skip to content
Primitive mentality, Preview this item
ClosePreview this item
Checking...

Primitive mentality,

Author: Lucien Lévy-Bruhl; Lilian A Clare
Publisher: London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd.; New York, Macmillan Co. [1923]
Edition/Format:   Book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Rating:

(not yet rated) 0 with reviews - Be the first.

Subjects
More like this

 

Find a copy in the library

&AllPage.SpinnerRetrieving; Finding libraries that hold this item...

Details

Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Lévy-Bruhl, Lucien, 1857-1939.
Primitive mentality.
London, George Allen & Unwin Ltd.; New York, Macmillan Co. [1923]
(OCoLC)643737149
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Lucien Lévy-Bruhl; Lilian A Clare
OCLC Number: 5847437
Notes: Includes index.
Description: 458 pages, 1 leaf 22 cm
Contents: Introduction : I. The primitive's distaste for the discursive operations of thought ; His ideas restricted to a small number of objects ; His lack of reflection --
II. This not due to inherent incapacity or natural inaptitude: working hypothesis taken from Fonctions Mentales Chapter I. The primitive's indifference to secondary causes : I. Primitive mentality attributes everything that happens to mystic and occult agencies --
II. Disease and death are never "natural" ; Examples drawn from Australia, and from South, Central, West, and East Africa --
III. There is no such thing as accident ; A misfortune is never a matter of chance --
IV. How such a mind accounts for the crimes of the witch-crocodiles --
V. How it explains everything unusual Chapter II. Mystic and invisible forces : I. Distinguishing characteristics of the primitive's world ; His direct experience, in one sense, richer than our own ; The visible world and the other world form but one --
II. The part played by the witchcraft of sorcerers, spirits, and the souls of the dead --
III. The man who has just died a source of danger to the living --
IV. Rites, ceremonies, punitive expeditions undertaken to placate him: the Zulus' amatongo ; Exchange of kindly offices between the living and the dead --
V. Constant activity of the dead among the Bantus ; Their demands ; The prayers addressed to them --
VI. To the primitive mind casualty is entirely mystic and direct ; Neither time nor space is a homogenous representation to it Chapter III. Dreams : I. How the primitive mind acquires the data which concern it : The special value of the dream ; The soul's experience during sleep ; That which is seen in the dream is real, even if it contradicts previous information --
II. A man is responsible for what he has seen himself do, or what another has seen him do in a dream ; The "multi-presence" of the soul --
III. The Bantus' faith in dreams ; Conversions due to dreams --
IV. Respect for dreams shown by the Indians of New France ; Necessity for obeying them ; The dream and the personal totem Chapter IV. Omens : I. Preliminary remarks : 1. Omens and the representation of time ; 2. Omens and the representation of causes --
II. The Borneo system of omens ; They not only announce events, they also cause them ; The cult of bird omens --
III. Hose and MacDougall's hypothesis not well founded ; Methods of obtaining the desired omens --
IV. Omens are also causes ; How they finally become nothing but signs Chapter V. Omens (continued) : I. How to guard against unfavorable omens ; Various ways of preventing their being seen or heard ; Of transforming them into favorable auguries ; Of destroying the animal that produces them --
II. The monstra and portent: animals which "transgress" ; Children who cut their upper teeth first, or who manifest other peculiarities --
III. These "harbingers of woe" treated like jettatori and sorcerers ; Close connection between personal peculiarities, the evil eye, and the malign principle dwelling in the sorcerer Chapter VI: the practices of divination : I. Request for revelations if these do not occur spontaneously ; Dreams brought about with a view to obtaining the desired result (New France) ; Advice, help, and decision sought in dreams. II. Various forms of direct interrogation of the dead (Australia, New Guinea, West Africa) ; III. Divination by means of the dead man's skull and bones (Melanesia) ; Consulting the dead, by divination, before undertaking any enterprise (Central Africa) Chapter VII. The practices of divination (continued) : I. Divination from the entrails and liver of animals : Practices obtaining in Ruanda ; The knuckle-bones in South Africa. II. Divination by alternative (German) New Guinea) : Mystical meaning of the operation ; Future events regarded as present ones. III. Divination in order to discover a thief, by his name, by a direction in space : Relation of the social group to the soil ; Other forms of divination ; Clairvoyance Chapter VIII. Ordeals : I. The primitives' firm faith in the ordeal : It is a mystic test. II. The ordeal processes of divination, used to settle legal disputes ; III. Ordeal by proxy : Cases in which these are allowed or refused ; Mystic influence of the ordeal upon the sorcerer's power for evil, sometimes unknown to him ; The post-mortem search for its source --
