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PHOTONICS FOR SAFETY AND SECURITY.

Author: Antonello Cutolo
Publisher: WSPC, 2013.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
This volume aims to illustrate the state-of-the-art as well as the newest and latest applications of photonics in safety and security. The contributions from renowned and experienced Italian and international scientists, both from the academic and industrial community, present a multidisciplinary and comprehensive overview of this popular topic. The volume is self-contained and offers a broad survey of the various  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Antonello Cutolo
ISBN: 1306120233 9781306120234
OCLC Number: 863038852
Description: 1 online resource
Contents: Preface --
1. What is Photonics? B. Culshaw --
1. Introduction --
2. Photons --
Waves or Particles? --
3. Manipulating Photons: Structures and Materials --
4. Photonics and Materials --
5. Some other Manifestations of Photonics --
6. Some Final Observations --
References --
2. Structural Health Monitoring in Buildings, Bridges and Civil Engineering A. Martone, M. Zarrelli, M. Giordano and J. M. López-Higuera --
1. Challenges for Structural Health Monitoring --
1.1. Implementation of SHM --
2. Optical Sensor for Structural Health Monitoring --
2.1. Strain Measurement using FBG Sensors --
2.1.1. Temperature Compensation --
2.1.2. Multiplexing and Networking of FBG Sensors --
2.2. FBG-based Sensors --
2.2.1. Accelerometers --
2.2.2. Inclinometers --
2.3. Distributed Strain Sensing --
3. Applications of FBG in Structural Sensing --
3.1. Civil Construction --
3.2. Bridges --
3.3. Geodynamic --
4. OFS Market --
Acknowledgments --
References --
3. Remote Sensing Monitoring D. Riccio --
1. Introduction --
2. Global Monitoring for Environment and Security --
2.1. Land --
2.2. Water --
2.3. Atmosphere --
3. Space Segment --
3.1. Synthetic Aperture Radars --
3.2. Optical Sensors --
3.2. Radiometers --
3.3. Spectrometers --
3.4. Altimeters --
3.5. Scatterometers --
4. Conclusions --
Acknowledgments --
References --
4. Photonic Technologies for the Safeguarding of Cultural Assets C. Cucci and V. Tornari --
1. Introduction --
2. Optical Sensors and Optical Fibers-based Devices for Applications in Museums --
2.1. Introduction --
2.2. Colorimetric Passive Sensors for Museum Environments --
2.3. Optical Fibers-based Systems for the Safety and Control of Cultural Items --
3. The Use of Laser Interferometry in the Direct Impact Assessment of Museum Objects in Transit --
3.1. Introduction --
3.1.1. Impact in Structural Documentation Terms. 3.1.2. Laser-Coherent Interferometry in Structural Documentation --
3.2. Impact Assessment Procedure --
3.3. Interferometry Principle --
3.4. Direct Impact Assessment in Brief --
3.5. Characteristic Examples --
3.5.1. Wooden Panel Paintings: Impact with Ageing --
3.5.2. Model Canvas Paintings: Accidental Impact --
3.5.3. Short-Term vs. Long-Term Impact --
4. Conclusions --
Acknowledgments --
References --
5. Raman Based Distributed Optical Fiber Temperature Sensors: Industrial Applications and Future Developments F. Di Pasquale, M. A. Soto and G. Bolognini --
1. Introduction --
2. Physical Mechanism and Theory --
3. Industrial Applications --
3.1. Fire Detection --
3.2. Leakage Detection in Pipelines --
4. Advanced Raman DTS Solutions: Raman DTS using Single-Mode Fibers and Advanced Coding Techniques --
4.1. Optical Pulse Coding for RDTS Systems --
4.2. Cyclic Pulse Coding for RDTS Systems over Single-Mode Fibers --
4.3. Long-Range Coded RDTS with Meter Scale Spatial Resolution --
5. Conclusions --
Acknowledgments --
References --
6. Photonics for Detection of Chemicals, Drugs and Explosives A. Garibbo and A. Palucci --
