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The phenomenological movement : a historical introduction

Author: Herbert Spiegelberg; Karl Schuhmann
Publisher: Dordrecht ; Boston : Kluwer Academic, 1994.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 3rd rev. and enl. ed.View all editions and formats

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Genre/Form: Bio-bibliography
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Herbert Spiegelberg; Karl Schuhmann
ISBN: 9024725356 9789024725359
OCLC Number: 32532816
Notes: On cover: student edition.
Description: xlviii, 768 pages, [18] leaves of plates : illustrations, facsimile, portraits ; 24 cm
Contents: 1. The Phenomenological Movement Defined.- 2. Unrelated Phenomenologies.- a. Extra-Philosophical Phenomenologies.- b. Philosophical Phenomenologies.- 3. Preview.- One / The Preparatory Phase.- I. Franz Brentano (1838-1917): Forerunner of the Phenomenological Movement.- 1. Brentano's Place in the History of Phenomenology.- 2. His Purpose: A Scientific Reformation of Philosophy.- 3. A New Psychology as the Foundation for Scientific Philosophy.- 4. A New Type of Empiricism.- 5. Descriptive Psychology versus Genetic Psychology.- 6. A New Type of Experience: Inner Perception versus Introspection.- 7. "Intentionality": The Basic Psychological Phenomenon.- 8. A "Natural" Classification of Psychical Acts.- 9. A Fundamental Law of Psychical Phenomena.- 10. The Awareness of Time.- 11. An Analogue of Self-Evidence as the Basis for Ethical Knowledge.- 12. Brentano's Fight against "Fictitious Entities".- 13. How Far Was Brentano a Representative of "Psychologism"?.- Selective Bibliography.- II. Carl Stumpf (1848-1936): Founder of Experimental Phenomenology.- 1. Stumpf's Place in the History of Phenomenology.- 2. The Role of Phenomenology in His Work.- 3. General Characteristics of His Phenomenology.- a. The Subject Matter of Phenomenology Consists of Primary and Secondary Phenomena.- b. Phenomenology is a Neutral Science or Pre-Science (Vorwissenschaft).- c. Phenomenology is the First of the Neutral Pre-Sciences.- d. Phenomenology is Not an Independent Discipline for Specialists, but Rather the First Layer in the Study of Every Established Science.- e. Phenomenology, while a Descriptive Science, has to be Studied by All Suitable Methods, Including the Experimental One.- 4. Some Concrete Phenomenological Contributions.- a. The Distinction between Dependent and Independent Parts and the Experience of Substance and Attribute.- b. The Experience of Causal Nexus.- c. The Experience of "Feel-Sensations" (Gefuhlsempfindungen).- d. The Discovery of Structural Laws among Empirical Materials Not Based upon Induction.- e. The Discovery of the Sachverhalt.- 5. The Relationship of Stumpf's and Husserl's Phenomenologies.- Excursus: Stumpf's Phenomenology and William James's Psychology.- Selective Bibliography.- Two / The German Phase of the Movement.- III. The Pure Phenomenology of Edmund Husserl (1859-1938).- A. Introductory.- B. Constants in Husserl's Conception of Philosophy.- 1. The Ideal of Rigorous Science.- 2. Philosophic Radicalism.- 3. The Ethos of Radical Autonomy.- 4. The Wonder of All Wonders: Subjectivity.- 5. Husserl's Personality and His Philosophy.- C. Variables in the Development of Husserl's Philosophy.- 1. The Pre-Phenomenological Period.- a. The Critique of Psychologism.- b. The Conception of a Pure Logic.- Excursus: Meinong's Gegenstandstheorie and Husserl's Logic.- 2. The Beginnings of Phenomenology as the Subjective Correlate of Pure Logic.- a. Husserl's Semantics.- b. Husserl's Doctrine of Universals (Essences).- c. The Intentionality of Consciousness.- Excursus: William James's Significance for Husserl's Phenomenology.- d. Phenomenological Intuiting (Anschauung and Wesensschau).