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Principles of behavior

Author: Richard W Malott; Joseph T Shane
Publisher: Boston : Pearson, [2014]
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : Seventh editionView all editions and formats
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Richard W Malott; Joseph T Shane
ISBN: 9780205959495 0205959490
OCLC Number: 847246306
Description: xx, 456 pages : illustrations ; 28 cm
Contents: Table of Contents In this Section: 1. Brief Table of Contents 2. Full Table of Contents Brief Table of Contents Basic Behavioral Contingencies Chapter 1: The Reinforcer (Positive Reinforcer) Chapter 2: Reinforcement (Positive Reinforcement) Chapter 3: Escape (Negative Reinforcement) Chapter 4: Punishment (Positive Punishment) Chapter 5: Penalty (Negative Punishment) Chapter 6: Extinction (Following Reinforcement) and Recovery (Following Punishment) Chapter 7: Differential Reinforcement and Differential Punishment Chapter 8: Shaping Motivation Chapter 9: Unlearned Reinforcers, Unlearned Aversive Stimuli, (Unconditioned Reinforcers, Unconditioned Punishers) and the Motivating Operation Chapter 10: Special Motivating Operations Chapter 11: Learned Reinforcers and Learned Aversive Stimuli (Conditioned Reinforcers and Conditioned Punishers) Stimulus Control Chapter 12: Discrimination Chapter 13: Complex Stimulus Control Chapter 14: Imitation Complex Behavioral Contingencies Chapter 15: Avoidance Chapter 16: Punishment by Prevention (Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior-- DRO) Chapter 17: Ratio Schedules Chapter 18: Interval Schedules Chapter 19: Concurrent Contingencies Chapter 20: Behavioral Chains and Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate Respondent Conditioning Chapter 22: Rule-Governed Behavior: Concepts Chapter 23: Rule-Governed Behavior: Applications Chapter 24: Rule-Governed Behavior: Theory Chapter 25: Pay for Performance Chapter 26A: Sexuality (now on DickMalott.com) Chapter 26B: Moral and Legal Control (now on DickMalott.com) Behavioral Stability Across Time and Space Chapter 27: Maintenance Chapter 28: Transfer Research Methods Chapter 29: Research Methods Jobs and Grad School Chapter 30: Jobs and Grad School (now on DickMalott.com) Full Table of Contents Basic Behavioral Contingencies Chapter 1: The Reinforcer (Positive Reinforcer) Reinforcer Behavior Behavior Analysis Behavior Analyst Repertoire Behavioral Intervention Make Sure Your Assumed Reinforcer Really Reinforces The Label "Autistic" Biological Evolution and Reinforcers Chapter 2: Reinforcement (Positive Reinforcement) Reinforcement Contingency Behavioral Contingency The "Noncontingent" Delivery of Reinforcers The Delivery of Reinforcers Before the Behavior Behavior Analysis vs. Bribery Circular Reasoning and The Error of Reification Medical-Model Myth Circular Reasoning and the Medical-Model Myth How to Talk About Behavior Reinforce Behavior, not People Reinforcer vs. Reinforcement Comments on Reinforcement Chapter 3: Escape (Negative Reinforcement) Aversive Stimulus "Aversive" vs. "Adversive" Escape Contingency Reinforcement by the Presentation of a Reinforcer vs. Reinforcement by the Removal of an Aversive Stimulus Undesirable Behavior Maintained by Reinforcement by the Removal of Aversive Conditions Functional Assessment, Not Just a Quick Fix Sick Social Cycle (Victim's Escape Model) Learning without Awareness Fear, Parsimony, and Elegance Psychiatry vs. Psychology Psychoanalysis vs. Behavior Analysis The Toothpaste Theory of Abnormal Behavior Positive and Negative Reinforcers and Positive and Negative Reinforcement Chapter 4: Punishment (Positive Punishment) Punishment Contingency Escape vs. Punishment Escape: Reinforcement by the Removal of an Aversive Condition Punishment: Punishment by the Presentation of an Aversive Condition Overcorrection Sick Social Cycle (Victim's Punishment Model) Punishment and Reinforcement Confusion between Punishment and Aggression Dependent Variable and Independent Variable Multiple-Baseline Designs Informed Consent and Social