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Photostabilization of polymers : principles and applications

Author: J F Rabek
Publisher: London ; New York : Elsevier Applied Science, ©1990.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Rabek, J.F.
Photostabilization of polymers.
London ; New York : Elsevier Applied Science, ©1990
(OCoLC)607779281
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: J F Rabek
ISBN: 1851664084 9781851664085
OCLC Number: 20088331
Description: xii, 595 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm
Contents: 1 Introduction to the Photo-oxidative Degradation Mechanisms of Polymers.- 1.1 Definitions of Photostability of Polymeric Materials.- 1.2 General Mechanism of Polymer Photo-oxidation.- 1.3 Photoinitiation of Polymer Degradation.- 1.4 Chain Propagation.- 1.5 Chain Branching.- 1.6 Photo-reactions of Carbonyl Groups.- 1.7 Hydrogen Abstraction.- 1.8 Photodecomposition of Hydroperoxide Groups.- 1.9 Formation of Acids and Peracids.- 1.10 Formation of Unsaturated Groups.- 1.11 Termination Reactions.- 1.12 Phenyl Ring Opening Photo-reactions.- 1.13 Kinetics of Photo-oxidative Degradation of Polymers.- 1.14 Role of Polymer Morphology in Photo-oxidation.- 1.15 Role of Polymer Manufacturing.- 1.16 Role of Metals or Metallic Compounds in Thermal and/or Photo-oxidative Degradation of Polymers.- 1.17 Role of Processing in Thermal Oxidation of Polymers.- 1.18 Mechanisms Involved in the Photolysis of the Thermally Oxidized Polyolefins During Processing.- 1.19 Physical Processes in the Photo-oxidation of Polymers.- 2 Introduction to the Oxidative and Photo- stabilization of Polymers.- 2.1 Antioxidants.- 2.2 Photostabilizers.- 2.3 Stabilizers in a Polymer Matrix.- 2.4 Distribution of Stabilizers in a Polymer Matrix.- 2.5 Quenchers.- 2.6 Singlet Oxygen Deactivators.- 2.7 Photostability of Additives.- 2.8 Synergism and Antagonism between Additives.- 3 Antioxidants.- 3.1 Hindered Phenols.- 3.2 Hydroxygalvinol/Galvinoxy Radical System.- 3.3 Phenolic Sulphides.- 3.4 Monosulphides.- 3.5 Thiophenols and Dithiobisphenols.- 3.6 Sulphoxides and Sulphones.- 3.7 Synergistic Effects between Hindered Phenols and Sulphur- Containing Compounds.- 3.8 Dixanthogens and Thiophosphoryl Disulphides.- 3.9 Metal Dithiolates as Antioxidants.- 3.10 4-Alkyl-2-mercaptothiazolines.- 3.11 Sulphur Dioxide Role in Antioxidizing Systems.- 3.12 Role of the Antioxidant Structure in Stabilization Processes.- 3.13 Oven Ageing Antioxidant Performance.- 3.14 Polyquinones as Antioxidants.- 3.15 Lignin Derivatives as Stabilizers.- 3.16 Organophosphorus Antioxidants.- 3.17 Pentaerythrityl Diphosphites.- 3.18 Organoboron Antioxidants.- 3.19 Macrocyclic Ligands.- 3.20 Aromatic Amine Antioxidants.- 3.21 Nitroso Compounds and Nitrones.- 3.22 Antioxidant Properties of Nitrosoamines.- 3.23 Antioxidant Properties of Antistatic Agents (Tensides).- 4 Pigments.- 4.1 Photostabilizing Properties of Pigments.- 4.2 Titanium Dioxide.- 4.3 Zinc Oxide.- 4.4 Metal Salts Coatings.- 4.5 Carbon Black.- 5 Photostabilizers.- 5.1 Alkyl-Substituted p-Hydroxybenzoates.- 5.2 Phenyl Esters of Benzoic Acid.- 5.3 Salicylanilides and Oxanilides.- 5.4 Diketones.- 5.5 Benzylidene Malonate.- 5.6 Esters of ?-Cyano-?-phenylcinnamic Acid.- 5.7 Hydroxybenzophenones.- 5.8 Chromanone and Tetralone Photostabilizers.- 5.9 Hydroxybenzotriazoles.- 5.10 Organic Metal Photostabilizers.- 5.11 Metal Stearates.- 5.12 Metal Salts of Organic Acids.- 5.13 Metal Oxime Chelates.- 5.14 Nickel(II) Mono-oxime (Hydrazone) Chelates.- 5.15 Metal Salicylate Chelates.- 5.16 Nickel(II) Bis(stilbene dithiolate) Chelates.- 5.17 Pyrazole Chelates.- 5.18 Nickel(II) Thiopicoline Anilide Chelate.