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Principles of air quality management

Author: Roger D Griffin
Publisher: Boca Raton, FL : CRC/Taylor & Francis, ©2007.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 2nd edView all editions and formats
Publication:OKS Print
Summary:

Combining information from mainstream articles, highly technical publications, and research journals, this book features various sections on air toxics, fresh information on chronic and acute health  Read more...

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Details

Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Roger D Griffin
ISBN: 084937099X 9780849370991
OCLC Number: 68192592
Description: 334 pages : illustrations, maps ; 25 cm
Contents: Chapter 1 The Atmosphere and Its Contaminants 1 --
History of Air Pollution 1 --
Medieval Experiences 1 --
Industrialization 2 --
The Early 20th Century 2 --
The Great London Smog Disaster --
December 1952 3 --
Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries 4 --
Ambient Air 4 --
Criteria and Noncriteria Air Pollutants 5 --
Emissions 6 --
The Epidemiologic Model 7 --
Components of the Atmosphere 7 --
Physical Characteristics 8 --
Standard Conditions 9 --
Dew Point and Humidity 9 --
States of Air Pollutants 10 --
Pollutant Gas Features 10 --
Particulate Features 10 --
Contaminant Classifications 13 --
Primary Contaminants 13 --
Natural Emissions 14 --
Anthropogenic Emissions 14 --
Secondary Contaminants 14 --
Photochemical Smog 14 --
Air Quality Management Aspects of Photochemical Reactions 18 --
Chapter 2 Effects of Air Pollution 21 --
Time Effects and Sensitivities 21 --
Acute versus Chronic 21 --
Sensitive Populations 22 --
Criteria versus Noncriteria Air Pollutants 22 --
Criteria Air Pollutant Effects 23 --
Ozone 23 --
Sulfur Dioxide 24 --
Particulate Matter 26 --
Nitrogen Dioxide 26 --
Carbon Monoxide 27 --
Lead 27 --
Basic Principles of Toxicology 28 --
Sources of Health Effects Information 28 --
Dose-Response 29 --
Routes of Exposure 30 --
Inhalation 30 --
Response to Airborne Chemicals 30 --
The Lungs 31 --
The Central Nervous System 33 --
The Liver 33 --
The Kidneys 33 --
The Blood 33 --
The Reproductive System 33 --
The Cardiovascular System 34 --
The Skeletal System 34 --
Other Factors to Consider 34 --
Classes of Health Effects 35 --
Latency 36 --
Carcinogens 36 --
Mutagens 36 --
Teratogens 36 --
Effects on the Ecosystem 37 --
Effects on Vegetation 37 --
Plant Structure 37 --
Leaf Structure 37 --
Plant Injury 38 --
Acid Precipitation Effects 38 --
Pollutant Interactions 39 --
Economic Losses Caused by Vegetation Effects 39 --
Effects on Materials 39 --
Textiles 40 --
Building Materials 40 --
Metal Corrosion 41 --
Surface Coatings 42 --
Documents and Manuscripts 42 --
Rubber 42 --
Effects on Animals 43 --
Economic Losses 43 --
Chapter 3 Air Quality Standards and Monitoring 45 --
Standards 45 --
Acceptable Levels 46 --
Ambient Air Standards and Exposures 48 --
National 48 --
International Air Pollution Levels 50 --
The Pollution Standard Index 51 --
Episodic Standards 52 --
Noncriteria Air Contaminant Standards 53 --
Occupational Derived Standards 53 --
Risk Assessment 54 --
The Risk Assessment Process 54 --
Hazard Identification 54 --
Dose-Response Assessment 55 --
Exposure Assessment 56 --
Risk Characterization 57 --
Uncertainties 57 --
Uncertainties in Toxicity 57 --
