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## Details

Genre/Form: | Electronic books |
---|---|

Additional Physical Format: | Print version: |

Material Type: | Document, Internet resource |

Document Type: | Internet Resource, Computer File |

All Authors / Contributors: |
J S Gale |

ISBN: | 9781461339243 1461339243 |

OCLC Number: | 852791651 |

Description: | 1 online resource (x, 189 pages) |

Contents: | 1. Introduction -- Natural selection -- Problems studied by population geneticists -- Approaches to our problems -- The Mendelian population -- Factors affecting the genetic composition of populations -- Summary -- 2. Selfing -- Inbreeding -- Inbreeding depression -- Difficulties in allowing for natural selection during inbreeding -- Species inbreeding to some extent in nature -- Effect of selling on genotype frequencies at a single locus -- Information needed to discuss the effect of inbreeding on the entire genotype -- The start (generation 0) -- A later stage (generation n) -- Proportion of lines completely homozygous at a late stage -- To determine the average number of tracts in a given generation -- To determine the average number of heterozygous ends -- To determine the average number of external junctions -- Proportion of lines homozygous at all loci -- An illustrative example -- Total length heterozygous -- Summary -- 3. Random Genetic Drift -- On the word 'probability' -- Intuitive notions on the effects of drift -- Probability distribution of allele frequency -- Mean allele frequency: mean frequency of heterozygotes -- Extreme versus intermediate allele frequencies -- Circumstances under which drift may be ignored -- Long-term effects of drift -- Variable fertilities Variable population size -- Summary -- 4. Survival and Fixation of Advantageous Mutants -- Factors affecting the chance of fixation -- Genic selection. Mean and variance of the change in allele frequency -- The probability of fixation: Kimura's formula -- Accuracy of Kimura's formula -- The probability of fixation: some conclusions -- Initial frequency larger than 1/(2N) -- Variable population size (initial frequency 1/(2N)) -- Dominance in fitness -- Summary -- 5. What is the role of Drift in Evolution? I. Morphological Characters -- The problem -- Harmful mutants -- Obviously adaptive characters -- 'Minor' morphological variants -- Chromosomal inversions in Drosophila pseudoobscura -- Colour and banding in Cepaea nemoralis -- Sternopleural chaetae in Drosophila melanogaster -- Wing colour in Panaxia dominula -- Conclusions on morphological characters -- 6. What is the role of Drift in Evolution? II. Protein Variation -- Protein polymorphism -- Rate of nucleotide substitution: theory Rate of nucleotide substitution in practice -- A different approach Allele frequencies in geographically distant areas -- Effect of migration -- Frequency of heterozygotes -- Testing the neutral theory from frequency data: summary -- Experimental approach -- Experiments involving several loci -- Predicting selective response from biochemical studies -- Tentative conclusions -- Summary -- 7. Hitch-Hiking Effect of a Favourable Gene -- The hitch-hiking effect defined -- Effect of recombination -- The setup most favourable for hitch-hiking -- Some other situations leading to hitch-hiking -- Summary -- 8 Changes of Allele Frequency Under Natural Selection in Large Random Mating Populations -- Conditions under which the problem can be simplified -- Genic selection -- Wright's formula -- Change in allele frequency per generation (mild selection) -- Time required for a given change Allowance for drift -- Industrial melanism -- Summary -- 9. Evolution of Dominance -- Modifiers of dominance -- Disadvantageous mutants -- Advantageous mutants -- Balanced polymorphism -- Metrical characters -- Summary -- 10. Polymorphism -- Frequency of polymorphism -- Some possible explanations for polymorphism -- Heterozygous advantage: theory -- Sickle-cell anaemia -- Is heterozygous advantage common? -- Variable selective advantage: formal theory -- Measuring selective advantage: formal approach -- The ecological genetic approach -- Inversions in Drosophila pseudoobscura -- Batesian mimicry in butterflies -- Final comments -- Summary -- 11. Evolution of Altruism -- Altruistic behaviour -- Kin selection -- Social insects -- Group selection -- Summary -- 12. Summary. Some Tentative Conclusions -- Appendix 1. A Misapplication of the Hardy-Weinberg Law -- If genotype frequencies do not obey the Hardy-Weinberg law what can we conclude? -- Problem -- Solution -- General comment -- Appendix 2. Some Points in Statistics -- Probability -- Mean and variance -- Probability distributions -- Binomial distribution -- Poisson distribution -- Poisson approximation to binomial distribution -- Continuous distributions -- Normal distribution -- Normal approximation to binomial distribution -- A note on chapter 3 -- Some mathematical points -- Suggestions for Further Reading. |

Responsibility: | by J.S. Gale. |

### Abstract:

Rather it is that the biologist, lacking the physicist's or chemist's experience in "reading" mathematical formulae, finds it difficult to appreciate what is happening in a mathematical treatment and to grasp the implications of the results obtained, when these are given in mathematical form.
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