- 3. Phenomenology Becomes "First Philosophy".- Excursus: Wilhelm Dilthey and Edmund Husserl.- 4. The Birth of the Phenomenological Movement and the Beginnings of Transcendental Phenomenology.- a. Self-Givenness - Phenomenology and Positivism.- b. Phenomenology of Perception and Self-Evidence.- c. The Phenomenological Reduction.- Excursus: Santayana's Ultimate Scepticism Compared with Husserl's Phenomenological Reduction.- d. The Phenomenological Residue: Ego Cogito Cogitata Mea.- e. Phenomenological Idealism.- Excursus: Husserl and Josiah Royce.- f. Phenomenological Constitution and the Consciousness of Time.- g. Phenomenology and Psychology.- 5. Toward a System of Transcendental Phenomenology.- Intersubjectivity and Transcendental Monadology.- 6. The Last Beginning.- The Idea of the Life-World (Lebenswelt).- D. In Place of an Appraisal.- Postscript 1980.- Selective Bibliography.- IV. The Original Phenomenological Movement.- A. The Phenomenological Circles.- 1. The Gottingen Circle.- 2. The Munich Circle.- B. Alexander Pfander (1870-1941): From Phenomenological Psychology to Phenomenological Philosophy.- 1. Pfander's Place in the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. The Place of Phenomenology in His Philosophy.- 3. His Conception of Phenomenology.- a. Phenomenological Psychology.- b. Phenomenological Philosophy.- 4. Examples of His Phenomenology.- a. Directed Sentiments (Gesinnungen).- b. Basic and Empirical Essences.- c. The Perception of Oughtness.- 5. Concluding Remarks.- Selective Bibliography.- 6. Pfander's Following: Maximilian Beck, Gerda Walther, Herbert Spiegelberg, Josef Sturmann.- C. Adolf Reinach (1883-1917): Phenomenological Ontology of Essences.- 1. Reinach's Place in the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. His Conception of Phenomenology.- 3. Illustrations of His Phenomenology.- a. A Theory of Social Acts.- b. Essential Laws Concerning Legal Entities.- Selective Bibliography.- D. Moritz Geiger (1880-1937): From Phenomenological Esthetics to ward Metaphysics.- 1. Geiger's Conception of Phenomenology.- 2. Illustrations of His Phenomenological Analyses.- a. Esthetic Enjoyment.- b. Existential Depth.- c. The Unconscious.- Selective Bibliography.- E. Hedwig Conrad-Martius (1888-1966): Phenomenology and Reality (by Eberhard Ave-Lallemant).- 1. Conrad-Martius's Place in the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. Her Conception of Phenomenology.- 3. The Phenomenon of Reality.- 4. Philosophy of Nature on Phenomenological Foundations.- 5. Toward an Appraisal.- Selective Bibliography.- F. Roman Ingarden (1893-1970): Ontological Phenomenology (by Guido Kung).- 1. Ingarden's Place in the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. His Conception of Phenomenology.- 3. A Phenomenologist's Analysis of the Idealism-Realism Controversy.- 4. The Phenomenology of the Work of Art.- 5. Toward an Appraisal.- Selective Bibliography.- G. Other Members of the Gottingen and Munich Circles.- 1. August Gallinger (1871-1959).- 2. Aloys Fischer (1880-1937).- 3. Theodor Conrad (1881-1969).- 4. Wilhelm Schapp (1884-1965).- 5. Kurt Stavenhagen (1885-1951).- 6. Dietrich von Hildebrand (1889-1977).- 7. Hans Lipps (1889-1941).- 8. Adolf Grimme (1889-1963).- 9. Jean Hering (1890-1966).- 10. Edith Stein (1891-1942).- 11. Alexandre Koyre (1892-1964).- H. The Freiburg Group.- 1. The New Setting.- 2. Husserl's Collaborators: Ludwig Landgrebe, Eugen Fink.- 3. Other Husserl Associates: Oskar Becker, Fritz Kaufmann, Ludwig Ferdinand Clauss, Arnold Metzger.- 4. The Central Field: Wilhelm Szilasi, Hans Reiner.- 5. The Periphery: Aron Gurwitsch, Emmanuel Levinas, Theodor Celms, Christopher V. Salmon, Marvin Farber, Dorion Cairns.- 6. Radiations: Felix Kaufmann, Alfred Schutz, Jan Patocka.- 7. Retrospect.