Uncertainties in Modeled Exposures 58 --
Screening Level Approaches 58 --
Carcinogen Hazards 58 --
Acceptable Air Quality 61 --
Monitoring Ambient Air Quality 61 --
Measurement Techniques 63 --
Cumulative Samplers 64 --
Continuous Analyzers 66 --
Chapter 4 Sources and Measurement Methodologies 69 --
Global Sources 70 --
Geogenic 70 --
Biogenic 70 --
Anthropogenic 71 --
Global Emissions 72 --
Air Pollution Sinks 74 --
Biological Sinks 74 --
Mechanical Sinks 74 --
Photochemical Sinks 75 --
Anthropogenic Air Emissions 76 --
Combustion 76 --
Fuels for Combustion Reactions 77 --
Coal 77 --
Liquid Fuels 79 --
Natural Gas 80 --
Efficiency and Emissions 81 --
Enthalpy Considerations 81 --
Air and Fuel Considerations 82 --
Combustion Chemistry 82 --
Air-to-Fuel Ratio Considerations 83 --
Combustion Systems 84 --
Evaporative Emissions 85 --
Evaporative Classes 87 --
Fugitive Emissions 88 --
Waste-Related Emissions 89 --
Landfills 89 --
Treatment-Related Emissions 91 --
Criteria Air Pollutant Formation 91 --
Source Inventories of Criteria Pollutants 92 --
Transportation 93 --
Fuel Combustion 93 --
Industrial Processes 94 --
Comparisons by Category 95 --
Hazardous Air Emissions 96 --
Quantification of Emissions 97 --
Source Testing 97 --
Continuous Emissions Monitoring 97 --
Carbon Balance 98 --
Composition 98 --
Emission Factors 98 --
Fugitives 99 --
Accuracy and Applicability 99 --
Chapter 5 Meteorology, Dispersion, and Modeling 101 --
Earth's Energy and Radiation 101 --
Temperature and Global Air Movements 103 --
Global Circulation Cells 104 --
Jet Streams 105 --
Surface Effects 105 --
Other Forces 107 --
Patterns of High and Low Pressure 107 --
Friction 111 --
Horizontal and Vertical Air Patterns 111 --
Atmospheric Stability 111 --
Vertical Mixing 113 --
Horizontal Air Movements 113 --
Regional Air Pollution Meteorology 115 --
Inversions 115 --
Types of Inversions 115 --
Southern California --
The Classic Example 117 --
Sea and Land Breezes 117 --
Other Dispersive Characteristics of the Atmosphere 119 --
Valley Effects 119 --
Chimney Effect 121 --
Vegetation Effects 121 --
Mountain Effects 122 --
Urban Heat Island Effects 122 --
Local Air Pollutant Dispersion 123 --
Point Sources and Plume Dispersion 123 --
Plume Rise 124 --
Plume Shape 125 --
Line Sources 127 --
Area Sources 128 --
Dispersion Modeling 128 --
Point-Source Modeling 129 --
Model Averaging Time 131 --
Plume Model Modifications 131 --
Line-Source Models 133 --
Area Modeling 133 --
Catastrophic Releases 133 --
Visibility 134 --
Mathematical Models 134 --
Planning Based 134 --
Receptor Based 136 --
Statistical Based 136 --
Chapter 6 Stationary-Source Control Approaches 139 --
Source Reduction 139 --
Management and Operational Changes 140 --
Fugitive Emissions 141 --
Product Storage Control 142 --
Materials Changes 144 --
Process-Optimizing Actions 145 --
Combustion Modifications 146 --
Fuels and Fuel Modification 151 --
Efficiency 151 --
Secondary Utilization 151 --
Fuel Switching 152 --
Fuel Blending 152 --
Fuel Cleaning 153 --
Additives 154 --
Fuel Modifications 154 --
Fuel Refining 156 --
Planning and Design 156 --
Geographic Location 156 --
Lower-Emission Systems 157 --
Greater Efficiency 158 --
Repowering 158 --
Emissions Characterization 158 --
Collection of Air Contaminants 159 --
Air Pollution Control Approaches 162 --
Gas Control Technologies 162 --
Absorbers 163 --
Adsorbers 164 --
Condensers 165 --
