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The physicochemical basis of pharmaceuticals

Autore: Humphrey A Moynihan; Abina M Crean
Editore: Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2009.
Edizione/Formato:   Libro : EnglishVedi tutte le edizioni e i formati
Banca dati:WorldCat
Sommario:
"The Physicochemical Basis of Pharmaceuticals explores the phenomena which affect the formulation and bio-availability of drug substances to give a straightforward, accessible treatment of the essential concepts affecting the absorption and distribution of drugs. It provides the reader with the conceptual 'tool-kit' necessary to understand the physicochemical aspects of drug design and action, and shows how these  Per saperne di più…
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Genere/forma: Textbooks
Tipo materiale: Risorsa internet
Tipo documento: Book, Internet Resource
Tutti gli autori / Collaboratori: Humphrey A Moynihan; Abina M Crean
ISBN: 9780199232840 0199232849
Numero OCLC: 277068140
Descrizione: xv, 296 p. : ill. (some col.) ; 25 cm.
Contenuti: 1. PHARMACEUTICALS AND MEDICINES ; 1.1 Introduction to the essential properties of pharmaceuticals ; 1.1.1 Some key concepts ; 1.2 Classes of pharmaceutical compounds ; 1.2.1 Active pharmaceutical ingredients ; 1.2.2 Excipients ; 1.3 Drug delivery: getting the active pharmaceutical ingredient to the site of action ; 1.3.1 Routes of administration ; 1.3.2 Pharmaceutical dosage forms ; 1.3.3 Factors influencing dosage form choice ; 1.4 Summary ; 2. PHARMACEUTICAL SOLUTIONS ; 2.2 Definitions and expressions of solubility ; 2.1.1 Measurement of solubility and solubility curves ; 2.2 Solvent structure ; 2.2.1 Hydrogen bonding and the structure of water ; 2.2.2 Lipid-based media ; 2.3 Dissolution and solvation ; 2.4 Factors affecting solubility ; 2.4.1 Molecular weight ; 2.4.2 Hydrogen bonding ; 2.4.3 Hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups ; 2.5 Acidity and basicity ; 2.5.1 pKa and pKb ; 2.5.2 Acidity and environment ; 2.6 Salt selection and formation ; 2.7 Hydrolytic degradation ; 2.8 Summary ; 3. PHARMACEUTICAL EQUILIBRIA ; 3.1 Essential concepts in thermodynamics ; 3.1.1 Internal energy, enthalpy and the first law of thermodynamics ; 3.1.2 Entropy and the second and third laws of thermodynamics ; 3.1.3 Free energy, chemical potential and equilibrium ; 3.1.4 Activities of ions in solution ; 3.2 Phase equilibria ; 3.2.1 One-component systems and the phase rule ; 3.2.2 Two-component systems ; 3.2.3 Osmotic pressure ; 3.3 Drug delivery: Phase transitions ; 3.3.1 Diffusion (movement within a phase) ; 3.3.2 Dissolution (solid -liquid transition) ; 3.3.3 Partitioning (liquid- liquid transition) ; 3.3.4 Gas absorption (Gas-liquid phase transition) ; 3.3.5 Phase transitions during drug delivery ; 3.4 Summary ; 4. THE PHARMACEUTICAL SOLID PHASE ; 4.1 Crystalline and amorphous solids ; 4.2 The essentials of pharmaceutical crystal structure ; 4.2.1 Unit cells, crystal systems and lattices ; 4.2.2 Space groups and space group notation ; 4.2.3 Crystal planes and faces ; 4.3 Crystal polymorphism of pharmaceuticals ; 4.3.1 Relative stabilities of polymorphs ; 4.3.2 Solvates and hydrates ; 4.4 Methods of characterising pharmaceutical solids ; 4.4.1 X-ray diffraction methods ; 4.4.2 Thermal methods ; 4.4.3 Other methods of analysis ; 4.5 Pharmaceutical crystallization ; 4.5.1 Supersaturation ; 4.5.2 Nucleation, growth and crystal morphology ; 4.5.3 Ripening and the rule of stages ; 4.6 Solid state properties of powder particles ; 4.6.1 Particle shape ; 4.6.2 Particle size ; 4.6.3 Particle surface properties ; 4.6.4 Gas adsorption ; 4.6.5 Moisture adsorption ; 4.6.6 Powder mechanical strength ; 5. TWO PHASE SOLID - LIQUID DISPERSE SYSTEMS ; 5.1 Introduction to pharmaceutical disperse systems ; 5.2 Molecular, colloidal and coarse dispersions ; 5.3 The physical stability of disperse systems ; 5.4 Properties of disperse systems ; 5.4.1 Kinetic properties ; 5.4.2 Rheology and viscosity ; 5.4.3 Electrical properties ; 5.4.4 Interfacial properties ; 5.4.5 Optical properties ; 5.5 Suspensions ; 5.5.1 Nanosuspensions ; 5.5.2 Coarse suspensions ; 5.6 Emulsions ; 5.6.1 Macroemulsions ; 5.6.2 Multiple emulsions ; 5.6.3 Microemulsions ; 5.7 Vesicular systems ; 5.7.1 Micellar systems ; 5.7.2 Solubilised systems ; 5.7.3 Liposomes ; 5.8 Aerosols ; 5.9 Foams ; 5.10 Summary ; 6. BIOLOGICAL INTERFACES ; 6.1 Passive, active and other modes of transport ; 6.2 Cell membranes ; 6.3 Partition and partition co-efficients ; 6.4 Measurement and calculation of partition co-efficients ; 6.5 Diffusion, diffusion co-efficients and ionisation ; 6.6 The gastrointestinal barrier ; 6.7 The blood-brain barrier ; 6.8 The skin ; 6.9 Summary ; 7. PHYSICOCHEMICAL ASPECTS OF PHARMACOKINETICS AND PHARMACODYNAMICS ; 7.1 Bioavailability ; 7.2 Distribution ; 7.3 Drug target interaction ; 7.4 Metabolism ; 7.5 Excretion ; 7.6 Summary
Responsabilità: Humphrey A. Moynihan, Abina M. Crean.
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Abstract:

The Physicochemical Basis of Pharmaceuticals explores the physical and chemical phenomena which affect the formulation and bio-availability of drug substances to give a straightforward, accessible  Per saperne di più…

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