- V. The Phenomenology of Essences: Max Scheler (1874-1928).- 1. Max Scheler's Place in the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. His Basic Concerns.- 3. Phenomenology in the Development of His Philosophy.- 4. His Conception of Phenomenology.- a. The Doctrine of the "Phenomenological Controversy" (phanomenologischer Streit).- b. The Idols of Self-Knowledge.- c. The Phenomenon of Resistance as the Criterion of Reality.- d. Scheler's Phenomenological Reduction.- 5. The Place of Phenomenology in His Philosophy.- 6. His Phenomenology in Action.- a. Value and Oughtness.- b. Cognitive Emotion.- c. Ethical Absolutism and Relativity.- d. Sympathy.- e. Knowledge of Other Minds.- f. Religion.- 7. Toward an Appraisal of Scheler as a Phenomenologist.- 8. Scheler's Following: Hendrik Stoker, Paul-Ludwig Landsberg.- Selective Bibliography.- VI. Phenomenology in the Critical Ontology of Nicolai Hartmann (1882-1950).- 1. Hartmann's Relation to the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. His Philosophical Objective: Critical Ontology.- 3. The Role of Phenomenology in His Philosophical Development.- 4. His Version of Phenomenology.- 5. Illustrations of His Phenomenology.- a. "Metaphysics" of Knowledge.- b. The Givenness of Reality.- c. The Discovery of Value and the Narrowness of Value Consciousness.- d. Activated Ideals (Aktuales Seinsollen).- 6. Toward an Appraisal of Hartmann's Phenomenology.- 7. Hartmann's Following and Phenomenology.- Selective Bibliography.- VII. Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) as a Phenomenologist.- 1. On Understanding Heidegger.- 2. His Place in the History of Phenomenology.- 3. The Basic Theme: The Quest for Being, Truth, and Time.- 4. The Development of Heidegger's Thought of Being.- a. The Preparatory Period.- b. The Phenomenological Period.- c. The Turn (Kehre).- 5. His Conception of Phenomenology.- a. Hermeneutic Phenomenology.- b. Hermeneutics in Action.- c. "The Idea of Phenomenology" in the 1927 Lectures.- d. Phenomenology in Heidegger's Later Philosophy.- 6. Toward an Appraisal of Heidegger's Phenomenology.- a. To What Extent was Heidegger a Phenomenologist?.- b. Strengths and Weaknesses of Heidegger's Phenomenology.- Selective Bibliography.- Three / The French Phase of the Movement.- Introductory.- VIII. The Beginnings of French Phenomenology.- 1. The Soil.- 2. The Receptive Phase.- 3. Phenomenology and Existentialism.- 4. Phenomenology and Hegelianism.- 5. Phenomenological Existentialism and Literature.- 6. Phenomenological Existentialism and Marxism.- IX. Gabriel Marcel (1889-1974) as a Phenomenologist.- 1. Marcel's Relations to the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. His Concern.- 3. The Development of His Philosophy.- 4. His Conception of Phenomenology.- 5. His Phenomenology in Action.- 6. The Phenomenology of Having.- 7. Concluding Observations.- Selective Bibliography.- X. The Phenomenology of Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980).- 1. On Understanding Sartre.- 2. His Place in the Phenomenological Movement.- 3. His Central Theme: Freedom versus Being.- 4. The Role of Phenomenology in the Development of His Thought.- a. The Pre-Phenomenological Period.- b. Phenomenological Psychology.- c. Phenomenological Ontology.- d. Phenomenological Existentialism.- e. Existentialist Marxism.- 5. His Conception of Phenomenology.- a. The Common Ground.- b. Distinguishing Characteristics.- 6. His Phenomenology in Action.- a. Imagination.- b. The Magic of the Emotions.- c. Absence and Nothingness.- d. The Gaze (regard).- e. The Body.- 7. Phenomenology in Dialectical Reason.- 8. Toward an Appraisal of Sartre's Phenomenology.- 9. His Following: Simone de Beauvoir, Francis Jeanson, Benny Levy.- Selective Bibliography.- XI. The Phenomenological Philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961).