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Principles of alternative dispute resolution

Author: Stephen J Ware
Publisher: St. Paul, MN : Thomson/West, [2007] ©2007
Series: Concise hornbook series.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : Second editionView all editions and formats
Summary:
From the Preface: The term "Alternative Dispute Resolution" is still fairly new. Prior to the 1970's, lawyers did not talk about "ADR." They did, however, practice ADR. They negotiated settlement agreements and they represented clients in arbitration. Such activities have long been performed by lawyers. Only in the last generation, though, has ADR emerged as a distinct field of study in law school. This book is an  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
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Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Ware, Stephen J., 1965-
Principles of alternative dispute resolution.
St. Paul, MN : Thomson/West, ©2007
(DLC) 2008270823
(OCoLC)170924268
Print version:
Ware, Stephen J., 1965-
Principles of alternative dispute resolution.
(DLC) 2008270823
(OCoLC)170924268
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Stephen J Ware
ISBN: 9781628103731 1628103736
OCLC Number: 755262999
Notes: Revised edition of: Alternative dispute resolution / by Stephen J. Ware. 2001.
Description: 1 online resource (xxvii, 389 pages).
Contents: Preface --
Note to teachers --
Acknowledgments --
Chapter 1: Introduction --
1-1: Overview --
1-2: Disputes --
1-3: Resolution of disputes --
1-4: Processes of dispute resolution --
1-5: Definitions of litigation and ADR --
a: ADR as alternatives to litigation --
b: Litigation as the default process --
1-6: Introductions to major ADR processes --
a: Negotiation --
b: Mediation and other processes in aid of negotiation --
c: Arbitration --
1-7: Basic division within ADR: arbitration vs everything else --
a: All ADR processes can produce binding results --
1: Negotiation --
2: Mediation and other processes in aid of negotiation --
3: Arbitration --
b: Arbitration is the only ADR process that can produce binding results without a post-dispute contract --
c: Arbitration or litigation casts the shadow in which negotiation and processes in aid of it occur --
d: Implications for categorizing and comparing processes --
1-8: Broader perspectives on ADR --
a: ADR diversity --
b: Cool and warm themes; the cost and quality of dispute resolution --
c: Lawyers and ADR --
Chapter 2: Arbitration And Similar Processes --
A: Overview --
2-1: Arbitration defined --
2-2: Contractual arbitration and non-contractual arbitration; constitutional right to jury trial --
2-3: Arbitration law summarized --
a: Post-dispute and pre-dispute agreements to arbitrate --
b: Enforcement of arbitration agreements --
c: Arbitration process --
d: Enforcement of arbitrator's decision or "award" --
B: Sources of contemporary American arbitration law --
2-4: Federal law --
a: Pro-contract --
b: Court orders to arbitrate; specific performance of arbitration agreements --
c: Broad applicability --
2-5: State law --
a: Arbitration law --
b: Non-arbitration law --
C: FAA preemption of state law --
1: Evolution of case law on FAA preemption --
2-6: Federal arbitration law as (non-preemptive) procedural law --
2-7: Federal arbitration law as (preemptive) substantive law --
2-8: FAA creates no federal jurisdiction --
2: Preemption of state law impeding contract enforcement --
2-9: Generally --
2-10: State law prohibiting courts from enforcing arbitration agreements --
2-11: State law prohibiting courts from enforcing arbitration agreements with the remedy of specific performance --
2-12: State law making arbitration agreements unenforceable with respect to certain claims --
2-13: State law making arbitration agreements in certain types of transactions unenforceable --
2-14: State law raising the standard of assent for contract formation --
3: Choice-of-law clauses --
2-15: Introduction --
2-16: Volt case --
2-17: Mastrobuono case --
4: Insurance arbitration --
2-18: McCarran-Ferguson and the FAA --
D: Formation of enforceable arbitration agreements --
1: Separability --
2-19: Prima paint case --
2-20: Buckeye case --
