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Physics and chemistry of interfaces

Author: Hans-Jürgen Butt; Kh Graf; Michael Kappl
Publisher: Weinheim, Germany : Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, [2013] ©2013
Edition/Format:   Book : English : Third, revised and enlarged editionView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
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This new edition contains substantial new content and is up-to-date in terms of the latest applications. It comprehensively covers both fundamentals and applications while remaining mathematically  Read more...

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Hans-Jürgen Butt; Kh Graf; Michael Kappl
ISBN: 9783527412167 3527412166
OCLC Number: 823552831
Notes: Previous ed.: 2006.
Description: xiv, 461 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: Preface XIII 1 Introduction1 2 Liquid Surfaces 5 2.1 Microscopic Picture of a Liquid Surface 5 2.2 Surface Tension 6 2.3 Equation of Young and Laplace 11 2.3.1 Curved Liquid Surfaces 11 2.3.2 Derivation of Young--Laplace Equation 13 2.3.3 Applying the Young--Laplace Equation 15 2.4 Techniques to Measure Surface Tension 16 2.5 Kelvin Equation 21 2.6 Capillary Condensation 24 2.7 Nucleation Theory 28 2.8 Summary 32 2.9 Exercises 33 3 Thermodynamics of Interfaces 35 3.1 Thermodynamic Functions for Bulk Systems 35 3.2 Surface Excess 36 3.3 Thermodynamic Relations for Systems with an Interface 40 3.3.1 Internal Energy and Helmholtz Energy 40 3.3.2 Equilibrium Conditions 41 3.3.3 Location of Interface 42 3.3.4 Gibbs Energy and Enthalpy 43 3.3.5 Interfacial Excess Energies 44 3.4 Pure Liquids 46 3.5 Gibbs Adsorption Isotherm 48 3.5.1 Derivation 48 3.5.2 System of Two Components 49 3.5.3 Experimental Aspects 51 3.5.4 Marangoni Effect 53 3.6 Summary 54 3.7 Exercises 55 4 Charged Interfaces and the Electric Double Layer 57 4.1 Introduction 57 4.2 Poisson--Boltzmann Theory of Diffuse Double Layer 58 4.2.1 Poisson--Boltzmann Equation 58 4.2.2 Planar Surfaces 59 4.2.3 The Full One-Dimensional Case 62 4.2.4 The Electric Double Layer around a Sphere 63 4.2.5 Grahame Equation 64 4.2.6 Capacitance of Diffuse Electric Double Layer 66 4.3 Beyond Poisson--Boltzmann Theory 67 4.3.1 Limitations of Poisson--Boltzmann Theory 67 4.3.2 Stern Layer 69 4.4 Gibbs Energy of Electric Double Layer 70 4.5 Electrocapillarity 72 4.5.1 Theory 73 4.5.2 Measurement of Electrocapillarity 75 4.6 Examples of Charged Surfaces 76 4.7 Measuring Surface Charge Densities 84 4.7.1 Potentiometric Colloid Titration 84 4.7.2 Capacitances 86 4.8 Electrokinetic Phenomena: the Zeta Potential 87 4.8.1 Navier--Stokes Equation 88 4.8.2 Electro-Osmosis and Streaming Potential 90 4.8.3 Electrophoresis and Sedimentation Potential 92 4.9 Types of Potential 95 4.10 Summary 97 4.11 Exercises 97 5 SurfaceForces 99 5.1 Van der Waals Forces between Molecules 99 5.2 Van der Waals Force between Macroscopic Solids 103 5.2.1 Microscopic Approach 104 5.2.2 Macroscopic Calculation -- Lifshitz Theory 107 5.2.3 Retarded Van der Waals Forces 112 5.2.4 Surface Energy and the Hamaker Constant 113 5.3 Concepts for the Description of Surface Forces 113 5.3.1 The Derjaguin Approximation 113 5.3.2 Disjoining Pressure 116 5.4 Measurement of Surface Forces 117 