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The principles of Christian ethics

Author: Albert C Knudson
Publisher: New York ; Nashville : Abingdon-Cokesbury Press, ©1943.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Knudson, Albert C. (Albert Cornelius), 1873-1953.
Principles of Christian ethics.
New York, Nashville : Abingdon-Cokesbury press [1943]
(OCoLC)644008377
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Albert C Knudson
OCLC Number: 5957806
Notes: "War edition."
Description: 314 pages ; 24 cm
Contents: PART I. Introduction --
CHAPTER 1. The province of Christian ethics --
Distinction between Christian and philosophical ethics --
Elimination Theories --
Schopenhauer, Hartmann, Nietzsche --
Barth --
Brunner --
Absorption Theories --
W. Herrmann --
E.W. Mayer --
A. Runestam --
Supplementary Theories --
Augustine and Aquinas --
Schleiermacher --
B. Troeltsch --
H.H. Wendt --
A. Nygren --
Fundamental problems --
Relation of religion to morality --
Distinctive nature of the Christian ethic --
Adjustment of Christian ideal to necessities of civilization --
Conclusion --
Relation of Christian to philosophical ethics. CHAPTER 2. The history of Christian Ethics --
Definition of Christian ethics --
Moral teaching of Christianity its permanent element --
History as an interpreter of the Christian moral ideal --
Ethical teaching of Jesus --
Its relation to contemporary Judaism --
Principle of love --
Principle of inwardness --
Religious basis of Jesus' ethic --
Ethical emphases in early and medieval church --
Charity --
'Interim ethic' --
Legalism --
Ethical dualism --
Christian philanthropy --
Chastity --
New monastic ideal --
Dualistic philosophy --
Worldliness of church --
Penance and military service --
Meaning of penance --
Protestant attitude toward penitential system --
Early Christian attitude to war --
Militarization of Christianity --
Ethical emphases in protestantism --
The sanctity of the common life --
Social application of the Christian ethic --
Theoretical ethics --
Natural law --
Augustine --
Aquinas --
Protestant reformers --
Modern Protestantism --
Universal and comprehensive character of the Christian ethic. PART II. Presuppositions --
CHAPTER 3. The moral nature --
Three presuppositions of Christian ethic --
Meaning of the moral nature --
Hedonism --
Natural law --
Stoic law of nature --
Natural law in early and medieval church --
Natural law in protestant ethics --
Ethical value of idea of natural law --
Fundamental elements --
Distinction between right and wrong --
Idea of 'ought' --
Principle of good will --
Ideal of humanity --
Sacredness of personality --
Freedom --
Naturalistic determinism --
Theological determinism --
Metaphysical freedom and its vital Importance. CHAPTER 4. Structure of the moral nature --
Psychological origin of predisposition to evil --
Moral nature as capacity for moral experience --
Acquired moral nature --
Inherent sinfulness of man --
Universality of sin and its explanation --
Distinction between standpoint of merit and that of ideal --
Dualism of nature and grace --
Psychological factors conditioning moral life --
Ecclesiastical doctrine of sin --
Jewish theories of origin of sin --
Paul's contributions to doctrine of sin --
Pelagian, semi-Pelagian, and Arminian theories of sin --
Augustinian and Calvinistic theory of sin --
Barthian theory --
Ethical significance of Christian doctrine of sin --
Sin and moral evil --
Concupiscence --
Sensuality and pride --
Idea of the "demonic" --
Objections to doctrine of original sin --
Moral values in traditional doctrine of sin --
Religious solution of moral problem. CHAPTER 5. Conversion --
The Christian cure for pride --
The Christian cure for pessimism and despair --
Meaning of conversion --
Psychological study of conversion and its significance --
Plasticity of human nature --
Ethical conversion --
Conversion and prophetic religions --
W. James's definition of conversion --
Conversion in New Testament --
Ethical significance --
Conversion as liberating experience --
Conversion as new dynamic --
conversion as source of new moral insight --
Individualism and sectarianism of conversion --
Conversion and evangelical revival --
Decline of interest in conversion --
Universal need of conversion. PART III. The moral ideal --
CHAPTER 6. The principle of love --
Love a universal principle in personal and social world --
New Testament basis of duty of love --
Fundamental nature of love --
Different meanings of love --
Nygren's theory of love as purely giving love --
Augustine's caritas theory --
Luther's theory --
Self-Love and duties to self --
Love to others "unmotivated" --
Rejection of self-love by some Christian moralists --
Altruism and egoism --
Love to God and God's own love --
New Testament view of love to God --
Augustine's theory of relation of our love of God to self-love and love of neighbor --
Augustine's conception of God's own love --
Moral worth in objects of Christian love --
Such worth essential to moral love --
"Court duties" --
Relation of eros and agape to each other --
Brotherly love and its conditioning factors --
Presuppositions of brotherly love --
The moral ideal --
Orders of creation. CHAPTER 7. The principle of perfection --
Two historic attempts to reduce Christian ethic to unitary principle --
Objection to Nygren's agape theory --
Relation of love and perfection to each other --
Principle of perfection in New Testament --
Self-renunciation --
Perfection and self-denial in Jesus' teaching --
Christian renunciation in relation to Buddhism and hedonism --
Basis and value of Christian self-denial --
Asceticism --
Distinction between asceticism and general principle of renunciation --
Jesus and asceticism --
Monasticism --
Karl Adam's interpretation of monastic asceticism --
Sinlessness --
Different degrees of sinless perfection --
Relative sinlessness and its possibility in this life --
Mistaken views of sin --
William Law and perfectionism --
Self-realization --
Meaning and value of self-realization from religious standpoint --