2-21: Applications of separability --
2: Formation --
2-22: Mutual manifestations of assent --
a: Contract law's objective approach --
b: Recurring fact patterns --
2-23: Consideration --
3: Contract law defenses to enforcement --
2-24: Defenses subject to separability doctrine --
2-25: Unconscionability --
a: Generally --
b: FAA's constraint on the scope of the unconscionability doctrine --
c: Arbitration organizations' policing against unconscionability --
d: Public policy and child custody --
2-26: Waiver of the right to arbitrate --
4: Non-contract law defenses to enforcement: federal statutory claims and public policy --
2-27: Toward universal arbitrability --
2-28: Current in arbitrability --
a: Simple in arbitrability --
1: Labor arbitration --
2: Automobile dealers and military personnel --
b: Arbitrability with strings attached: the effectively vindicate doctrine --
E: Interpretation of arbitration agreements --
1: Contractual arbitrability --
2-29: Introduction --
2-30: Generally decided by courts --
2-31: Contractual and non-contractual approaches --
2: Multi-party disputes --
2-32: Claims by or against those not party to the arbitration agreement --
a: Party plaintiff vs non-party defendant --
b: Non-party plaintiff vs party defendant --
2-33: Consolidation of, and stays pending, related proceedings --
2-34: Class actions --
3: Arbitration procedure --
2-35: Overview --
2-36: Pre-hearing --
a: Selection of arbitrator(s) --
1: Methods of selection --
2: Arbitrator fees --
3: Judicial and regulatory constraints on party selection of arbitrator(s) --
b: Pleadings --
c: Filing fees (and un-administered arbitration) --
d: Discovery --
2-37: Hearing --
a: General comparison with trial --
b: Role of lawyers --
c: Rules of evidence --
d: No hearing; dispositive motions --
e: Written awards; reasoned opinions --
2-38: Remedies --
a: Determined by contract, within limitations --
1: Generally determined by contract; the Mastrobuono case --
2: Limitations on contract; the book case --
b: Typical contract terms --
c: Consequences of limiting remedies in arbitration --
4: Governing substantive law, if any --
2-39: Substantive law applied in arbitration --
F: Effect of arbitration award --
1: Enforcement of arbitration award --
2-40: Confirmation --
2-41: Claim preclusion (res judicata) --
a: Generally applicable --
b: Labor exception --
2-42: Issue preclusion (collateral estoppel) --
2: Vacatur of arbitration award --
2-43: Introduction --
a: Vacatur is rare --
b: Statutory and non-statutory grounds --
2-44: Statutory grounds --
a: Corruption, fraud or undue means --
b: Evident partiality or corruption --
c: Fundamentally fair hearing --
d: Exceeded powers --
2-45: Non-statutory grounds --
a: Error of law, including manifest disregard --
1: Narrow ground for Vacatur --
2: Recent expansion --
b: Public policy --
c: Grounds created by contract --
2-46: Federal preemption of state law --
a: State grounds for Vacatur broader than federal --
b: State grounds for Vacatur narrower than federal --
G: International arbitration --
2-47: Introduction: public law arbitration and commercial arbitration --
2-48: New York convention --
a: Basic provisions --
b: Effect of United States ratification --
c: Significance --
2-49: Practice of international commercial arbitration --
H: Employment arbitration and labor arbitration --
2-50: Conventional distinction between "employment" and "labor" --
2-51: FAA's exclusion of certain "contracts of employment" --
2-52: Employment arbitration --
2-53: Labor arbitration --
a: LMRA rather than FAA --
b: Practice of labor arbitration --
1: Two peculiarities --
2: Labor law and CBAs --
c: Few arbitrable claims --
1: Law --
2: Union, not employee, controls arbitration --
3: Narrowly drafted arbitration clauses --
d: Interest arbitration --
I: Processes similar to arbitration --
2-54: Private judging ("rent-a-judge") --
2-55: Non-contractual, yet binding, arbitration --
a: Introduction --
b: Examples --
1: Federal programs --
2: Government employees-federal --
3: Government employees-state and local --
4: Railway Labor Act --
5: State "lemon" laws --
6: State auto insurance laws --
7: Attorney fee disputes. 3: Negotiation --
A: Negotiation contexts --
