavioural therapy Overall evaluation of cognitive approaches Description Explanation Empirical validity Testable concepts Comprehensiveness Parsimony Heuristic value Applied value Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Questions for discussion Essay questions Going Further Further reading Web links Film and literature Connecting Up Chapter 6 Humanistic Personality Theories Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Historical roots and key elements of the humanistic approach Abraham Maslow and self-actualisation Human nature and human motivation Hierarchy of needs Discussion of basic needs Characteristics of self-actualisers Personality development Mental illness and its treatment in Maslow's approach Evaluation of Maslow's theory Carl Rogers and person-centred therapy Basic principles underlying the theory Self-actualisation Effect of society on self-actualisation Developmental impact on the child of their parent's self-concept The role of the actualising tendency in development Rogers' conceptualisation of psychological problems The principles of Rogerian counselling The role of the therapist or counsellor Evaluation of Rogers' theory Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion questions Essay questions Going Further Books Web links Film and literature Connecting Up Chapter 7 The Trait Approach to Personality Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Emergence of personality traits Defining personality traits The development of trait theories within psychology Sheldon and somatypes Early lexical approaches to personality and the lexical hypothesis Gordon Allport Raymond Cattell and the emergence of the factor analytic approach Types of traits Contribution of Cattell Hans Eysenck's trait theory of personality Eysenck's structure of personality Research evidence for Eysenck's types Psychopathology and Eysenck's therapeutic approach Eysenck's contribution to trait theorising The five factor model Evidential sources for the five-factor model Evaluation of the big five and trait approaches Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion questions Essay questions Going Further Books and journals Web sources Film and literature Connecting Up Chapter 8 Biological Basis of Personality I: Genetic Heritability of Personality and Biological and Physiological Models of Personality Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Behavioural genetics Behavioural genetics: basic ideas How the influence of genes is assessed in behaviour genetics Methods for assessing genetic heritability of personality Genetic heritability estimates and personality Considerations within behavioural genetics and personality Conceptions of genetic heritability and the environment Different types of genetic variance Shared and non-shared environments Problems with the representativeness of twin and adoption studies Assortative mating Changing world of genetics A framework for considering heritability in personality Psychophysiology, neuropsychology and personality Eysenck's biological model of personality and arousal Gray's bas/bis theory Cloninger's biological model of personality Empirical evidence for biological theories of personality The central nervous system and biological personality dimensions The autonomic nervous system and biological personality dimensions Consideration of biological theories of personality Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion questions Essay questions Going Further Further reading Web Literature/Film Connecting Up Chapter 9 Biological Basis of Personality II: Evolutionary Psychology and Animal Studies of Personality Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Evolutionary theory Evolutionary psychology and adaptation The use of evolutionary psychology in understanding behavior Evolutionary personality and personality and individual differences Psychology An introduction to evolutionary personality psychology: Buss' theory of personality and adaptation How individual differences arise through co-operation: the example of leadership Life history and personality Consideration of the evolutionary theory of personality Animals and their personality Animals and personality: A historical context Within-species versus cross-species Methods in animal personality research Reliability and validity of animal personality research Animal personality: the emergence of the five factor model of animal personality: informing evolutionary theories of personality? Consideration of animal personality research Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion points Essay questions Going Further Further reading Web links Connecting Up Part 2 Intelligence Chapter 10 An Introduction to Intelligence Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Why does intelligence matter? Implicit theories of intelligence Research into implicit theories of intelligence Lay-persons' implicit theories across cultures Implicit theories of intelligence across the lifespan Expert conceptions of intelligence A task force in intelligence! The focus of this section of the book Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion question Essay questions Going Further Further reading Web links Literature and film Connecting Up Chapter 11 Theories and Measurement of Intelligence Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction The birth of the psychology of intelligence: Galton and Binet Galton Binet The search for measurement continues: the birth of 'IQ' and standardised Testing Terman Yerkes General intelligence 'g': The theory and the measurement 'g' Measuring 'g': the Wechsler and Raven's matrices Multi-factor theorists: Thurstone, Cattell and Guilford Louis L. Thurstone: 'g' results from 7 primary mental abilities Raymond Cattell: fluid and crystallised intelligence Guilford: many different intelligences and many different combinations Intelligence and factor analysis -- a third way: the hierarchal approach Vernon Carroll: from the three-stratum model of human cognitive abilities to CHC Cattell, Horn and Carroll (CHC): theory, research and practice together Other theories of intelligence: Gardner and Sternberg Howard Gardner: multiple intelligences Robert Sternberg Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion questions Essay questions Going Further Further reading Web links Literature and film Connecting Up Chapter 12 Intelligence Tests: What Do Scores on Intelligence Tests Reflect? Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Types of intelligence tests The distinction between psychometric and the cognitive psychology approach to intelligence testing Simple biological and physiological based measures of intelligence Alexander Romanovich Luria Das and Naglieri's cognitive assessment system and the Kaufmans' The features, uses and problems that surround intelligence tests Typical features of intelligence tests The uses of intelligence tests Problem and issues with intelligence tests The intelligent use of intelligence tests Some concluding comments The Flynn effect How was the Flynn effect discovered? Explanations of the Flynn effect The nutrition hypothesis versus the cognitive stimulation hypothesis Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion questions Essay questions Going Further Further reading Web links Literature and film Connecting Up Chapter 13 Heritability and Socially Defined Race Differences in Intelligence Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Intelligence: the nature versus nurture debate Galton Heritability of intelligence What do we mean by heritability of intelligence? Methods for assessing genetic heritability of intelligence Heritability estimates of intelligence Considerations within behavioural genetics and intelligence Modern estimates of the genetic heritability of intelligence Environmental influences on intelligence Biological variables and maternal effects Nutrition Lead Prenatal factors Maternal effects model Family environment Shared and non-shared environments Within family factors Our socio-economic status of the family Birth order, family size and intelligence Education and intelligence Culture and intelligence Final comments on genetic heritability and environmental influences on Intelligence The bell curve The bell curve: intelligence and class structure in American life The cognitive elite: looking at the higher end of the bell curve Criticisms of the bell curve: intelligence and class structure in American life Analysis of the assumptions used by Herrnstein and Murray in their analysis Statistical and research problems in the bell curve arguments A darker side of psychology related to Herrnstein and Murray's analysis Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion questions Essay questions Going Further Further reading Web links Literature and film Connecting Up Chapter 14 Sex Differences in Intelligence: Spatial Intelligence and Emotional Intelligence Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Sex Differences in intelligence Sex differences on measures of general intelligence Sex differences in specific intelligences Looking for explanations for sex differences in measures of intelligence Biological explanations for sex differences in intelligence Biological variables for sex differences in measures of general intelligence Biological variables for sex differences in spatial intelligence Summary of biological factors in sex differences in intelligence Environmental factors Stereotypes on sex differences in intelligence outside of education Stereotypes on sex differences in intelligence within education Interactions between technology and socio-economic status and their influence on intelligence in the classroom A final consideration of sex differences in measures of intelligence Stereotype emphasis Placing the extent of the sex differences in intelligence within its proper context Interim summary Emotional intelligence Salovey and Mayer's four branch model of emotional intelligence Goleman's model of emotional intelligence Bar-On's model of emotional intelligence: Providing contexts for understanding the three models of emotional intelligence Sex differences in emotional intelligence Critical consideration of emotional intelligence theory and research Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion questions Essay questions Going Further Further reading Web links Literature and film Connecting Up Chapter 15 The Application of Personality and Intelligence in Education and the Workplace Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Personality and intelligence predictors of achievement in education and the workplace Established measures of personality and intelligence: predictors of achievement in education and work The difficulties with using established measures of personality and intelligence in education and work Learning styles and Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) Learning processes Learning styles Application and measurement of learning processes and styles Critical consideration of Kolb's theory Emotional intelligence in education and the workplace Goleman's theory of emotional intelligence Emotional intelligence and leadership Emotional intelligence and self-learning Consideration of emotional intelligence in education and the workplace Successful intelligence and leadership: creativity, intelligence and wisdom Creativity Wisdom Giftedness Giftedness, termites and IQ scores Modern conceptions of giftedness: not just high IQ? Psychological models of giftedness Summary of giftedness Working with those with learning disabilities Working with those with learning disabilities: the darker historical line Working with those with learning disabilities: the positive historical line Feuerstein and structural cognitive modifiability Theory and programme of structural cognitive modifiability Concluding remarks Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion questions Essay questions Going Further Further reading Web links Literature and film Connecting Up Part 3 Individual Differences Chapter 16 An Introduction to Applied Individual Differences Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Individual differences can be applied to improve our understanding of psychological concepts The nature of individual differences How are individual differences identified and