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Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins

Author: James N George; Alan T Nurden; David R Phillips
Publisher: Boston, MA : Springer US, 1985.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Printed edition
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: James N George; Alan T Nurden; David R Phillips
ISBN: 9781468448825 146844882X 9781468448801 1468448803
OCLC Number: 851704940
Description: 1 online resource (volumes)
Contents: I. Introduction.- 1. Plasma Membrane Receptors and Platelet Response.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Platelet Receptor Functions.- 2.1. Receptors Involved in Platelet Adhesion and in Cell-Cell Contact.- 2.2. Receptors Involved in Platelet Activation.- 3. Conclusion.- References.- II. Plasma Membrane and Membrane Glycoprotein Structure and Function.- 2. Structural and Molecular Properties of Platelet Membrane Systems.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Ultrastructural Definitions of the Different Platelet Membrane Systems.- 2.1. Platelet Origin in Megakaryocytes.- 2.2. Heterogeneity of Circulating Platelets.- 2.3. Platelet Surface Membranes.- 2.4. The Dense Tubular System and Internal Organelles.- 2.5. Membrane-Associated Components.- 2.6. Characteristics of Internal Membranes.- 3. Platelet Subcellular Fractionation and Membrane Isolation Procedures.- 3.1. Ideals and Practical Considerations.- 3.2. Platelet Isolation.- 3.3. Platelet Lysis and Fractionation of Subcellular Components.- 3.4. Identification of Subcellular Fractions.- 4. Differential Isolation of Platelet Membrane Subfractions.- 5. Free-Flow Electrophoresis for the Separation of Platelet Surface and Intracellular Membranes.- 5.1. Initial Characterization of the System.- 5.2. Isolation of Different Membrane Fractions.- 6. Characterization of Electrophoretically Separated Surface and Intracellular Membranes.- 6.1. Protein and Glycoprotein Composition.- 6.2. Lipid Composition.- 6.3. Enzyme Activities Associated with Phospholipid and Arachidonic Acid Metabolism in Intracellular Membranes.- 7. Conclusions and Comments.- References.- 3. Glycoproteins of the Platelet Plasma Membrane.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Analytical Methods.- 2.1. Early Approaches and Nomenclature.- 2.2. Improved Separations.- 2.3. Nomenclature.- 2.4. Oligosaccharide Chains.- 2.5. Determination of the Molecular Weights of Glycoproteins.- 3. Detection Techniques.- 3.1. Staining Methods.- 3.2. Surface-Labeling Methods.- 3.3. Silver-Staining Methods.- 3.4. Use of 125I-Labeled Lectins to Identify Platelet Glycoproteins on Polyacrylamide Gels.- 4. Methods of Isolation of Platelet Glycoproteins.- 4.1. Lectin Affinity-Chromatography.- 4.2. Immunoabsorption Systems.- 5. Isolation Methods, Structure, and Properties of Individual Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins.- 5.1. Glycoprotein Ib.- 5.2. The Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa Complex.- 5.3. Glycoprotein IIIb.- 5.4. Glycoprotein V.- 5.5. Glycoproteins Ia, Ic, Id, IIa, and Other Glycoprotein Ib Region; Glycoproteins.- 5.6. Glycoproteins in the Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa Region.- 5.7. Glycoproteins in the 43,000- to 70,000-Dalton Region.- 5.8. Glycoproteins of Low Molecular Weight (Less than 43,000).- 5.9. "High-Molecular-Weight" Glycoproteins.- 6. Conclusion.- References.- 4. Organization of Glycoproteins within the Platelet Plasma Membrane.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Glycoproteins IIb-IIIa.- 2.1. Initial Detection of the Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa Complex in Platelet Lysates.- 2.2. Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa and Fibrinogen.- 2.3. Organization of Glycoprotein IIb and Glycoprotein IIIa in Unstimulated and Stimulated Platelets.- 3. Glycoprotein Ib.- 3.1. Glycoprotein Ib Associations in Detergent Lysates.- 3.2. Glycoprotein Ib Organization in the Intact Platelet Membrane.- 3.3. High-Molecular-Weight Forms of Glycoprotein Ib.- 4. Other Glycoprotein Associations?.