Validity Negative Reinforcement vs. Punishment The Myth of the Ineffectiveness of Punishment Chapter 5: Penalty (Negative Punishment) Penalty Contingency Response Cost Time-out Penalty vs. The Three Other Basic Behavioral Contingencies The Law of Effect Penalty and Reinforcement Penalty, Response Cost, and Time-out Reversal Designs Chapter 6: Extinction (Following Reinforcement) and Recovery (Following Punishment) Extinction Following Reinforcement Extinction Bursts and Spontaneous Recovery Extinction Following Reinforcement vs. Penalty Contingencies (Response Cost and Time-out) Recovery from Punishment Extinction vs. Satiation Extinction and Recovery Extinction after Reinforcement Extinction after Escape Training The Moral Necessity to Evaluate Interventions Recovery From Punishment vs. Spontaneous Recovery From Extinction Confounded Variables Control Condition Chapter 7: Differential Reinforcement and Differential Punishment Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA) Task Analysis Response Dimensions Response Classes The Differential-Reinforcement Procedure Differential Reinforcement vs. Reinforcement Differential Punishment Frequency Graphs Control Group Chapter 8: Shaping Shaping with Reinforcement Differential-Reinforcement vs. Shaping with Reinforcement Shaping with Punishment Variable-Outcome Shaping Fixed-Outcome Shaping vs. Variable-Outcome Shaping Shaping vs. Getting in Shape Shaping vs. Behavioral Chaining Motivation Chapter 9: Unlearned Reinforcers, Unlearned Aversive Stimuli, (Unconditioned Reinforcers, Unconditioned Punishers) and the Motivating Operation Unlearned Reinforcers and Aversive Stimuli Deprivation and Satiation The Effectiveness of Reinforcement Contingencies The Effectiveness of Penalty Contingencies Motivating Operations The Reflexive Motivating Operation The Nature of the Reinforcer or Aversive Stimulus The Premack Principle The Theory of Direct and Indirect Biological Relevance Chapter 10: Special Motivating Operations Aggression Pain-Motivated Aggression Extinction-Motivated Aggression Subtle Aggression Drug Addiction Addictive Reinforcers A Behavior-Analytic Theory of Aggression Chapter 11: Learned Reinforcers and Learned Aversive Stimuli (Conditioned Reinforcers and Conditioned Punishers) How are Learned Reinforcers Learned? Token Economy Learned Aversive Stimuli Extinction vs. the Unlearning of Learned Reinforcers and Learned Aversive Stimuli Conditional Stimulus Learned Reinforcers and Learning Language Hedonic and Instrumental Learned Reinforcers and Aversive Stimuli Proof of a Learned Reinforcer Determining the Effectiveness of Tokens as Reinforcers Stimulus Control Chapter 12: Discrimination Discrimination Training Based on Reinforcement (Positive Reinforcement) Discrimination Training Based on Escape (Negative Reinforcement) Discrimination Training Based on Punishment (Positive Punishment) Reinforcement-Based Discriminative Stimuli vs. Punishment-Based Discriminative Stimuli The Differential Reinforcement Procedure vs. The Stimulus-Discrimination Procedure Differential-Punishment and Stimulus-Discrimination Procedures Using Punishment Transfer of Training Verbal Behavior (A.K.A. Language) Prompts Requirements for Effective Discrimination Training Discriminative Stimulus vs. Before Condition Discriminative Stimulus vs. Operandum Discriminative Stimulus vs. Nondiscriminated Reinforcement Contingency Chapter 13: Complex Stimulus Control Stimulus Class, Stimulus Generalization, and Concept Training Conceptual Control and Other Concepts Discrimination vs. Generalization Stimulus Dimensions and Fading Response Shaping, Stimulus Fading, and Reinforcer Reduction Stimulus-Generalization Gradients Training with Intermittent Reinforcement Testing in Extinction Amount of Generalization vs. Amount of Discrimination Science and Objectivity Matching to Sample Stimulus Equivalence Equivalence Class vs. Stimulus Class Chapter 14: Imitation Establishing Imitation Generalized Imitation Added vs. Built-in Contingencies for Imitation The Importance of Imitation How Do You Know if it's