measured? How individual differences can be applied to improve our understanding of competing or overlapping concepts or topics areas Comparing theories Combining theories How individual differences is applied to demonstrate its usefulness within the psychology of human experience Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion points Essay questions Going Further Further reading Web links Literature and film Connecting Up Chapter 17 Optimism Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Learned optimism -- explanatory style Learned helplessness versus learned optimism The ABC format Distraction and disputation Dispositional optimism The life orientation test (a measure of dispositional optimism) Optimism and well-being Coping and appraisals Optimism and well-being Optimism: a cloud in the silver lining? Situational optimism Hope Benefits of hope Measurement of hope A consideration of false hope Optimism versus 'positive thinking' Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion points Essay questions Going Further Further reading Web links Film and literature Connecting Up Chapter 18 Irrational Beliefs Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction The basic theory of Rational Emotive Behaviour therapy (REBT) The ABCs of human disturbance "Must-urbatory" thinking and disturbance Irrational beliefs and mental health Irrational beliefs and individual differences Issues with irrational beliefs that need to be considered and addressed The case for and against religion The case for and against luck: The importance of belief in good luck Superstitious beliefs Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion points Essay questions Going Further Further reading Web links Literature and film Connecting Up Chapter 19 Embarrassment, Shyness and Social Anxiety Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Introducing social anxieties and social anxiety disorder What exactly social anxiety disorder? General symptoms, prevalence and conceptions of social anxiety Disorder Definitions and diagnosis of social anxiety disorder What causes social anxiety disorder? Shyness What is shyness? The consequences of shyness State versus trait shyness State shyness Trait shyness Shyness and personality Shyness, genetics and behavioural inhibition Fearful and self-conscious shyness Self-conscious shyness and attribution style Shyness and culture Embarrassment Four theories of embarrassment Re-evaluation of the embarrassment models Categorisation of embarrassing situations Embarrassment, measurement and personality Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Discussion points Essay questions Going Further Further reading Web links Literature and film Connecting Up Chapter 20 Interpersonal Relationships Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Interpersonal attraction Theories of interpersonal attraction Fatal attraction Love styles The triangular theory of love Love styles (or the colours of love) Individual and group differences in love styles Romantic love and attachment styles Relationship dissolution The investment model How individuals initiate the end of a relationship How individuals react when the other person initiates the end of the relationship Introducing forgiveness What is forgiveness? Models of the forgiveness process The Enright model of forgiveness The Worthington (pyramidal) model Attachment and forgiveness Forgiveness and personality Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion questions Possible essay questions Going Further Further reading Web sources Literature and film Connecting Up Chapter 21 Social Attitudes Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Right-wing authoritarianism, conservatism, and social dominance Authoritarianism Conservatism Social dominance orientation Right-wing attitudes and personality Right-wing attitudes and Eysenck's theory of personality Five factor theory of personality and conservatism Critical consideration of right-wing attitudes theory Religion Dimensions of religiosity Religion and mental health Religion and personality Religion, personality, coping and mental health Critical review Final comments Summary Critical Thinking Class discussion points Essay questions Going Further Further reading Web links Literature and film Connecting Up Part 4 Supplementary Material Chapter 22 Academic Argument and Thinking Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction The structure of arguments: premises and conclusions Deductive versus inductive arguments Fallacies in arguments The fallacies of the undistributed middle The fallacy of affirming the consequent Argument directed at the person (argumentum ad hominem [argument directed at the man]) Appealing to ignorance or absence of fact (argumentum ad ignorantiam [argument from ignorance]) Appeal to popular beliefs (argumentum ad populum [argument from the people]) Appeal to emotion (argumentum ad misericordiam [Argument from pity]) False dilemma Comparing populations Summary Going Further Answers to the Reflective Exercise Chapter 23 Statistical Terms Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Tests of associations Correlation coefficents Factor analysis Multiple regression Tests of difference Tests of difference for two sets of scores Tests of difference for more than two sets of scores Meta-analysis Effect size Summary Chapter 24 Psychometric Testing Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction Reliability Internal reliability (internal consistency) Test-restest reliability (reliability over time) Validity Types and uses of psychometric tests Summary Chapter 25 Research Ethics Key Themes Learning Outcomes Introduction What do we mean by research ethics? Why do we need ethical codes? Basic principles for ethical research Research studies have to comply with all legal requirements Research participants NHS and social services / social care research Ethical principles for conducting research with human participants (The British Psychological Society) Research ethics summary Glossary References Index
Responsibility: John Maltby, Liz Day, Ann Macaskill.

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