3-1: Dispute negotiation and transactional negotiation --
3-2: Dispute negotiation and lawyers; settlement negotiation defined --
3-3: Settlement negotiation and the shadow of the law --
3-4: Bilateral monopoly of settlement negotiation --
B: Settlement/litigation choice --
3-5: Valuing a case --
a: Introduction to case valuation --
b: Factors lawyers and clients should consider in valuing a case --
c: Timing of the settlement/litigation choice --
d: Risk aversion and diversification --
1: Risk aversion --
2: Diversification --
e: Expected value, BATNA and the bottom line --
f: Psychological barriers to valuing a case accurately --
1: Availability bias --
2: Anchoring bias --
3: Egocentric biases --
4: Overconfidence bias --
g: Valuation of criminal cases --
3-6: Disagreements between lawyer and client about the settlement/litigation choice --
a: Generally --
b: Legal fees --
1: Hourly billing --
2: Contingency fees --
3: Retainers and other fixed-fees (especially in criminal practice) --
4: Legal fees paid through liability insurance --
c: Professional responsibility --
C: Negotiation theory --
3-7: Zero-sum and positive-sum --
3-8: Zero-sum (distributive) negotiation --
3-9: Positive-sum (integrative) negotiation --
a: Example on the time value of money --
b: Importance of multiple issues --
3-10: Positive-sum (integrative) negotiation is not always worthwhile, or even possible --
3-11: Bottom lines and settlement zones --
a: Case valuations determine bottom lines which determine settlement zones --
b: Predictions about the results of litigation --
1: Predictions that usually (but not always) result in a settlement zone --
2: Predictions less likely to result in a settlement zone: cases of over-optimism --
c: Conclusion --
3-12: Settlement zone does not ensure settlement (barriers to settlement) --
a: Ignorance of settlement zone's existence or boundaries --
b: Dividing the value created by settlement --
3-13: Bottom lines and settlement zones in positive-sum (integrative) negotiation --
D: Approaches to negotiation --
3-14: Terminology --
1: Adversarial/competitive approach --
3-15: Opening offers --
3-16: Few and small concessions --
3-17: False concessions --
3-18: Concession tricks and escalation tactics --
3-19: Deception and information --
3-20: Misinformation about bottom lines and the strength of your case --
a: Generally --
b: Lying about one's bottom line --
c: Projecting confidence in one's case and lack of interest in settling --
d: Effect of misinformation about bottom lines --
3-21: Psychological warfare --
a: Anger, threats, ridicule, accusation and intimidation --
b: Negotiate on your own turf --
c: Outnumber your counterparts --
d: Negotiate when you have time and your counterpart does not --
e: Lack of authority --
f: Locked into position --
g: Feign irrationality --
h: Wolf in sheep's clothing --
3-22: Drawbacks of the adversarial/competitive approach --
2: Cooperative approach and the prisoner's dilemma --
3-23: Cooperative approach --
3-24: Prisoner's dilemma and the importance of reputation --
a: Prisoner's dilemma --
b: Importance of reputation and the incentive to cooperate --
3-25: Tactics for a cooperative lawyer with an adversarial/competitive counterpart --
3: Problem-solving approach --
3-26: Overview of problem-solving --
a: Positive-sum --
b: Coinciding interests (with a tax law example) --
c: Logrolling multiple issues --
d: Tactics listed --
3-27: Interests, not positions --
3-28: Communicating your side's interests --
3-29: Variety of solutions --
3-30: Drawbacks of the problem-solving approach --
4: Gender, culture, race and ethnicity --
3-31: Gender --
3-32: Culture, race and ethnicity --
E: Preparing for negotiation --
3-33: Introduction --
3-34: Identifying your client's interests, bottom line and specific goals --
3-35: Identifying other party's interests, bottom line and specific goals --
3-36: Adjusting during negotiation --
a: Adjusting approaches during negotiation --
b: Adjusting your bottom line during negotiation --
3-37: Specific preparations --
F: Law governing settlement --
3-38: Criminal and tort law; "good faith" in negotiation --
3-39: Sales law --
a: Legal effects of releases and settlement agreements --
1: Releases --
2: Settlement agreements --