IV. Accounts of witchcraft and cannibalism ; Witchcraft and the evil eye --
V. Ordeals in Australia : Their object is not to discover the guilty, but they are propitiatory rites and ceremonies ; Similar cases in Central and Ease Africa Chapter IX. The mystic meaning of accidents and misfortunes : I. Misfortunes following upon a violation of taboo ; Need of expiation --
II. Preconnections between these violations and their consequences. These reveal involuntary errors ; Intention is not a necessary element of error. III. "Bad death," a revelation of the anger of the invisible forces : The treatment of people struck by lightning. IV. Those in danger of "Bad death" abandoned, and (if they escape it) excommunicated ; Mystic reasons for this abandonment --
V. In the Fiji islands, shipwrecked people are obliged to be killed and eaten ; The New Zealander's taua and muru ; The prisoner's mystic loss of status ; Res est sacra miser --
VI. Apparent indifference to the sick whose state is serious ; People dare no longer nurse or care for them ; They are the object of the anger of the unseen powers (Tahiti) ; The New Zealanders' beliefs and customs with regard to this Chapter X. The mystic meaning of the causes of success : I. Nothing can succeed without charms or "medicine" ; Agrarian magic ; Games and legend-recitals at a certain time of year: their mystic influence ; II. Work in the fields and gardens reserved chiefly for women ; Theory of fertility and participation ; III. Mystic virtue exercised by the person of the chief ; IV. Mystic conditions of success in warfare ; Surprise attacks at dawn ; Why they are never followed up ; V. Magic preparation of weapons ; Poisoned arrows ; What the efficacy of snares, tools, and implements is due to ; Experience shows whether they are lucky or unlucky ; Objects endowed with special properties ; VI. The effectual power of desire ; Thought has the same effect as action ; Covetousness acts like the jettatura Chapter XI. The mystic meaning of the white man's appearance and of the things he brings with him : I. The primitive's reaction at his first encounter with the white man ; He regards the world as closed ; White people are spirits or ghosts ; Fear caused by their appearance ; The first missionaries taken for wizards ; II. Fire-arms: it is the report which kills ; The primitive at first fires without taking aim ; III. Books and writing: books are the instruments of divination ; Learning to read is equivalent to conversion ; Writing is a magical process ; IV. The white man's "medicine" ; His cloth is made at the bottom of the sea ; Effect produced on primitive at the sight of a watch, mariner's compass, photographic apparatus ; Their first experience of boiling water, iron, etc ; Mystic cause of the white man's superiority Chapter XII. The primitive's dislike of the unknown : I. The results of prolonged association with white people ; The primitive's mistrust of food offered by strangers ; II. Reluctance to abandon old customs in favour of new ones ; Fear of giving offence to ancestors and spirits by accepting changes ; The innovator suspected of witchcraft ; Conformity a matter of obligation ; Individual conversion to Christianity almost an impossibility ; III. The judgement of values is always individual and concrete: primitives have very little idea of abstraction ; IV. How they adapt themselves to new processes or implements when they make use of them Chapter XIII. The primitive's attitude to European remedies : I. The apparent ingratitude of primitives for the ministrations of white doctors: they want to be paid for accepting them ; II. The effect of remedies must be an immediate one, and the cure instantaneous, or at least rapid: the primitives' dislike of staying in hospital, or with white people ; III. A similar lack of gratitude for other services rendered by whites: apparently inexplicable demands for indemnity: why primitives believe themselves justified in making them XIV. Conclusion : I. Primitive mentality being essentially mystic, is difficult to understand and to express in languages that are conceptual ; II. How the primitive imagines casuality: his ideas about conception and pregnancy, for instance ; III. Primitives both practical and competent in certain cases: their ingenuity and skill: how they express themselves without making use of processes which are really intellectual.
Responsibility: by Lucien Lévy-Bruhl ... Authorized translation by Lilian A. Clare.

Reviews

User-contributed reviews
Retrieving GoodReads reviews...
Retrieving DOGObooks reviews...

Tags

Be the first.