- 1. Merleau-Ponty's Position in the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. Guiding Themes in His Philosophy.- 3. The Development of His Phenomenology.- 4. His Conception of Phenomenology.- 5. Some Key Chapters from His Phenomenology.- a. The Structure of Behavior and the Phenomenology of Gestalt.- b. Perception.- c. The New Cogito: Being-Within-the-World (Etre-au-Monde).- d. Subjectivity and Temporality.- e. Conditioned Freedom.- f. The Social World - Speech and Language.- 6. Toward an Appraisal of His Phenomenology.- 7. The Meaning of His Last Philosophy.- a. The New Ontology.- b. Ontology and Phenomenology.- 8. His Following: Claude Lefort, Alphonse de Waelhens.- Selective Bibliography.- XII. Paul Ricoeur and Some Associates.- A. Paul Ricoeur (born 1913).- 1. His Place in the Phenomenological Movement.- 2. His Guiding Interests.- 3. His Development.- 4. His First Conception of Phenomenology.- 5. His Phenomenology of the Will.- 6. His Hermeneutic Turn.- Selective Bibliography.- B. Mikel Dufrenne (born 1910): Phenomenology of Esthetic Experience.- Selective Bibliography.- C. Raymond Polin (born 1911): Phenomenology of Values.- Selective Bibliography.- XIII. Emmanuel Levinas (Born 1906): Phenomenological Philosophy (by Stephan Strasser).- 1. Existential Experiences.- 2. Levinas's Philosophical Development.- 3. Metaphysics Instead of Fundamental Ontology.- a. War - Commercium - History, Need and Desire.- b. Egoism and Alterity.- c. Countenance and Ethical Resistance.- d. Metaphysics of Hospitality.- e. Freedom Put in Question.- f. Created from Nothing.- g. The Verdict about History.- h. Temporality and Temporalization.- i. Absolute Future.- 4. Ethics as First Philosophy.- a. The Other in Relation to Being.- b. The Ethical Ground of Saying.- c. The Patience of the Bodily "I".- d. Forms of an An-archical Responsibility: the Substitute, the Guarantor, the Atoner for the Other.- e. Trace and Absolute Past.- f. Ambiguity of the Trace.- g. Prophecy.- h. The Scepsis of Discourse.- i. The Third and Justice.- 5. Levinas and the Phenomenological Movement.- Selective Bibliography.- Four / The Geography of the Phenomenological Movement.- 1. Introductory.- 2. The German Area: "Renaissance"?.- 3. France: Continuations and Alternatives.- 4. Italy: Inroads.- 5. Spain: Revival Through Phenomenology.- 6. Latin America: Proliferations.- 7. Portuguese Area: Side Currents.- 8. The British Scene: Ups and Downs.- 9. United States and Canada: Breadth.- 10. Russia: Penetrations.- 11. Eastern Europe: Dialogue.- 12. India: Affinities.- 13. Japan: Resonances.- 14. Assessment.- a. Today's Status.- b. Instead of a Prognosis.- Five / The Essentials of the Phenomenological Method.- A. Phenomenology and Phenomenological Method.- B. The Phenomenological Method as a Protest against Reductionism.- C. The Steps of the Phenomenological Method.- 1. Investigating Particular Phenomena.- a. Phenomenological Intuiting.- Excursus: Does Phenomenology Explore only Subjective Phenomena?.- b. Phenomenological Analyzing.- c. Phenomenological Describing.- 2. Investigating General Essences (Eidetic Intuiting).- 3. Apprehending Essential Relationships.- 4. Watching Modes of Appearing.- 5. Exploring the Constitution of Phenomena in Consciousness.- 6. Suspending Belief in Existence.- 7. Interpreting Concealed Meanings.- D. In Conclusion.- Appendices.- Chart I: Chronology of the Phenomenological Movement in Germany.- Chart II: Chronology of the Phenomenological Movement in France.- Chart III: Chronology of the Phenomenological Movement in the Anglo-American World.- Index of Subjects, Combined with a Selective Glossary of Phenomenological Terms.- Index of Names.
Responsibility: Herbert Spiegelberg.


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