- 5.19 Nickel(II) 2,2?-Thiobis(4-tert.-octylphenolato)-n-butylamine.- 5.20 Nickel(II) Bis(o-butyl-3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)-phosphonate.- 5.21 Metal Dithiolates as Photostabilizers.- 5.22 Metal Chelates as Pro-oxidants and Photoinitiators.- 5.23 Dithiocarbamate Iron Complex Acting as Photoinitiator of Polymer Degradation.- 5.24 Metal Acetylacetonates.- 5.25 Metal Deactivators.- 5.26 Organotellurium Compounds as Photostabilizers.- 6 Hindered Amine Light Stabilizers (HALS).- 6.1 Mechanisms of HALS Reactions.- 6.2 Mechanisms of Nitroxy Radical Reactions.- 6.3 Transformations of Hindered Amines and Nitroxy Radicals During Processing of Polymers.- 6.4 Stabilizing Properties of HALS in Commercial Polymers.- 6.5 Synergistic/Antagonistic Effects of HALS with Other Additives.- 6.6 Novel HALS.- 7 Polymer-Bound Additives.- 7.1 Properties of Polymer-Bound Additives.- 7.2 Polymeric Antioxidants.- 7.3 Polymeric Photostabilizers.- 7.4 Hindered Amine (HALS) Monomers and Polymers.- 7.5 Polymers with Hindered N-oxy Group in the Main Chain.- 8 Industrial Aspects of Polymer Stabilization.- 8.1 Industrial Methods of Incorporating Additives.- 8.2 Toxicity of Photostabilizers.- 8.3 'World Index of Polyolefine Stabilizers'1 Introduction to the Photo-oxidative Degradation Mechanisms of Polymers.- 1.1 Definitions of Photostability of Polymeric Materials.- 1.2 General Mechanism of Polymer Photo-oxidation.- 1.3 Photoinitiation of Polymer Degradation.- 1.4 Chain Propagation.- 1.5 Chain Branching.- 1.6 Photo-reactions of Carbonyl Groups.- 1.7 Hydrogen Abstraction.- 1.8 Photodecomposition of Hydroperoxide Groups.- 1.9 Formation of Acids and Peracids.- 1.10 Formation of Unsaturated Groups.- 1.11 Termination Reactions.- 1.12 Phenyl Ring Opening Photo-reactions.- 1.13 Kinetics of Photo-oxidative Degradation of Polymers.- 1.14 Role of Polymer Morphology in Photo-oxidation.- 1.15 Role of Polymer Manufacturing.- 1.16 Role of Metals or Metallic Compounds in Thermal and/or Photo-oxidative Degradation of Polymers.- 1.17 Role of Processing in Thermal Oxidation of Polymers.- 1.18 Mechanisms Involved in the Photolysis of the Thermally Oxidized Polyolefins During Processing.- 1.19 Physical Processes in the Photo-oxidation of Polymers.- 2 Introduction to the Oxidative and Photo- stabilization of Polymers.- 2.1 Antioxidants.- 2.2 Photostabilizers.- 2.3 Stabilizers in a Polymer Matrix.- 2.4 Distribution of Stabilizers in a Polymer Matrix.- 2.5 Quenchers.- 2.6 Singlet Oxygen Deactivators.- 2.7 Photostability of Additives.- 2.8 Synergism and Antagonism between Additives.- 3 Antioxidants.- 3.1 Hindered Phenols.- 3.2 Hydroxygalvinol/Galvinoxy Radical System.- 3.3 Phenolic Sulphides.- 3.4 Monosulphides.- 3.5 Thiophenols and Dithiobisphenols.- 3.6 Sulphoxides and Sulphones.- 3.7 Synergistic Effects between Hindered Phenols and Sulphur- Containing Compounds.- 3.8 Dixanthogens and Thiophosphoryl Disulphides.- 3.9 Metal Dithiolates as Antioxidants.- 3.10 4-Alkyl-2-mercaptothiazolines.- 3.11 Sulphur Dioxide Role in Antioxidizing Systems.- 3.12 Role of the Antioxidant Structure in Stabilization Processes.- 3.13 Oven Ageing Antioxidant Performance.- 3.14 Polyquinones as Antioxidants.- 3.15 Lignin Derivatives as Stabilizers.- 3.16 Organophosphorus Antioxidants.- 3.17 Pentaerythrityl Diphosphites.- 3.18 Organoboron Antioxidants.- 3.19 Macrocyclic Ligands.- 3.20 Aromatic Amine Antioxidants.- 3.21 Nitroso Compounds and Nitrones.- 3.22 Antioxidant Properties of Nitrosoamines.- 3.23 Antioxidant Properties of Antistatic Agents (Tensides).- 4 Pigments.- 4.1 Photostabilizing Properties of Pigments.- 4.2 Titanium Dioxide.- 4.3 Zinc Oxide.