Similar Items

Related Subjects:(4)

User lists with this item (1)

Confirm this request

You may have already requested this item. Please select Ok if you would like to proceed with this request anyway.

Linked Data


<http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/5847437>
bgn:translationOfWork
library:oclcnum"5847437"
library:placeOfPublication
library:placeOfPublication
library:placeOfPublication
rdf:typeschema:Book
schema:about
schema:about
schema:about
schema:about
schema:about
schema:contributor
schema:creator
schema:datePublished"1923"
schema:description"Chapter XIII. The primitive's attitude to European remedies : I. The apparent ingratitude of primitives for the ministrations of white doctors: they want to be paid for accepting them ; II. The effect of remedies must be an immediate one, and the cure instantaneous, or at least rapid: the primitives' dislike of staying in hospital, or with white people ; III. A similar lack of gratitude for other services rendered by whites: apparently inexplicable demands for indemnity: why primitives believe themselves justified in making them"@en
schema:description"Chapter XII. The primitive's dislike of the unknown : I. The results of prolonged association with white people ; The primitive's mistrust of food offered by strangers ; II. Reluctance to abandon old customs in favour of new ones ; Fear of giving offence to ancestors and spirits by accepting changes ; The innovator suspected of witchcraft ; Conformity a matter of obligation ; Individual conversion to Christianity almost an impossibility ; III. The judgement of values is always individual and concrete: primitives have very little idea of abstraction ; IV. How they adapt themselves to new processes or implements when they make use of them"@en
schema:description"Chapter IV. Omens : I. Preliminary remarks : 1. Omens and the representation of time ; 2. Omens and the representation of causes -- II. The Borneo system of omens ; They not only announce events, they also cause them ; The cult of bird omens -- III. Hose and MacDougall's hypothesis not well founded ; Methods of obtaining the desired omens -- IV. Omens are also causes ; How they finally become nothing but signs"@en
schema:description"Chapter XI. The mystic meaning of the white man's appearance and of the things he brings with him : I. The primitive's reaction at his first encounter with the white man ; He regards the world as closed ; White people are spirits or ghosts ; Fear caused by their appearance ; The first missionaries taken for wizards ; II. Fire-arms: it is the report which kills ; The primitive at first fires without taking aim ; III. Books and writing: books are the instruments of divination ; Learning to read is equivalent to conversion ; Writing is a magical process ; IV. The white man's "medicine" ; His cloth is made at the bottom of the sea ; Effect produced on primitive at the sight of a watch, mariner's compass, photographic apparatus ; Their first experience of boiling water, iron, etc ; Mystic cause of the white man's superiority"@en
schema:description"Chapter II. Mystic and invisible forces : I. Distinguishing characteristics of the primitive's world ; His direct experience, in one sense, richer than our own ; The visible world and the other world form but one -- II. The part played by the witchcraft of sorcerers, spirits, and the souls of the dead -- III. The man who has just died a source of danger to the living -- IV. Rites, ceremonies, punitive expeditions undertaken to placate him: the Zulus' amatongo ; Exchange of kindly offices between the living and the dead -- V. Constant activity of the dead among the Bantus ; Their demands ; The prayers addressed to them -- VI. To the primitive mind casualty is entirely mystic and direct ; Neither time nor space is a homogenous representation to it"@en
schema:description"Introduction : I. The primitive's distaste for the discursive operations of thought ; His ideas restricted to a small number of objects ; His lack of reflection -- II. This not due to inherent incapacity or natural inaptitude: working hypothesis taken from Fonctions Mentales"@en
schema:description"Chapter VIII. Ordeals : I. The primitives' firm faith in the ordeal : It is a mystic test. II. The ordeal processes of divination, used to settle legal disputes ; III. Ordeal by proxy : Cases in which these are allowed or refused ; Mystic influence of the ordeal upon the sorcerer's power for evil, sometimes unknown to him ; The post-mortem search for its source -- IV. Accounts of witchcraft and cannibalism ; Witchcraft and the evil eye -- V. Ordeals in Australia : Their object is not to discover the guilty, but they are propitiatory rites and ceremonies ; Similar cases in Central and Ease Africa"@en
schema:description"XIV. Conclusion : I. Primitive mentality being essentially mystic, is difficult to understand and to express in languages that are conceptual ; II. How the primitive imagines casuality: his ideas about conception and pregnancy, for instance ; III. Primitives both practical and competent in certain cases: their ingenuity and skill: how they express themselves without making use of processes which are really intellectual."@en