5.5 Electrostatic Double-Layer Force 120 5.5.1 Electrostatic Interaction between Two Identical Surfaces 120 5.5.2 DLVO Theory 125 5.6 Beyond DLVO Theory 127 5.6.1 Solvation Force and Confined Liquids 127 5.6.2 Non-DLVO Forces in Aqueous Medium 129 5.7 Steric and Depletion Interaction 130 5.7.1 Properties of Polymers 130 5.7.2 Force between Polymer-Coated Surfaces 131 5.7.3 Depletion Forces 134 5.8 Spherical Particles in Contact 135 5.9 Summary 140 5.10 Exercises 141 6 Contact Angle Phenomena and Wetting 143 6.1 Young's Equation 143 6.1.1 Contact Angle 143 6.1.2 Derivation 144 6.1.3 Line Tension 148 6.1.4 Complete Wetting and Wetting Transitions 149 6.1.5 Theoretical Aspects of Contact Angle Phenomena 150 6.2 Important Wetting Geometries 153 6.2.1 Capillary Rise 153 6.2.2 Particles at Interfaces 155 6.2.3 Network of Fibers 156 6.3 Measurement of Contact Angles 158 6.3.1 Experimental Methods 158 6.3.2 Hysteresis in Contact Angle Measurements 159 6.3.3 Surface Roughness and Heterogeneity 161 6.3.4 Superhydrophobic Surfaces 163 6.4 Dynamics of Wetting and Dewetting 164 6.4.1 Spontaneous Spreading 164 6.4.2 Dynamic Contact Angle 166 6.4.3 Coating and Dewetting 170 6.5 Applications 172 6.5.1 Flotation 172 6.5.2 Detergency 173 6.5.3 Microfluidics 174 6.5.4 Electrowetting 176 6.6 Thick Films: Spreading of One Liquid on Another 176 6.7 Summary 179 6.8 Exercises 179 7 SolidSurfaces 181 7.1 Introduction 181 7.2 Description of Crystalline Surfaces 182 7.2.1 Substrate Structure 182 7.2.2 Surface Relaxation and Reconstruction 184 7.2.3 Description of Adsorbate Structures 186 7.3 Preparation of Clean Surfaces 187 7.3.1 Thermal Treatment 187 7.3.2 Plasma or Sputter Cleaning 188 7.3.3 Cleavage 189 7.3.4 Deposition of Thin Films 189 7.4 Thermodynamics of Solid Surfaces 190 7.4.1 Surface Energy, Surface Tension, and Surface Stress 190 7.4.2 Determining Surface Energy 193 7.4.3 Surface Steps and Defects 196 7.5 Surface Diffusion 198 7.5.1 Theoretical Description of Surface Diffusion 199 7.5.2 Measurement of Surface Diffusion 202 7.6 Solid--Solid Interfaces 205 7.7 Microscopy of Solid Surfaces 208 7.7.1 Optical Microscopy 208 7.7.2 Electron Microscopy 209 7.7.3 Scanning Probe Microscopy 211 7.8 Diffraction Methods 214 7.8.1 Diffraction Patterns of Two-Dimensional Periodic Structures 214 7.8.2 Diffraction with Electrons, X-Rays, and Atoms 216 7.9 Spectroscopic Methods 218 7.9.1 Optical Spectroscopy of Surfaces 218 7.9.2 Spectroscopy Using Mainly Inner Electrons 222 7.9.3 Spectroscopy with Outer Electrons 224 7.9.4 Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry 225 7.10 Summary 226 7.11 Exercises 227 8 Adsorption 229 8.1 Introduction 229 8.1.1 Definitions 229 8.1.2 Adsorption Time 231 8.1.3 Classification of Adsorption Isotherms 232 8.1.4 Presentation of Adsorption Isotherms 234 8.2 Thermodynamics of Adsorption 235 8.2.1 Heats of Adsorption 235 8.2.2 Differential Quantities of Adsorption and Experimental Results 237 8.3 Adsorption Models 239 8.3.1 Langmuir Adsorption Isotherm 239 8.3.2 Langmuir Constant and Gibbs Energy of Adsorption 241 8.3.3 Langmuir Adsorption with Lateral Interactions 242 8.3.4 BET Adsorption Isotherm 243 8.3.5 Adsorption on Heterogeneous Surfaces 246 8.3.6 Potential Theory of Polanyi 247 8.4 Experimental Aspects of Adsorption from Gas Phase 