Perils in perfectionism. CHAPTER 8. Christian character --
Distinction between moral character and moral principles --
Example of Jesus --
Relativity of Jesus' teaching and conduct --
Uniqueness of his mission and its bearing on his moral authority --
The natural Life --
Alleged antithesis between Christian and natural morality --
Distinctive elements in Christian character --
Relation of Christian ethic to moral ideals of Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans --
The Christian virtues --
Lists of virtues in New Testament and their relation to cardinal virtues of Greeks --
Brotherly love --
Purity --
Humility --
Patience --
Fidelity --
Hope --
Distinctive elements in cardinal Christian virtues --
Early Christianity and world. PART IV. Practical application --
CHAPTER 9. The individual --
Duties included under ethics of individual --
Duties to self --
Theological objection to duties to self --
Duties and rights --
Denial of natural rights by philosophical and theological moralists --
Self -preservation and self-realization --
Naturalistic and theistic basis of duty to preserve self --
Duty of self-realization --
The Christian's "calling" in its historical development --
Criticism of protestant conception of vocation --
Conflict of duties --
Works of supererogation --
Morally indifferent spheres of conduct --
Right to life and self-defense --
Right to eternal life --
Suicide --
Self-defense a Christian right --
Right to freedom --
Limitation of freedom --
Right to truth --
Right to property. CHAPTER 10. The family --
The orders of creation and social gospel --
Divisions of social ethics --
Ethical significance of family --
Distinctiveness of human family --
Origin of family --
Criticisms of Christian influence on family and replies to them --
Family as training school of moral life --
The moral validity of marriage --
Free choice of couple concerned --
Necessity of marriage ceremony --
Monogamy --
Influence of Christianity on development of monogamy --
Arguments in favor of monogamy --
Divorce --
The Christian ideal --
History of Christian attitude toward divorce --
Moral justification of divorce --
Birth Control --
Objections to it --
Considerations in support of it. CHAPTER 11. The state and war --
The state as an order of creation --
Origin of the state --
The state both natural and artificial --
Psychological roots of the state --
Essential nature of the state --
The state as power --
The state as instrument of justice --
Sovereignty of state --
Penal law --
Two moral grounds of the penal law --
Conception of wrongdoing as a disease --
Punishment and guilt --
Punishment as function of state --
Purpose of punishment --
Capital punishment --
War and the Christian ideal --
Treitschke's view --
Is war inevitable? --
Naturalistic and theological grounds for affirmative answer --
Possibility of a warless world --
Can there be a just war? --
Meaning of just war --
Christian aversion to shedding of blood --
Futility of war --
Principle of non-resistance --
Distinction between army and police force --
Resistance to evil or anarchy --
Methods of promoting peace --
Growth of peace sentiment --
Absolute pacifism --
Removal of economic and nationalistic causes of war --
League of nations. CHAPTER 12. The church and culture --
Church and culture here treated as independent phases of community life --
Nature of church --
Church as order of creation --
Ethical function of church --
Unity of church --
Catholic and protestant conceptions of church unity --
Schisms --
Theocratic imperialism --
Persecution --
Objections to it --
Ecclesiastical discipline --
Its relation to persecution --
Other evil results --
Sacrament of penance --
Value of church discipline --
Church and state --
Causes of conflicts between them --
Rights of the church --
Separation of church and state --
State absolutism --
Distinction between church and other subordinate social unions --
The church and tyranny --
Culture --
Meaning of culture --
Civilization --
Culture as order of creation --
Its relation to religion --
Science and religion --
Art and religion --
Education. CHAPTER 13. The economic order --
Nature and purpose of economic order --
An order of creation --
Pessimistic view --
Optimistic view --
Philosophical basis of two different views of economic order --
Consumption and distribution --
Christian teaching concerning consumption --
Economic equality --
Charity as a cure for poverty and reasons for its failure --
Transition from moral and voluntary to legislative and compulsory methods of reform --
Justice as moral basis of social change --
Labor --
Work a duty --
Dignity of labor --
Three functions of labor emphasized by reformation --
Unsolved labor problems --
Capital and capitalism --
Meaning of capital --
Attitude toward wealth in New Testament --
Opposition to interest or usury --
Capitalism, its merits and defects --
Christian attitude toward economic system and its reform. PART V. Conclusion --
CHAPTER 14. The validity of Christian ethics --
Philosophical justification of moral life --
Divine will as Ground of Christian ethics --
Assumed antithesis between theocentric and autonomous morality --
Divine will not an independent source of moral insight --
Schopenhauer and Hartmann --
Prophetic moralization of religion and its hearing on principle of moral autonomy --
General moral skepticism --
Different methods of discrediting idea of duty --
Similar arguments would lead to intellectual skepticism --
Self-verification the ultimate basis of all spiritual ideals --
Ethic of power --
Nietzsche's rejection of the Christian ethic --
His immoralism --
The pragmatic test --
Criticisms of Christian ethic: lack of virility, antimoralism, sacrifice of intellectual and moral integrity, false spirituality, irrelevance --
Replies to these criticisms --
Distinction between Christian ideal and practice --
Humanitarian influence of Christianity and its apologetic significance --
Religious basis of Christian ethic --
Charge of otherworldliness --
Christian faith and Christian ethic support each other.