1. Introduction --
2. Addressable Threats --
2.1. Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents --
2.2. Explosives --
2.3. Drugs --
3. Detection Types and Modes --
3.1. Bulk Detection (type) --
3.2. Trace Detection (type) --
3.3. Point Detection (mode) --
3.4. Stand-Off Detection (mode) --
3.5. Distributed Detection (mode) --
4. Chemistry and Physics of Sensing --
4.1. Biological and Chemical Warfare Agents --
4.2. Explosives --
4.3. Drugs --
5. Sniffing Techniques: Local and Stand-off --
5.1. Laser PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy --
5.2. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy --
5.3. Laser Raman Spectroscopy --
5.4. LIDAR/DIAL Technique --
6. Research Trends --
7. Conclusions --
Acknowledgments --
References. 7. Resonant Hydrophones based on Coated Fiber Bragg Gratings for Underwater Monitoring G. Quero, A. Crescitelli, M. Consales, M. Pisco, A. Cutolo,V. Galdi, A. Cusano and A. Iadicicco --
1. Introduction --
2. Numerical Analysis --
2.1. Problem Geometry and Methods --
2.2. Resonant Behavior of the Coated Fiber Bragg Gratings: Harmonic and Modal Analysis --
2.3. Effects of the Coating Properties on the Sensing Performance --
2.4. Structural Damping and Directivity --
3. Design and Fabrication of the Sensor --
4. Experimental Results --
4.1. Time Response --
4.2. Frequency Domain Analysis --
5. Conclusions --
References --
8. Laser Remote Sensing for Environmental Applications A. Boselli, G. Pisani, N. Spinelli and X. Wang --
1. Introduction --
1.1 Elastic Scattering --
1.2 Raman Scattering --
1.3 Polarization --
1.4 Differential Absorption --
1.5 Doppler Effect --
1.6 Fluorescence --
1.7 Reflection or Diffuse Reflection --
2. Atmospheric Aerosol, Volcanic Ash, Desert Dust --
3. Clouds --
4. DIAL LIDAR for Atmospheric Gas --
5. Wind --
6. Airborne Laser Bathymetry --
7. Other Air/Space-Borne Applications --
7.1. 3D mapping --
7.2. Temperature Measurement --
7.3. Forest Area Monitoring --
7.4. Fluorescence LIDAR --
7.5. Atmospheric Measurement --
7.6. Volcanic Plume --
7.7. LIDAR in Space --
References --
9. Non Invasive Techniques for the Diagnosis of Aerospace Devices F. De Filippis, L. Savino, A. Cipullo and E. Marenna --
1. Introduction --
2. Test Device: Hypersonic Facilities --
3. Experimental Diagnostic Techniques in Plasma Wind Tunnel --
3.1. Optical Emission Spectroscopy --
3.1.1. Experimental Setup --
3.1.2. Elaboration Procedure --
3.1.3. Experimental Results --
3.2. Laser Induced Fluorescence --
3.2.1. Basics of LIF Technique --
3.2.2. Experiment and Preliminary Results --
4. Conclusions --
References --
10. Night Vision C. Corsi. 1. Historical Introduction --
2. Night Vision Applications --
3. History of Military Night Vision --
3.1. Night Vision Technologies --
3.1.1. Image Intensifiers --
3.1.2. Active Infrared --
3.1.3. Passive Infrared/Thermal Imaging --
4. Blackbody Radiation, Atmospheric Transmission, Night Vision --
4.1. Vision Systems: the IR Focal Plane Arrays (FPA) --
5. Future Infrared Detectors --
6. Future Infrared Detectors for Security --
6.1. Surveillance and Detection and Warning --
6.2. Smart Sensors for Collision Avoidance in the Fog --
6.3. Toxic Gas Sensing --
6.3.1. Toxic Gas Sensing based on NDIR Absorption Spectroscopy --
6.3.2. Stand-Off Detection --
7. Security Applications of THz Technology --
8. Conclusions and Outlook --
References --
11. Quantum Cryptography: A Novel Approach to Communication Security A. Porzio --
1. Introduction --
2. A Bit of History --
2.1. Public Key Cryptosystem --
3. The Birth of QC --
4. Single Photons Systems --
5. Continuous Variable Quantum Cryptography --
6. Conclusions --
References --
12. Metamaterials and the Mathematical Science of Invisibility A. Diatta, S. Guenneau, A. Nicolet and F. Zolla --