Really Imitation? Imitation as a Prerequisite to Learning Language An Adequate Control Condition to Show Reinforcement Complex Behavioral Contingencies Chapter 15: Avoidance Avoidance Contingency Avoidance of an Aversive Condition Avoidance-of-Loss Contingency Escape vs. Avoidance Cued Avoidance Continuous-Response Avoidance Noncued Avoidance Avoidance of the Loss of a Reinforcer Avoidance of an Aversive Condition vs. Punishment By the Presentation of an Aversive Condition Differential Punishment vs. Differential Avoidance Avoidance of Loss of a Reinforcer vs. Punishment by Removal of a Reinforcer Warning Stimulus vs. Discriminative Stimulus Cued Avoidance and Conditional Aversive Stimuli Teleology Chapter 16: Punishment by Prevention (Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior-- DRO) Punishment-by-Prevention-of-Removal Contingencies Punishment-by Prevention-of-a-Reinforcer Contingencies Prevention of the Presentation of a Reinforcer vs. Removal of a Reinforcer The Four Basic Behavioral Contingencies and Their Prevention Punishment by Prevention vs. Differential Reinforcement of Other Behavior (DRO) Chapter 17: Ratio Schedules Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed-Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement The Cumulative Graph Variable-Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement Ratio Schedules of Escape and Penalty Ratio Schedules of Reinforcement and Punishment in Everyday life Discrete-Trial Procedures vs. Free-Operant Procedures Chapter 18: Interval Schedules Fixed-Interval Schedules of Reinforcement Superstition in the Pigeon Fixed-Time Schedules and Superstitious Behavior Variable-Interval Schedules of Reinforcement Extinction and Schedules of Reinforcement Interval Schedules vs. Time Schedules of Reinforcement Ratio and Interval Schedules of Reinforcement The Relation Between Rate of Responding and Rate of Reinforcement Intermittent Reinforcement and Resistance to Extinction Resistance to Extinction vs. Response Strength Chapter 19: Concurrent Contingencies Concurrent Contingencies Four Types of Concurrent Contingencies Concurrent Contingencies and the Factors that Interfere with Language Learning Biological Problems that Interfere with Language Learning Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior vs. Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior Symptom Substitution Concurrent Contingencies of Reinforcement for Physically Incompatible Responses Intervention (Treatment) Package Concurrent Contingencies and the Matching Law Chapter 20: Behavioral Chains and Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate Behavioral Chains Dual-Functioning Chained Stimuli Forward Chaining Total-Task Presentation Backward Chaining Differential Reinforcement of Low Rate (DRL) Ways to Reduce or Eliminate Undesirable Behavior The Motivating Operation Nonchained Behavioral Sequences DRL vs. FI Respondent Conditioning Chapter 22: Rule-Governed Behavior: Concepts Ivan Pavlov Respondent Conditioning Respondent vs. Operant Conditioning Respondent vs. Operant Pairing Conditioning a Phobia Higher-Order Respondent Conditioning Respondent Extinction vs. Operant Extinction Operant Treatment of Phobias Systematic Desensitization Respondent Conditioning of the Immune System Stimulus Generalization in Respondent Conditioning Conditioned Stimulus vs. Discriminative Stimulus Chapter 23: Rule-Governed Behavior: Applications Feedback vs. Praise Information Alone Does Not Reliably Influence Behavior Multiple Baselines Reinforcement of Covert Behavior vs. Rule-Governed Behavior The Shift from Rule Control to Contingency Control The Reinforceable Response Unit Why Analogs to Avoidance are not Direct-Acting Contingencies Chapter 24: Rule-Governed Behavior: Theory How Do Rules Govern Our Behavior Rule Statements as Verbal (Analog) Pairing Procedures The Myth of the Cause of Poor Self-Management The Small, But Cumulative, Outcomes The Improbable Outcomes The Truth About the Causes of Poor Self-Management What's Wrong With Small But Cumulatively Significant and