- 5. Summary.- References.- 5. Structure and Function of Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins as Studied by Crossed Immunoelectrophoresis.- 1. Introduction.- 1.1. General.- 1.2. Crossed Immunoelectrophoresis.- 2. Identification of Antigens.- 2.1. General.- 2.2. Monospecific Antibodies.- 2.3. Purified Antigens.- 2.4. Identification of Antigens by Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of Excised Immunoprecipitates.- 2.5. Identification of Antigens by the Use of Radioactively Labeled Antibodies.- 3. Characterization of Antigens by CIE.- 3.1. Identification of Amphiphilic Proteins.- 3.2. Carbohydrate-Related Reactions of Glycoproteins.- 3.3. Macromolecular Interactions.- 3.4. Proteolytic Precursor-Product Relationships.- 4. Supramolecular Organization.- 4.1. Absorption of Antibodies.- 4.2. Subcellular Localization.- 4.3. Functional Integrity of Antigens.- 4.4. Binding of Ligands and Identification of Receptors.- 4.5. Metal-Binding Proteins.- References.- 6. Platelet Membrane Electrical Potential: Its Regulation and Relationship to Platelet Activation.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Platelet Membrane Potential.- 2.1. Resting Potential of the Platelet Membrane.- 2.2. Effect of Platelet-Activating Agents on Platelet Membrane Potential.- 2.3. Effect of Platelet Membrane Potential on the Sensitivity of Platelets to Activating Agents.- 3. Intracellular pH in Platelets.- 4. Platelets and Cation Flux.- 4.1. Ca2+ Influx via the Plasma Membrane.- 4.2. Ca2+ Mobilization from Inner Face of Plasma Membrane.- 4.3. Mobilization of Ca2+ from the Dense Tubular System.- 4.4. Removal of Calcium from the Cytoplasm and Calcium Efflux.- 4.5. Na+ and K+ Movement across the Platelet Membrane.- 5. Serotonin Transport.- 5.1. Serotonin Transport across the Plasma Membrane.- 5.2. Serotonin Transport across the Dense Granule Membrane.- 6. Conclusion.- References.- III. Interaction of Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins With The Extracellular Environment.- 7. Receptors for Platelet Agonists.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Thrombin.- 2.1. Thrombin-Platelet Interactions.- 2.2. Glycoprotein V Hydrolysis.- 2.3. Equilibrium Binding of Thrombin to Platelets.- 2.4. Covalent Linkage of Thrombin to Platelets.- 2.5. Thrombin Receptors on Other Cells.- 2.6. Summary.- 3. Adenosine Diphosphate.- 3.1. Functional ADP Receptors.- 3.2. Equilibrium Binding of ADP to Platelets.- 3.3. Identification of ADP-Binding Proteins.- 3.4. Summary.- 4. Collagen.- 4.1. Platelet-Activating Collagens.- 4.2. Measurement of Platelet-Collagen Interactions.- 4.3. The Search for the Collagen Receptor.- 4.4. Summary.- 5. Epinephrine.- 5.1. Classification of Epinephrine Receptors.- 5.2. Ligand Binding to ?-Adrenergic Receptors.- 5.3. Solubilization of ?-Adrenergic Receptors.- 5.4. ?-Adrenergic-Mediated Responses.- 5.5. Identification of ?-Adrenergic Receptors.- 5.6. Summary.- 6. Conclusions.- References.- 8. Secreted Alpha Granule Proteins: The Race for Receptors.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Overview of Alpha Granules.- 2.1. Morphologic Description.- 2.2. Alpha Granule Membranes.- 2.3. Alpha Granule Contents.- 2.4. Functions of Alpha Granule Proteins.- 2.5. Genesis of Alpha Granules and Alpha Granule Contents.- 3. Alpha Granule Secretion.- 3.1. Overview.- 3.2. Secretion of Alpha Granules by Platelets in Suspension.- 3.3. Secretion of Alpha Granules in Response to Contact Activation.- 3.4. Comparison of Alpha Granule Secretion and Dense Granule Secretion.- 4. Interactions of Alpha Granule Proteins with the Surface of Activated Platelets.- 4.1. Interactions of Alpha Granule Proteins with Suspended Platelets.- 4.2. Interactions of Alpha Granule Proteins with Spread Platelets.- 4.3. Mechanism of Binding of Alpha Granule Proteins to Activated but Not Unactivated Platelets: The Rainforest Hypothesis.- References.- 9. The Platelet-Fibrinogen Interaction.- 1. Introduction.- 2. The Fibrinogen Molecule.- 2.1. Plasma Fibrinogen.- 2.2. Platelet Fibrinogen.- 3. Characterization of the Platelet Fibrinogen Receptor.