Thermal Oxidation 166 --
Particulate Control Technologies 167 --
Mechanical Collectors 168 --
Fabric Filters 169 --
Wet Scrubbers 171 --
Electrostatic Precipitators 172 --
Combination Units 173 --
Combustion Gas Control Technologies 174 --
Carbon Monoxide and Combustible Carbon Gases 174 --
Sulfur Dioxide 174 --
Oxides of Nitrogen 174 --
Selective Catalytic Reduction 176 --
Selective Noncatalytic Reduction 176 --
Oxidative Systems 177 --
Technology Comparisons 177 --
Control System Hardware Considerations 178 --
Chapter 7 Mobile Sources and Control Approaches 179 --
Engines and Air Pollutant Emissions 179 --
Pollutant Formation in Spark-Ignited Engines 181 --
Bulk Gas Pollutant-Formation Region 181 --
Surface Pollutant-Formation Region 182 --
Four-Stroke Pollutant Mechanisms 183 --
Lesser Sources of Carbon Gas Pollutant Emissions 183 --
Fuel Composition and Exhaust Emissions 185 --
Diesel Ignition Emission Characteristics 185 --
Pollutant Patterns 188 --
Hydrocarbon Emissions from Trip Cycles 188 --
Engine Thermodynamic Cycles 189 --
Hybrid Internal Combustion Engines 192 --
ICE Emission-Control Options 193 --
Effects of Operating Conditions 193 --
Spark Timing 193 --
Compression Ratio 193 --
Engine Speed 194 --
Engine Power 194 --
Engine Temperatures 195 --
Engine Cleanliness 195 --
Design Influences on ICEs 196 --
Two-Stage Combustion 197 --
External Control Approaches 198 --
Fuel Recapture Systems 198 --
Catalyst Systems 198 --
Diesel Particulate Controls 200 --
Fuel Change Effects 200 --
Diesel Fuels 204 --
Alternatives and the Future 205 --
Alternative Fuels 205 --
Alternative Mechanical Design and Efficiency Approaches 206 --
Alternative Power Systems 206 --
Chapter 8 Global Concerns 209 --
The Challenge 210 --
Data and Records 210 --
Intercontinental Pollutant Transport 211 --
The Data 212 --
Stratospheric Ozone 213 --
Radiation Primer 213 --
Stratospheric Ozone Formation 215 --
Early Observations 216 --
The Response 216 --
Other Sources and Variations 216 --
Lab Studies 217 --
Antarctic Studies 217 --
UV Data and Other Impacts 218 --
Alternatives 219 --
Acid Deposition 220 --
Water Plus Air 220 --
Water Plus Soils 220 --
Acid Rain Studies 221 --
The NAPAP Findings 222 --
Global Climate Change 224 --
Historical Perspective 225 --
Current Concerns 227 --
Measurements 231 --
Models 236 --
Recent Findings 237 --
Alternative Views 238 --
Increased Yields 239 --
Other Agricultural Effects 240 --
Chapter 9 Air Quality Laws and Regulations 243 --
General Law Approaches 243 --
Public Nuisance 243 --
Private Nuisance 244 --
Recent Approaches 244 --
The Process of Regulation 245 --
Role of the Public in Rule Making 245 --
Environmental Justice 246 --
Levels of Authority 246 --
Federal Preemption 246 --
Federal Laws Affecting Air Quality Management 247 --
Pre-1990 Air Quality Acts and Effects 247 --
Implementation Plans 248 --
Monitoring and Limiting Emissions 248 --
Prevention of Significant Deterioration 248 --
Emergency Episodes 249 --
Hazardous Air Pollutants 250 --
Global Concerns 250 --
Federal Environmental Statutes 250 --
Toxic Substances Control Act 250 --
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 250 --
Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act 251 --
The Clean Air Act 252 --
Title I Attainment and Maintenance of the NAAQS 2.
Responsibility: Roger D. Griffin.
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