Improbable Outcomes Why Do We Miss Deadlines The Secret of Performance Management The Ineffective Natural Contingency Effective Indirect-Acting Performance-Management Contingencies An Analysis of Procrastination An Interaction between the Probability and the Significance of the Outcome Can We Build a World Free of Aversive Control Chapter 25: Pay for Performance Direct-Acting or Indirect-Acting Contingency Why is this Rule-Governed Behavior The Ever-Present Deadline Analog to Reinforcement or Avoidance The Rule Statement as a Verbal Analog to a Pairing Procedure What Should You Do When Performance is Poor The Three-Contingency Model of Performance Management Chapter 26A: Sexuality (now on DickMalott.com) Sexuality I'm a Woman Trapped in a Man's Body A Man's Moves Transsexuality Higher-Order Respondent Conditioning Respondent Extinction and Operant Extinction Transgenderism: A Case Study of Moral and Legal Control Is the Behavior that Produces Sexual Reinforcers Learned or Innate? Is Gender Behavior Learned or Innate? Is the Reinforcing Value of Sexual Stimulation Learned or Unlearned (Innate)? Is the Reinforcing And Punishing Value Of Different Sources Of Sexual Stimulation Learned Or Innate? Other Data Suggesting Our Innate Sexual Flexibility If Sexual Orientation Is Not Innate, Is It Chosen? Evidence for Biological Determinism Is Homophobia Learned or Innate? Sexuality Definitions To Intervene Or Not To Intervene Chapter 26B: Moral and Legal Control (now on DickMalott.com) Goal-Directed Systems Design Contingencies for the Good Life Five Philosophical Views Of Psychology Behavioral Stability Across Time and Space Chapter 27: Maintenance The Myth of Perpetual Behavior and the Myth of Intermittent Reinforcement Setting a Behavior Trap to Maintain Performance Use Intermittent Contingencies to Maintain Performance Maintain the Contingencies and You'll Maintain Performance Perpetual-Performance Contracting What to Do after the Performance Manager Goes Home or after the Doctoral Student Finishes the Dissertation Chapter 28: Transfer Transfer of Training Reduce Stimulus Control and Increase Transfer Stimulus Generalization is Not Enough Could Rule-Governed Behavior Support Transfer of Training Modification of a Child's Multiple Behavior Problems Rule-Governed Behavior in the Classroom Training Jimmy to Self-Instruct Training for Transfer of Training Training for Covert Self-Instruction Overall Summary of Maintenance and Transfer Intervention Packages Research Methods Chapter 29: Research Methods Why Should We Do Behavior Analysis? Save the World with Behavior Analysis Understand the World with Behavior Analysis How Should We Do Behavior Analysis? How to Do a Functional Assessment Should We Do Functional Assessment? How Should We Evaluate Behavior Analysis? (Preliminaries) Social Validity Obtrusive and Unobtrusive Observation Units of Measurement Interobserver Agreement Objectivity vs. Subjectivity in Technology How Should We Evaluate Behavior Analysis? (Research Design) Case Study Simple Baseline Design Reversal Design Multiple-Baseline Design Changing-Criterion Design Alternating-Treatments Design Generality of Results Ethics Jobs and Grad School Chapter 30: Jobs and Grad School (now on DickMalott.com) Where Should I Go From Here? Where Should I NOT Go From Here? How Do I Find the Right Grad Programs? What Are Some Good MA and PhD Programs? What Are Some Good MA Programs? ABA Approved Programs What Are Some Good International Programs? What Degree Should I Get-BA, MA, EdS, MSW, or PhD? MA Jobs Where Can I Find a Job? How Do I Get Into Grad School? What Do I Do About a Low GRE? The Timetable
Responsibility: Richard W. Malott, Western Michigan University ; Joseph T. Shane, Western Michigan University.

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"As always, Malott's tone and writing style is very engaging. The storytelling examples are always very good for flushing out difficult concepts. My students love this text in general because of his Read more...

 
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