249 8.4.1 Measuring Adsorption to Planar Surfaces 249 8.4.2 Measuring Adsorption to Powders and Textured Materials 251 8.4.3 Adsorption to Porous Materials 253 8.4.4 Special Aspects of Chemisorption 260 8.5 Adsorption from Solution 261 8.6 Summary 263 8.7 Exercises 264 9 SurfaceModification 267 9.1 Introduction 267 9.2 Physical and Chemical Vapor Deposition 268 9.2.1 Physical Vapor Deposition 268 9.2.2 Chemical Vapor Deposition 271 9.3 Soft Matter Deposition 275 9.3.1 Self-Assembled Monolayers 275 9.3.2 Physisorption of Polymers 279 9.3.3 Polymerization on Surfaces 282 9.3.4 Plasma Polymerization 285 9.4 Etching Techniques 287 9.5 Lithography 292 9.6 Summary 295 9.7 Exercises 296 10 Friction, Lubrication, and Wear 297 10.1 Friction 297 10.1.1 Introduction 297 10.1.2 Amontons' and Coulomb's Law 298 10.1.3 Static, Kinetic, and Stick-Slip Friction 300 10.1.4 Rolling Friction 302 10.1.5 Friction and Adhesion 303 10.1.6 Techniques to Measure Friction 304 10.1.7 Macroscopic Friction 306 10.1.8 Microscopic Friction 307 10.2 Lubrication 310 10.2.1 Hydrodynamic Lubrication 310 10.2.2 Boundary Lubrication 313 10.2.3 Thin-Film Lubrication 314 10.2.4 Superlubricity 315 10.2.5 Lubricants 317 10.3 Wear 318 10.4 Summary 321 10.5 Exercises 322 11 Surfactants, Micelles, Emulsions, and Foams 323 11.1 Surfactants 323 11.2 Spherical Micelles, Cylinders, and Bilayers 327 11.2.1 Critical Micelle Concentration 327 11.2.2 Influence of Temperature 329 11.2.3 Thermodynamics of Micellization 330 11.2.4 Structure of Surfactant Aggregates 332 11.2.5 Biological Membranes 334 11.3 Macroemulsions 336 11.3.1 General Properties 336 11.3.2 Formation 339 11.3.3 Stabilization 340 11.3.4 Evolution and Aging 344 11.3.5 Coalescence and Demulsification 346 11.4 Microemulsions 347 11.4.1 Size of Droplets 347 11.4.2 Elastic Properties of Surfactant Films 348 11.4.3 Factors Influencing the Structure of Microemulsions 350 11.5 Foams 352 11.5.1 Classification, Application, and Formation 352 11.5.2 Structure of Foams 353 11.5.3 Soap Films 355 11.5.4 Evolution of Foams 357 11.6 Summary 358 11.7 Exercises 359 12 Thin Films on Surfaces of Liquids 361 12.1 Introduction 361 12.2 Phases of Monomolecular Films 364 12.3 Experimental Techniques to Study Monolayers 367 12.3.1 Optical Microscopy 368 12.3.2 Infrared and Sum Frequency Generation Spectroscopy 369 12.3.3 X-Ray Reflection and Diffraction 370 12.3.4 Surface Potential 373 12.3.5 Rheologic Properties of Liquid Surfaces 376 12.4 Langmuir--Blodgett Transfer 381 12.5 Summary 383 12.6 Exercises 384 13 Solutions to Exercises 387 14 Analysis of Diffraction Patterns 413 14.1 Diffraction at Three-Dimensional Crystals 413 14.1.1 Bragg Condition 413 14.1.2 Laue Condition 414 14.1.3 Reciprocal Lattice 415 14.1.4 Ewald Construction 417 14.2 Diffraction at Surfaces 417 14.3 Intensity of Diffraction Peaks 419 Appendix A Symbols and Abbreviations 423 References 429 Index 453
Responsibility: Hans-Jürgen Butt, Karlheinz Graf and Michael Kappl.

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Comments on the previous editions "A general yet comprehensive introduction to surface and interface science, this book focuses on essential concepts, and includes application from biotechnology to Read more...

 
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