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Phase-transfer catalysis : fundamentals, applications, and industrial perspectives

Author: Charles M Starks; C L Liotta; Marc Halpern
Publisher: New York : Chapman & Hall, 1994.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats

A reference on phase-transfer catalysis (PTC). It provides an introduction to the fundamentals of PTC as a synthetic organic chemistry technique, including reaction mechanisms, selectivity, rates and  Read more...


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Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Charles M Starks; C L Liotta; Marc Halpern
ISBN: 0412040719 9780412040719
OCLC Number: 28027599
Description: xiv, 668 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: Preface. Part 1: Basic concepts in phase-transfer catalysis: Phase-transfer-catalyzed reactions; Basic steps of phase-transfer catalysis; The PTC reaction rate matrix; Anion transfer and anion activation; Effect of reaction variables on transfer and intrinsic rates; Outline of compounds used as phase-transfer catalysts. Part 2: Phase-transfer catalysts -- Fundamentals I: Introduction; Structural factors affecting the distribution of anions between aqueous and organic phases; Structural factors affecting the distribution of phase-transfer catalyst cations between the aqueous and organic phases; Effects of the organic phase polarity on the distribution of phase-transfer cation-anion pairs; Effects of changes in organic phase polarity during reaction; Factors affecting the distribution of phase-transfer catalyst cation-anion pairs between an organic phase and an aqueous phase containing hydroxide ion; Effect of hydration of the transferred anion and the effect of inorganic salt and/or hydroxide concentration in the aqueous phase. Part 3: Phase-transfer catalysis -- Fundamentals II: Introduction; Liquid-liquid PTC; Solid-liquid PTC. Part 4: Phase-transfer catalysts: Introduction; Use of quaternary salts as phase-transfer catalysts; Macrocyclic and macrobicyclic ligands; PEGs, Tris (3, 6-dioxahepty)amine (TDA-1), and related ethoxylated compounds as phase-transfer catalysts; Other soluable polymers and related multifunctional compounds as phase-transfer catalysts; Use of dual PTC catalysts or use of cocatalysts in phase-transfer systems; Catalysts for transfer of species other than anions; Separation and recovery of phase-transfer catalysts. Part 5: Insoluable phase-transfer catalysts: Introduction; PTC catalysts bound to insoluable resins; Phase-transfer catalysts bound to inorganic solid supports; PTC catalysts contained in a separate liquid phase (Third-liquid-phase catalyst). Part 6: Variables in reaction design for laboratory and industrial applications of phase-transfer catalysis: Choice of catalyst; Choice of solvent; Presence of water; Agitation; Choice of anion, leaving group, and counteranion; Choice of base; Guidelines for exploring new PTC applications. Part 7: Phase-transfer catalysis displacement reactions with simple anions: General considerations; Behavior of various anions in PTC displacement reactions. Part 8: Phase-transfer catalysis reaction with strong bases: C-Alkylation; N-Alkylation; O-Alkylation -- Etherification; S-Alikylation -- Thioetherification; Dehydrohalogenation; Carbene reactions; Condensation reactions; Deuterium exchange, isomerization, and oxidation. Part 9: Phase-transfer catalysis -- Polymerization and polymer modification: Introduction; Polymer synthesis; Chemical modification of polymers. Part 10: Phase-transfer-catalyzed oxidations: Introduction; Permanganate oxidations; Oxidations with hyperchlorite and hypobromite; PTC oxidations with hydrogen peroxide; PTC air or oxygen oxidations; Oxidations by persulfates; PTC oxidations with nitric acid; PTC carbon tetrachloride/sodium hydroxide oxidations; PTC oxidations with perborate; PTC oxidations with ferrate and ferricyanide; PTC oxidations with superoxide; PTC electrochemical oxidations; PTC oxidations with other oxidents. Part 11: Phase-transfer-catalyzed reductions: Sodium borohydride reductions; Lithium aluminum hydride reductions; Reductions with sodium formate; Reductions with sulfur-containing anions; Hydrogenation; Reductions with formaldehyde; Electrochemical reduction; Photochemical reduction; Wolff-Kishner reduction; Reduction by dodecarbonyltriiron and related species. Part 12: Phase-transfer catalysis -- Chiral phase-transfer catalyzed formation of carbon-carbon bonds: Introduction; Alkylation reactions. Part 13: Phase-transfer catalysis - Transition metal cocatalyzed reactions: Introduction; Carbonylation and reactions with carbon monoxide; PTC reduction and hydrogenation
Responsibility: Charles M. Starks, Charles L. Liotta, Marc Halpern.
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The three authors have produced a nicely intergrated piece of work and the quality of presentation, including structures,equations, figures and graphs, is excellent...This particular textbook is Read more...

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