- 3.1. Fibrinogen Binding to ADP-Stimulated Platelets.- 3.2. Fibrinogen Binding Stimulated by Agonists other than ADP.- 3.3. Divalent Cation Requirements for Fibrinogen Binding.- 3.4. Control Mechanisms for Fibrinogen Receptor Exposure.- 3.5. Sites on the Fibrinogen Molecule Interacting with the Fibrinogen Receptor.- 3.6. Interaction of Platelets with Fibrin.- 4. Identification of the Platelet Fibrinogen Receptor.- 4.1. Studies of Fibrinogen Binding to Thrombasthenic Platelets.- 4.2. Photoaffinity Labeling.- 4.3. Platelet-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies.- 4.4. Experiments Using Platelet Extracts.- 5. Summary and Conclusion.- References.- 10. Platelet-von Willebrand Factor Interactions.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Biosynthesis, Localization, and Structure of von Willebrand Factor.- 2.1. Tissue Distribution of von Willebrand Factor.- 2.2. Platelet-Associated von Willebrand Factor.- 2.3. Structure of von Willebrand Factor.- 2.4. Biosynthesis of von Willebrand Factor.- 3. Von Willebrand's Disease.- 3.1. Type I von Willebrand's Disease.- 3.2. Type IIA von Willebrand's Disease.- 3.3. Type IIB von Willebrand's Disease.- 3.4. Abnormalities of VWF Carbohydrate Composition in von Willebrand's Disease.- 3.5. Abnormalities of VWF Multimer Formation.- 3.6. Pseudo-von Willebrand's Disease.- 4. Von Willebrand Factor-Dependent Platelet Function.- 4.1. Platelet Retention.- 4.2. Platelet Agglutination and Aggregation.- 4.3. ExVivo Models of Platelet Adhesion to the Vessel Wall.- 4.4. Correlation among von Willebrand Factor-Dependent Platelet Functions.- 5. Von Willebrand Factor in Nonhemorrhagic Diseases.- References.- 11. Molecular Mechanisms of Platelet Adhesion and Platelet Aggregation.- 1. Primitive Cell Systems.- 2. Platelet Disorders and Insights into Functional Membrane Domains.- 3. Adhesion: The Platelet VWF-Subendothelial Axis.- 3.1. Von Willebrand Factor.- 3.2. Von Willebrand Factor Receptor on Platelets.- 4. Aggregation: Glycoprotein IIb-IIIa and Fibrinogen.- 5. Secondary Aggregation Mechanisms.- References.- 12. Lectin-Carbohydrate Binding as a Model for Platelet Contact Interactions.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Discovery of the Endogenous Platelet Lectin.- 3. Surface-Bound versus Soluble Lectin.- 4. Regulation of Lectin Expression.- 5. Lectin Activity in Inherited Bleeding Disorders.- 6. Identification of the Lectin.- 7. Receptors for the Platelet-Derived Lectin.- 8. Role of the Lectin in Platelet Aggregation.- References.- IV. Interactions of Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins with the Intracellular Cytoskeleton.- 13. The Organization of Platelet Contractile Proteins.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Properties of Platelet Contractile Proteins.- 2.1. Actin.- 2.2. Myosin.- 2.3. Other Actin-Associated Proteins.- 3. Stimulus-Dependent Changes in Contractile Proteins.- 3.1. Polymerization of Actin during Platelet Stimulation.- 3.2. Structural Reorganization of Actin Filaments during Platelet Stimulation.- 4. Regulation of Stimulus-Induced Actin Polymerization.- 4.1. Regulation of the Filament Content of Unstimulated Platelets.- 4.2. Regulation of the Filament Content of Activated Platelets.- 5. Regulation of Stimulus-Induced Reorganization of Actin Filaments.- 5.1. Modification of Myosin during Platelet Activation.- 5.2. Modification of Actin-Binding Protein during Platelet Activation.- 6. Membrane Attachment Sites.- 7. Conclusions.- References.- 14. The Mechanism of Clot Retraction.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Measurement of Contractile Force.- 3. Mechanical Aspects of Platelet-Fibrin Interaction.- 4. Ultrastructure and Tension Generation in Contracted Clots.- 4.1. Normal Clots.- 4.2. Thrombasthenic and Storage-Pool-Deficient Clots.- 4.3. Factor XIII-Deficient Clots.- 5. Activators and Inhibitors of Clot Retraction.- 5.1. Divalent Cations.- 5.2. Prostaglandin Metabolites.- 5.3. Cytoskeletal Destabilizing Agents.- 5.4. Energy Metabolism Inhibitors.- 6. Transmembrane Linkage of Cytoskeletal Components with Fibrin.