b: Grounds for non-enforcement --
1: Duress and unconscionability --
2: Misrepresentation and mistake --
3: Requirement of a writing --
4: Public policy --
c: Entering judgment on settlement (consent decree) --
d: Plea agreements --
3-40: Agency law --
3-41: Multiple parties: indemnity, contribution and Mary Carter agreements --
3-42: Confidentiality --
a: Generally --
b: Confidentiality agreements prior to or during litigation --
c: Rules of evidence and discovery --
d: Confidentiality clauses in settlement agreements --
G: Settlement/litigation choice: broader perspectives --
3-43: Normative views on the prevalence of settlement --
3-44: Resources --
3-45: Dispute resolution vs public justice. 4: Mediation And Other Processes In Aid Of Negotiation --
A: Overview --
4-1: Mediation's popularity --
4-2: Mediation defined --
4-3: Dispute mediation and transactional mediation --
4-4: Mandatory mediation and voluntary mediation --
B: Goals of dispute mediation --
4-5: Generally --
4-6: Settle cases --
4-7: Positive-sum or problem-solving --
4-8: Moral growth --
C: Mediation process --
4-9: Goals shape process --
4-10: Mediation process generally --
a: Participants --
b: Starting to mediate --
c: Joint sessions, private caucuses and shuttle diplomacy --
d: Facilitating communication --
1: Direct communication --
2: Indirect communication --
e: Settlement offers --
f: Agreements --
4-11: Identifying settlement zones and overcoming barriers to settlement --
4-12: Positive-sum --
a: In general --
b: Coinciding interests --
c: Logrolling multiple issues --
d: Trusted intermediary combining information --
4-13: Evaluation by the mediator --
a: Appeal of evaluation --
b: Concerns about evaluation --
1: Interests vs rights --
2: Is "evaluative mediation" an oxymoron? --
3: Mediator's credibility --
c: Mediator's evaluation given to the court --
4-14: Broad or narrow scope of issues --
4-15: Party self-determination and mediator impartiality --
4-16: Mediated settlement agreement --
a: Practice, including the single-text approach --
b: Enforceability --
D: Mediation contexts --
4-17: Family --
4-18: Labor and employment --
4-19: Community --
4-20: Business --
4-21: Public law (including environmental) --
4-22: Any civil case --
4-23: Criminal cases --
E: Representing clients in mediation --
4-24: Whether to mediate --
4-25: Preparing for mediation --
4-26: During mediation --
F: Law governing mediation --
4-27: Mediators' professional duties --
a: Overview --
b: Liability suits against mediators --
c: Occupational licensing: who may mediate? --
1: Mandatory vs voluntary --
2: Lawyer-mediators --
3: Non-lawyer mediators --
d: Private duties (including ethical standards) --
4-28: Confidentiality --
a: Generally --
b: Confidentiality agreements prior to or during litigation --
c: Rules of evidence and discovery --
d: Mediation privilege --
e: Confidentiality clauses in settlement agreements --
4-29: Agreements to mediate --
4-30: Mandatory mediation --
a: Generally --
b: Policy arguments for and against --
c: Who must participate? --
d: Good faith --
e: Additional pressures to settle --
f: Settlement conference as mediation --
G: Other processes in aid of negotiation --
4-31: Introduction to other processes --
a: Various processes providing non-binding adjudication or evaluation --
b: Defining terms --
1: Non-binding adjudication --
2: Evaluation --
4-32: Non-binding arbitration --
4-33: Neutral evaluation --
4-34: Mini-trial --
4-35: Summary jury trial --
4-36: Arguments for and against making these processes mandatory --
a: Appeal of mandatory non-binding adjudication and evaluation --
b: Concerns about mandating non-binding adjudication and evaluation --
Appendix A: Federal Arbitration Act --
Appendix B: New York Convention --
Table of cases --
Index.
Series Title: Concise hornbook series.
Other Titles: Alternative dispute resolution
Ware's principles of alternative dispute resolution
Responsibility: by Stephen J. Ware, Professor of Law, University of Kansas.

Abstract:

Provides a clear and reliable statement of the law and concepts central to ADR (arbitration, negotiation, mediation and other processes). Its thorough coverage of arbitration law renders this  Read more...