- 4.4 Metal Salts Coatings.- 4.5 Carbon Black.- 5 Photostabilizers.- 5.1 Alkyl-Substituted p-Hydroxybenzoates.- 5.2 Phenyl Esters of Benzoic Acid.- 5.3 Salicylanilides and Oxanilides.- 5.4 Diketones.- 5.5 Benzylidene Malonate.- 5.6 Esters of ?-Cyano-?-phenylcinnamic Acid.- 5.7 Hydroxybenzophenones.- 5.8 Chromanone and Tetralone Photostabilizers.- 5.9 Hydroxybenzotriazoles.- 5.10 Organic Metal Photostabilizers.- 5.11 Metal Stearates.- 5.12 Metal Salts of Organic Acids.- 5.13 Metal Oxime Chelates.- 5.14 Nickel(II) Mono-oxime (Hydrazone) Chelates.- 5.15 Metal Salicylate Chelates.- 5.16 Nickel(II) Bis(stilbene dithiolate) Chelates.- 5.17 Pyrazole Chelates.- 5.18 Nickel(II) Thiopicoline Anilide Chelate.- 5.19 Nickel(II) 2,2?-Thiobis(4-tert.-octylphenolato)-n-butylamine.- 5.20 Nickel(II) Bis(o-butyl-3,5-di-tert.-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl)-phosphonate.- 5.21 Metal Dithiolates as Photostabilizers.- 5.22 Metal Chelates as Pro-oxidants and Photoinitiators.- 5.23 Dithiocarbamate Iron Complex Acting as Photoinitiator of Polymer Degradation.- 5.24 Metal Acetylacetonates.- 5.25 Metal Deactivators.- 5.26 Organotellurium Compounds as Photostabilizers.- 6 Hindered Amine Light Stabilizers (HALS).- 6.1 Mechanisms of HALS Reactions.- 6.2 Mechanisms of Nitroxy Radical Reactions.- 6.3 Transformations of Hindered Amines and Nitroxy Radicals During Processing of Polymers.- 6.4 Stabilizing Properties of HALS in Commercial Polymers.- 6.5 Synergistic/Antagonistic Effects of HALS with Other Additives.- 6.6 Novel HALS.- 7 Polymer-Bound Additives.- 7.1 Properties of Polymer-Bound Additives.- 7.2 Polymeric Antioxidants.- 7.3 Polymeric Photostabilizers.- 7.4 Hindered Amine (HALS) Monomers and Polymers.- 7.5 Polymers with Hindered N-oxy Group in the Main Chain.- 8 Industrial Aspects of Polymer Stabilization.- 8.1 Industrial Methods of Incorporating Additives.- 8.2 Toxicity of Photostabilizers.- 8.3 'World Index of Polyolefine Stabilizers'.- 8.4 Industrial Application of Antioxidants.- 8.5 Photostabilization of Low-Density Polyethylene for Agricultural Applications.- 8.6 Commercially Produced Polymeric HALS.- 8.7 Photostabilization of Polypropylene Tapes and Fibres.- 8.8 Photostabilization of Rubber-Modified Plastics.- 8.9 Photostabilization of Poly(vinyl chloride) by Surface Photografting.- 8.10 Photostabilization of Coatings.- 8.11 Additives in a Space Environment.- 9 Experimental Methods in Polymer Degradation and Stabilization.- 9.1 Preparation of a Test Specimen.- 9.2 Determination of the Additive Content after Polymer Photo-oxidative Degradation.- 9.3 Quantitative Determination of Antioxidants.- 9.4 Determination of Effectiveness of Antioxidants.- 9.5 Measurement of Evaporation of Additives from Polymer Samples.- 9.6 Absorption Spectroscopy.- 9.7 Chemiluminescence Measurements.- 9.8 Photoacoustic Spectroscopy.- 9.9 Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy.- 9.10 Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA).- 9.11 Analytical Methods for the Determination of Hydroperoxide Groups.- 9.12 Studies of the Kinetics of Oxidation by Oxygen Uptake Measurements.- 9.13 Determination of the Quenching of Singlet Oxygen.- 9.14 Radioactive Labelling Techniques.- 9.15 Viscosity Measurements.- 9.16 Determination of Chain Scission.- 9.17 The Gloss Loss Test.- 9.18 Testing Methods of Thermo-oxidative Degradation and Stability of Polymers and Plastics.- 9.19 Mechanical Testing of Polymer (Plastic) Samples.- 9.20 Testing of Weathering in Polymers.- 9.21 Computer Modelling of Photo-oxidation and Photostabilization.- References.- Appendices.
Responsibility: J.F. Rabek.

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