1. Introduction --
2. General Aim of Cloaking --
3. Formalism of Differential Forms --
4. Cloaking with a Singular Transformation --
4.1. Invisibility --
4.2. Mirage Effect --
5. Cloaking and Mirage Effect with a Non-Singular Transformation --
5.1. Squaring the Circle --
5.2. Optical Illusions with Squares --
6. Conclusion --
Acknowledgments --
References --
13. Led Illumination: Illuminotechnical, Optical, Metrologicaland Safety Issues F. Docchio, L. Fumagalli, G. Libretti and P. Tomassini --
1. Introduction --
2. Basic Radiometry and Photometry of LEDs --
3. Illuminotechnics: Road Illumination Calculation --
4. The Optics of LEDs: High Performance Aspherical Lenses forLED chips. 5. Metrology: Measurement Techniques and Instrumentation --
6. Safety and Security Issues related to LED Technology --
6. Towards a Dark Sky: LED Illumination against Light Pollution --
7. Conclusions --
References --
14. Fiber Optic Sensor Technology for Oil and Gas Applications M. Eriksrud and J. T. Kringlebotn --
1. Introduction --
2. Application Requirements --
3. Fiber Optic Sensing Technology --
3.1. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensing Technology --
3.2. Raman Scattering Sensing Technology --
3.3. Other Scattering Sensing Technologies --
4. Field Experiences --
4.1. Down hole Permanent Monitoring --
4.2. Seabed Permanent Monitoring --
5. Conclusions and Outlook --
References --
15. Photonic Sensors for Food Quality and Safety Assessment A. G. Mignani and R. Prugger --
1. The Needs of the Food Industry --
2. Working Principles of Photonic Sensors for Food Applications --
3. Spectroscopy-based Sensors --
Towards "Green Analytics" --
3.1. Reflection/Absorption-based Sensors --
3.2. Fluorescence-based Sensors --
3.3. Raman-based Sensors --
4. Colorimetric Spots for non-Destructive Testing of Packed Food --
5. Conclusions and Outlook --
References --
16. Optical Biosensing in Medical and Clinical Diagnostics F. Baldini, A. Giannetti, S. Tombelli and C. Trono --
1. Introduction --
2. Optical Intracellular Nanosensors --
3. POCT devices --
4. Optical Fiber Sensors in Gastroesophageal Apparatus --
5. Conclusions --
Acknowledgments --
References --
17. Photonics for Forensic Applications A. Tajani --
1. Introduction --
2. Detection of Biological Evidence --
2.1. Biological Fluids and Latent Prints Analysis --
2.2. The Forensic Luminol Test for Blood --
3. Gunshot Residue Analysis --
3.1. Gunshot Residue Formation --
3.2. Gunshot Residue Analysis --
4. 3D Reconstruction by Laser Scanner --
4.1. Operating Procedures --
5. Questioned Documents Examination.

Abstract:

This volume aims to illustrate the state-of-the-art as well as the newest and latest applications of photonics in safety and security. The contributions from renowned and experienced Italian and international scientists, both from the academic and industrial community, present a multidisciplinary and comprehensive overview of this popular topic. The volume is self-contained and offers a broad survey of the various emerging technologies, as well as their applications in the real world. It spans from applications in cultural heritage, to environment, space, monitoring of coasts, quantum cryptography, food industry, medicine and forensic investigations.Photonics for Safety and Security provides an essential source of reference for a very wide readership, including physicists, chemists, engineers, academics and students who wish to have a complete review of the subject. The topics are carefully defined and widely illustrated so as to capture the attention of neophytes who need to go further into the topic and explore the research literature.

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