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   schema:description "Preface -- Note to teachers -- Acknowledgments -- Chapter 1: Introduction -- 1-1: Overview -- 1-2: Disputes -- 1-3: Resolution of disputes -- 1-4: Processes of dispute resolution -- 1-5: Definitions of litigation and ADR -- a: ADR as alternatives to litigation -- b: Litigation as the default process -- 1-6: Introductions to major ADR processes -- a: Negotiation -- b: Mediation and other processes in aid of negotiation -- c: Arbitration -- 1-7: Basic division within ADR: arbitration vs everything else -- a: All ADR processes can produce binding results -- 1: Negotiation -- 2: Mediation and other processes in aid of negotiation -- 3: Arbitration -- b: Arbitration is the only ADR process that can produce binding results without a post-dispute contract -- c: Arbitration or litigation casts the shadow in which negotiation and processes in aid of it occur -- d: Implications for categorizing and comparing processes -- 1-8: Broader perspectives on ADR -- a: ADR diversity -- b: Cool and warm themes; the cost and quality of dispute resolution -- c: Lawyers and ADR -- Chapter 2: Arbitration And Similar Processes -- A: Overview -- 2-1: Arbitration defined -- 2-2: Contractual arbitration and non-contractual arbitration; constitutional right to jury trial -- 2-3: Arbitration law summarized -- a: Post-dispute and pre-dispute agreements to arbitrate -- b: Enforcement of arbitration agreements -- c: Arbitration process -- d: Enforcement of arbitrator's decision or "award" -- B: Sources of contemporary American arbitration law -- 2-4: Federal law -- a: Pro-contract -- b: Court orders to arbitrate; specific performance of arbitration agreements -- c: Broad applicability -- 2-5: State law -- a: Arbitration law -- b: Non-arbitration law -- C: FAA preemption of state law -- 1: Evolution of case law on FAA preemption -- 2-6: Federal arbitration law as (non-preemptive) procedural law -- 2-7: Federal arbitration law as (preemptive) substantive law -- 2-8: FAA creates no federal jurisdiction -- 2: Preemption of state law impeding contract enforcement -- 2-9: Generally -- 2-10: State law prohibiting courts from enforcing arbitration agreements -- 2-11: State law prohibiting courts from enforcing arbitration agreements with the remedy of specific performance -- 2-12: State law making arbitration agreements unenforceable with respect to certain claims -- 2-13: State law making arbitration agreements in certain types of transactions unenforceable -- 2-14: State law raising the standard of assent for contract formation -- 3: Choice-of-law clauses -- 2-15: Introduction -- 2-16: Volt case -- 2-17: Mastrobuono case -- 4: Insurance arbitration -- 2-18: McCarran-Ferguson and the FAA -- D: Formation of enforceable arbitration agreements -- 1: Separability -- 2-19: Prima paint case -- 2-20: Buckeye case -- 2-21: Applications of separability -- 2: Formation -- 2-22: Mutual manifestations of assent -- a: Contract law's objective approach -- b: Recurring fact patterns -- 2-23: Consideration -- 3: Contract law defenses to enforcement -- 2-24: Defenses subject to separability doctrine -- 2-25: Unconscionability -- a: Generally -- b: FAA's constraint on the scope of the unconscionability doctrine -- c: Arbitration organizations' policing against unconscionability -- d: Public policy and child custody -- 2-26: Waiver of the right to arbitrate -- 4: Non-contract law defenses to enforcement: federal statutory claims and public policy -- 2-27: Toward universal arbitrability -- 2-28: Current in arbitrability -- a: Simple in arbitrability -- 1: Labor arbitration -- 2: Automobile dealers and military personnel -- b: Arbitrability with strings attached: the effectively vindicate doctrine -- E: Interpretation of arbitration agreements -- 1: Contractual arbitrability -- 2-29: Introduction -- 2-30: Generally decided by courts -- 2-31: Contractual and non-contractual approaches -- 2: Multi-party disputes -- 2-32: Claims by or against those not party to the arbitration agreement -- a: Party plaintiff vs non-party