- 7. Regulation of the Cytoskeletal Apparatus and Model of Clot Retraction.- 8. Concluding Remarks.- References.- V. Platelet Membrane Glycoprotein Immunology and Abnormalities.- 15. Immunology of the Platelet Surface.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Methods for Detection of Platelet Antigens and Their Antibodies.- 3. Platelet-Associated Antigens.- 3.1. Blood Group Antigens.- 3.2. HLA Antigens.- 3.3. Tn and T (Thomsen-Friedenreich) Antigens.- 4. Platelet-Specific Antigens.- 4.1. Alloantigens.- 4.2. The Receptor for Drug-Dependent Antiplatelet Antibodies.- 4.3. Autoantigens.- 4.4. Isoantigens.- 5. Platelet Reactions with Immunoglobulins at Other than the Antigen-Specific Site.- 5.1. The Fc Receptor.- 5.2. Role of Complement in Activation of Human Platelets.- 6. Clinical Conditions Arising from Immunologically Mediated Platelet Damage.- 6.1. Alloantibodies.- 6.2. Thrombocytopenia as a Result of Drug Ingestion.- 6.3. Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP).- 6.4. Disease-Associated Immune Thrombocytopenia.- 7. Conclusion.- References.- 16. Glycoprotein Defects Responsible for Abnormal Platelet Function in Inherited Platelet Disorders.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Bernard-Soulier Syndrome.- 2.1. Platelet Function.- 2.2. Surface Charge Deficiency.- 2.3. Membrane Glycoprotein Ib Deficiency.- 2.4. 125I-Labeling of the Bernard-Soulier Platelet Surface.- 2.5. Crossed Immunoelectrophoresis.- 2.6. Use of High-Resolution Two-Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis.- 2.7. 3H-Labeling of the Bernard-Soulier Platelet Surface.- 2.8. Glycoprotein V Deficiency.- 2.9. Heterogeneity within Bernard-Soulier Syndrome.- 2.10. Problems of Analyzing Bernard-Soulier Platelet Glycoproteins.- 2.11. Monoclonal Antibodies.- 2.12. Basic Genetic Lesion in Bernard-Soulier Syndrome.- 2.13. Conclusions on Bernard-Soulier Syndrome.- 3. Gray Platelet Syndrome.- 3.1. Platelet Function.- 3.2. Protein and Glycoprotein Deficiencies.- 3.3. Abnormalities in Megakaryocytes.- 3.4. Significance of the Protein and Glycoprotein Deficiencies.- 4. Glanzmann' s Thrombasthenia.- 4.1. Platelet Function.- 4.2. Initial Studies Reporting Deficiencies of Glycoprotein IIb and Glycoprotein IIIa.- 4.3. Surface-Labeling Procedures.- 4.4. Type I and Type II Thrombasthenia.- 4.5. Crossed Immunoelectrophoresis.- 4.6. Patient Heterogeneity.- 4.7. Platelet-Specific Alloantigens.- 4.8. Monoclonal Antibodies.- 4.9. Newly Described Variants with Glanzmann's Thrombasthenia.- 4.10. Altered Surface Reactivity of Glanzmann's Thrombasthenic Platelets.- 4.11. Basic Genetic Lesion in Thrombasthenia.- 4.12. Conclusions on Thrombasthenia.- 5. General Conclusions.- References.- VI. Conclusion.- 17. The Role of Membrane Glycoproteins in Platelet Formation, Circulation, and Senescence: Review and Hypotheses.- 1. Introduction.- 2. Megakaryocyte Development in the Marrow.- 2.1. The Origin of Megakaryocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells.- 2.2. The Development of Megakaryocyte Membrane Systems.- 3. Platelet Production from Megakaryocytes.- 3.1. Megakaryocyte Release from the Marrow and Platelet Release in the Lungs.- 3.2. The Analogy between Platelet Separation from Megakaryocytes and Reversible Aggregation of Mature Platelets.- 3.3. The Origins of Density and Size Heterogeneity of Circulating Platelets.- 3.4. Platelet Size and Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins.- 4. The Function of Circulating Platelets.- 4.1. Transient-Sequestration of Platelets in the Spleen.- 4.2. The Hypothesis of Continual Endothelial Support by Circulating Platelets.- 4.3. Platelet Membrane Fragmentation during Reversible Adhesion Encounters.- 4.4. Platelet Membrane Microparticles.- 5. Platelet Senescence and Removal from the Circulation.- 5.1. The Occurrence of Senescent Antigens.- 5.2. T and Tn Determinants on Glycoprotein Ib as Possible Platelet Senescent Antigens.- References.
Responsibility: edited by James N. George, Alan T. Nurden, David R. Phillips.

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