schema:description"Chapter IX. The mystic meaning of accidents and misfortunes : I. Misfortunes following upon a violation of taboo ; Need of expiation -- II. Preconnections between these violations and their consequences. These reveal involuntary errors ; Intention is not a necessary element of error. III. "Bad death," a revelation of the anger of the invisible forces : The treatment of people struck by lightning. IV. Those in danger of "Bad death" abandoned, and (if they escape it) excommunicated ; Mystic reasons for this abandonment -- V. In the Fiji islands, shipwrecked people are obliged to be killed and eaten ; The New Zealander's taua and muru ; The prisoner's mystic loss of status ; Res est sacra miser -- VI. Apparent indifference to the sick whose state is serious ; People dare no longer nurse or care for them ; They are the object of the anger of the unseen powers (Tahiti) ; The New Zealanders' beliefs and customs with regard to this"@en
schema:description"Chapter VII. The practices of divination (continued) : I. Divination from the entrails and liver of animals : Practices obtaining in Ruanda ; The knuckle-bones in South Africa. II. Divination by alternative (German) New Guinea) : Mystical meaning of the operation ; Future events regarded as present ones. III. Divination in order to discover a thief, by his name, by a direction in space : Relation of the social group to the soil ; Other forms of divination ; Clairvoyance"@en
schema:description"Chapter III. Dreams : I. How the primitive mind acquires the data which concern it : The special value of the dream ; The soul's experience during sleep ; That which is seen in the dream is real, even if it contradicts previous information -- II. A man is responsible for what he has seen himself do, or what another has seen him do in a dream ; The "multi-presence" of the soul -- III. The Bantus' faith in dreams ; Conversions due to dreams -- IV. Respect for dreams shown by the Indians of New France ; Necessity for obeying them ; The dream and the personal totem"@en
schema:description"Chapter X. The mystic meaning of the causes of success : I. Nothing can succeed without charms or "medicine" ; Agrarian magic ; Games and legend-recitals at a certain time of year: their mystic influence ; II. Work in the fields and gardens reserved chiefly for women ; Theory of fertility and participation ; III. Mystic virtue exercised by the person of the chief ; IV. Mystic conditions of success in warfare ; Surprise attacks at dawn ; Why they are never followed up ; V. Magic preparation of weapons ; Poisoned arrows ; What the efficacy of snares, tools, and implements is due to ; Experience shows whether they are lucky or unlucky ; Objects endowed with special properties ; VI. The effectual power of desire ; Thought has the same effect as action ; Covetousness acts like the jettatura"@en
schema:description"Chapter I. The primitive's indifference to secondary causes : I. Primitive mentality attributes everything that happens to mystic and occult agencies -- II. Disease and death are never "natural" ; Examples drawn from Australia, and from South, Central, West, and East Africa -- III. There is no such thing as accident ; A misfortune is never a matter of chance -- IV. How such a mind accounts for the crimes of the witch-crocodiles -- V. How it explains everything unusual"@en
schema:description"Chapter VI: the practices of divination : I. Request for revelations if these do not occur spontaneously ; Dreams brought about with a view to obtaining the desired result (New France) ; Advice, help, and decision sought in dreams. II. Various forms of direct interrogation of the dead (Australia, New Guinea, West Africa) ; III. Divination by means of the dead man's skull and bones (Melanesia) ; Consulting the dead, by divination, before undertaking any enterprise (Central Africa)"@en
schema:description"Chapter V. Omens (continued) : I. How to guard against unfavorable omens ; Various ways of preventing their being seen or heard ; Of transforming them into favorable auguries ; Of destroying the animal that produces them -- II. The monstra and portent: animals which "transgress" ; Children who cut their upper teeth first, or who manifest other peculiarities -- III. These "harbingers of woe" treated like jettatori and sorcerers ; Close connection between personal peculiarities, the evil eye, and the malign principle dwelling in the sorcerer"@en
schema:exampleOfWork<http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/1150911374>
schema:inLanguage"en"
schema:name"Primitive mentality,"@en
schema:publication
schema:publisher
schema:publisher
wdrs:describedby

Content-negotiable representations

Close Window

Please sign in to WorldCat 

Don't have an account? You can easily create a free account.