defendant -- b: Non-party plaintiff vs party defendant -- 2-33: Consolidation of, and stays pending, related proceedings -- 2-34: Class actions -- 3: Arbitration procedure -- 2-35: Overview -- 2-36: Pre-hearing -- a: Selection of arbitrator(s) -- 1: Methods of selection -- 2: Arbitrator fees -- 3: Judicial and regulatory constraints on party selection of arbitrator(s) -- b: Pleadings -- c: Filing fees (and un-administered arbitration) -- d: Discovery -- 2-37: Hearing -- a: General comparison with trial -- b: Role of lawyers -- c: Rules of evidence -- d: No hearing; dispositive motions -- e: Written awards; reasoned opinions -- 2-38: Remedies -- a: Determined by contract, within limitations -- 1: Generally determined by contract; the Mastrobuono case -- 2: Limitations on contract; the book case -- b: Typical contract terms -- c: Consequences of limiting remedies in arbitration -- 4: Governing substantive law, if any -- 2-39: Substantive law applied in arbitration -- F: Effect of arbitration award -- 1: Enforcement of arbitration award -- 2-40: Confirmation -- 2-41: Claim preclusion (res judicata) -- a: Generally applicable -- b: Labor exception -- 2-42: Issue preclusion (collateral estoppel) -- 2: Vacatur of arbitration award -- 2-43: Introduction -- a: Vacatur is rare -- b: Statutory and non-statutory grounds -- 2-44: Statutory grounds -- a: Corruption, fraud or undue means -- b: Evident partiality or corruption -- c: Fundamentally fair hearing -- d: Exceeded powers -- 2-45: Non-statutory grounds -- a: Error of law, including manifest disregard -- 1: Narrow ground for Vacatur -- 2: Recent expansion -- b: Public policy -- c: Grounds created by contract -- 2-46: Federal preemption of state law -- a: State grounds for Vacatur broader than federal -- b: State grounds for Vacatur narrower than federal -- G: International arbitration -- 2-47: Introduction: public law arbitration and commercial arbitration -- 2-48: New York convention -- a: Basic provisions -- b: Effect of United States ratification -- c: Significance -- 2-49: Practice of international commercial arbitration -- H: Employment arbitration and labor arbitration -- 2-50: Conventional distinction between "employment" and "labor" -- 2-51: FAA's exclusion of certain "contracts of employment" -- 2-52: Employment arbitration -- 2-53: Labor arbitration -- a: LMRA rather than FAA -- b: Practice of labor arbitration -- 1: Two peculiarities -- 2: Labor law and CBAs -- c: Few arbitrable claims -- 1: Law -- 2: Union, not employee, controls arbitration -- 3: Narrowly drafted arbitration clauses -- d: Interest arbitration -- I: Processes similar to arbitration -- 2-54: Private judging ("rent-a-judge") -- 2-55: Non-contractual, yet binding, arbitration -- a: Introduction -- b: Examples -- 1: Federal programs -- 2: Government employees-federal -- 3: Government employees-state and local -- 4: Railway Labor Act -- 5: State "lemon" laws -- 6: State auto insurance laws -- 7: Attorney fee disputes."@en ;
   schema:description "4: Mediation And Other Processes In Aid Of Negotiation -- A: Overview -- 4-1: Mediation's popularity -- 4-2: Mediation defined -- 4-3: Dispute mediation and transactional mediation -- 4-4: Mandatory mediation and voluntary mediation -- B: Goals of dispute mediation -- 4-5: Generally -- 4-6: Settle cases -- 4-7: Positive-sum or problem-solving -- 4-8: Moral growth -- C: Mediation process -- 4-9: Goals shape process -- 4-10: Mediation process generally -- a: Participants -- b: Starting to mediate -- c: Joint sessions, private caucuses and shuttle diplomacy -- d: Facilitating communication -- 1: Direct communication -- 2: Indirect communication -- e: Settlement offers -- f: Agreements -- 4-11: Identifying settlement zones and overcoming barriers to settlement -- 4-12: Positive-sum -- a: In general -- b: Coinciding interests -- c: Logrolling multiple issues -- d: Trusted intermediary combining information -- 4-13: Evaluation by the mediator -- a: Appeal of evaluation -- b: Concerns about evaluation -- 1: Interests vs rights -- 2: Is "evaluative mediation" an oxymoron? -- 3: Mediator's credibility -- c: Mediator's evaluation given to the court -- 4-14: Broad or narrow scope of issues -- 4-15: Party self-determination and mediator impartiality -- 4-16: Mediated settlement agreement -- a: Practice, including the single-text approach -- b: Enforceability -- D: Mediation contexts -- 4-17: Family -- 4-18: Labor and employment -- 4-19: Community -- 4-20: Business -- 4-21: Public law (including environmental) -- 4-22: Any civil case -- 4-23: Criminal cases -- E: Representing clients in mediation -- 4-24: Whether to mediate -- 4-25: Preparing for mediation -- 4-26: During mediation -- F: Law governing mediation -- 4-27: Mediators' professional duties -- a: Overview -- b: Liability suits against mediators -- c: Occupational licensing: who may mediate? -- 1: Mandatory vs voluntary -- 2: Lawyer-mediators -- 3: Non-lawyer mediators -- d: Private duties (including ethical standards) -- 4-28: Confidentiality -- a: Generally -- b: Confidentiality agreements prior to or during litigation -- c: Rules of evidence and discovery -- d: Mediation privilege -- e: Confidentiality clauses in settlement agreements -- 4-29: Agreements to mediate -- 4-30: Mandatory mediation -- a: Generally -- b: Policy arguments for and against -- c: Who must participate? -- d: Good faith -- e: Additional pressures to settle -- f: Settlement conference as mediation -- G: Other processes in aid of negotiation -- 4-31: Introduction to other processes -- a: Various processes providing non-binding adjudication or evaluation -- b: Defining terms -- 1: Non-binding adjudication -- 2: Evaluation -- 4-32: Non-binding arbitration -- 4-33: Neutral evaluation -- 4-34: Mini-trial -- 4-35: Summary jury trial -- 4-36: Arguments for and against making these processes mandatory -- a: Appeal of mandatory non-binding adjudication and evaluation -- b: Concerns about mandating non-binding adjudication and evaluation -- Appendix A: Federal Arbitration Act -- Appendix B: New York Convention -- Table of cases -- Index."@en ;
   schema:description "3: Negotiation -- A: Negotiation contexts -- 3-1: Dispute negotiation and transactional negotiation -- 3-2: Dispute negotiation and lawyers; settlement negotiation defined -- 3-3: Settlement negotiation and the shadow of the law -- 3-4: Bilateral monopoly of settlement negotiation -- B: Settlement/litigation choice -- 3-5: Valuing a case -- a: Introduction to case valuation -- b: Factors lawyers and clients should consider in valuing a case -- c: Timing of the settlement/litigation choice -- d: Risk aversion and diversification -- 1: Risk aversion -- 2: Diversification -- e: Expected value, BATNA and the bottom line -- f: Psychological barriers to valuing a case accurately -- 1: Availability bias -- 2: Anchoring bias -- 3: Egocentric biases -- 4: Overconfidence bias -- g: Valuation of criminal cases -- 3-6: Disagreements between lawyer and client about the settlement/litigation choice -- a: Generally -- b: Legal fees -- 1: Hourly billing -- 2: Contingency fees -- 3: Retainers and other fixed-fees (especially in criminal practice) -- 4: Legal fees paid through liability insurance -- c: Professional responsibility -- C: Negotiation theory -- 3-7: Zero-sum and positive-sum -- 3-8: Zero-sum (distributive) negotiation -- 3-9: Positive-sum (integrative) negotiation -- a: Example on the time value of money -- b: Importance of multiple issues -- 3-10: Positive-sum (integrative) negotiation is not always worthwhile, or even possible -- 3-11: Bottom lines and settlement zones -- a: Case valuations determine bottom lines which determine settlement zones -- b: Predictions about the results of litigation -- 1: Predictions that usually (but not always) result in a settlement zone -- 2: Predictions less likely to result in a settlement zone: cases of over-optimism -- c: Conclusion -- 3-12: Settlement zone does not ensure settlement (barriers to settlement) -- a: Ignorance of settlement zone's existence or boundaries -- b: Dividing the value created by settlement -- 3-13: Bottom lines and settlement zones in positive-sum (integrative) negotiation -- D: Approaches to negotiation -- 3-14: Terminology -- 1: Adversarial/competitive approach -- 3-15: Opening offers -- 3-16: Few and small concessions -- 3-17: False concessions -- 3-18: Concession tricks and escalation tactics -- 3-19: Deception and information -- 3-20: Misinformation about bottom lines and the strength of your case -- a: Generally -- b: Lying about one's bottom line -- c: Projecting confidence in one's case and lack of interest in settling -- d: Effect of misinformation about bottom lines -- 3-21: Psychological warfare -- a: Anger, threats, ridicule, accusation and intimidation -- b: Negotiate on your own turf -- c: Outnumber your counterparts -- d: Negotiate when you have time and your counterpart does not -- e: Lack of authority -- f: Locked into position -- g: Feign irrationality -- h: Wolf in sheep's clothing -- 3-22: Drawbacks of the adversarial/competitive approach -- 2: Cooperative approach and the prisoner's dilemma -- 3-23: Cooperative approach -- 3-24: Prisoner's dilemma and the importance of reputation -- a: Prisoner's dilemma -- b: Importance of reputation and the incentive to cooperate -- 3-25: Tactics for a cooperative lawyer with an adversarial/competitive counterpart -- 3: Problem-solving approach -- 3-26: Overview of problem-solving -- a: Positive-sum -- b: Coinciding interests (with a tax law example) -- c: Logrolling multiple issues -- d: Tactics listed -- 3-27: Interests, not positions -- 3-28: Communicating your side's interests -- 3-29: Variety of solutions -- 3-30: Drawbacks of the problem-solving approach -- 4: Gender, culture, race and ethnicity -- 3-31: Gender -- 3-32: Culture, race and ethnicity -- E: Preparing for negotiation -- 3-33: Introduction -- 3-34: Identifying your client's interests, bottom line and specific goals -- 3-35: Identifying other party's interests, bottom line and specific goals -- 3-36: Adjusting during negotiation -- a: Adjusting approaches during negotiation -- b: Adjusting your bottom line during negotiation -- 3-37: Specific preparations -- F: Law governing settlement -- 3-38: Criminal and tort law; "good faith" in negotiation -- 3-39: Sales law -- a: Legal effects of releases and settlement agreements -- 1: Releases -- 2: Settlement agreements -- b: Grounds for non-enforcement -- 1: Duress and unconscionability -- 2: Misrepresentation and mistake -- 3: Requirement of a writing -- 4: Public policy -- c: Entering judgment on settlement (consent decree) -- d: Plea agreements -- 3-40: Agency law -- 3-41: Multiple parties: indemnity, contribution and Mary Carter agreements -- 3-42: Confidentiality -- a: Generally -- b: Confidentiality agreements prior to or during litigation -- c: Rules of evidence and discovery -- d: Confidentiality clauses in settlement agreements -- G: Settlement/litigation choice: broader perspectives -- 3-43: Normative views on the prevalence of settlement -- 3-44: Resources -- 3-45: Dispute resolution vs public justice."@en ;
   schema:description "From the Preface: The term "Alternative Dispute Resolution" is still fairly new. Prior to the 1970's, lawyers did not talk about "ADR." They did, however, practice ADR. They negotiated settlement agreements and they represented clients in arbitration. Such activities have long been performed by lawyers. Only in the last generation, though, has ADR emerged as a distinct field of study in law school. This book is an outgrowth of the emergence. This book surveys ADR. It is written with one overriding goal, to serve as a clear and reliable statement of the law and concepts central to ADR. The literature on ADR is large and growing. Not only does the ADR literature represent a wide variety of views, it represents a wide variety of approaches. Much of what is written on ADR consists of prescriptive guidance for practitioners, containing suggestions on "how to be a better mediator," for example. Other ADR writings are descriptive or empirical, in the manner of social science. Finally, some ADR writings are theoretical, even philosophical, and occasionally theological."@en ;
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