Responsibility: Albert C. Knudson.

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    schema:description "PART IV. Practical application -- CHAPTER 9. The individual -- Duties included under ethics of individual -- Duties to self -- Theological objection to duties to self -- Duties and rights -- Denial of natural rights by philosophical and theological moralists -- Self -preservation and self-realization -- Naturalistic and theistic basis of duty to preserve self -- Duty of self-realization -- The Christian's "calling" in its historical development -- Criticism of protestant conception of vocation -- Conflict of duties -- Works of supererogation -- Morally indifferent spheres of conduct -- Right to life and self-defense -- Right to eternal life -- Suicide -- Self-defense a Christian right -- Right to freedom -- Limitation of freedom -- Right to truth -- Right to property."@en ;
    schema:description "PART I. Introduction -- CHAPTER 1. The province of Christian ethics -- Distinction between Christian and philosophical ethics -- Elimination Theories -- Schopenhauer, Hartmann, Nietzsche -- Barth -- Brunner -- Absorption Theories -- W. Herrmann -- E.W. Mayer -- A. Runestam -- Supplementary Theories -- Augustine and Aquinas -- Schleiermacher -- B. Troeltsch -- H.H. Wendt -- A. Nygren -- Fundamental problems -- Relation of religion to morality -- Distinctive nature of the Christian ethic -- Adjustment of Christian ideal to necessities of civilization -- Conclusion -- Relation of Christian to philosophical ethics."@en ;
    schema:description "CHAPTER 5. Conversion -- The Christian cure for pride -- The Christian cure for pessimism and despair -- Meaning of conversion -- Psychological study of conversion and its significance -- Plasticity of human nature -- Ethical conversion -- Conversion and prophetic religions -- W. James's definition of conversion -- Conversion in New Testament -- Ethical significance -- Conversion as liberating experience -- Conversion as new dynamic -- conversion as source of new moral insight -- Individualism and sectarianism of conversion -- Conversion and evangelical revival -- Decline of interest in conversion -- Universal need of conversion."@en ;
    schema:description "CHAPTER 7. The principle of perfection -- Two historic attempts to reduce Christian ethic to unitary principle -- Objection to Nygren's agape theory -- Relation of love and perfection to each other -- Principle of perfection in New Testament -- Self-renunciation -- Perfection and self-denial in Jesus' teaching -- Christian renunciation in relation to Buddhism and hedonism -- Basis and value of Christian self-denial -- Asceticism -- Distinction between asceticism and general principle of renunciation -- Jesus and asceticism -- Monasticism -- Karl Adam's interpretation of monastic asceticism -- Sinlessness -- Different degrees of sinless perfection -- Relative sinlessness and its possibility in this life -- Mistaken views of sin -- William Law and perfectionism -- Self-realization -- Meaning and value of self-realization from religious standpoint -- Perils in perfectionism."@en ;
    schema:description "CHAPTER 13. The economic order -- Nature and purpose of economic order -- An order of creation -- Pessimistic view -- Optimistic view -- Philosophical basis of two different views of economic order -- Consumption and distribution -- Christian teaching concerning consumption -- Economic equality -- Charity as a cure for poverty and reasons for its failure -- Transition from moral and voluntary to legislative and compulsory methods of reform -- Justice as moral basis of social change -- Labor -- Work a duty -- Dignity of labor -- Three functions of labor emphasized by reformation -- Unsolved labor problems -- Capital and capitalism -- Meaning of capital -- Attitude toward wealth in New Testament -- Opposition to interest or usury -- Capitalism, its merits and defects -- Christian attitude toward economic system and its reform."@en ;
    schema:description "CHAPTER 2. The history of Christian Ethics -- Definition of Christian ethics -- Moral teaching of Christianity its permanent element -- History as an interpreter of the Christian moral ideal -- Ethical teaching of Jesus -- Its relation to contemporary Judaism -- Principle of love -- Principle of inwardness -- Religious basis of Jesus' ethic -- Ethical emphases in early and medieval church -- Charity -- 'Interim ethic' -- Legalism -- Ethical dualism -- Christian philanthropy -- Chastity -- New monastic ideal -- Dualistic philosophy -- Worldliness of church -- Penance and military service -- Meaning of penance -- Protestant attitude toward penitential system -- Early Christian attitude to war -- Militarization of Christianity -- Ethical emphases in protestantism -- The sanctity of the common life -- Social application of the Christian ethic -- Theoretical ethics -- Natural law -- Augustine -- Aquinas -- Protestant reformers -- Modern Protestantism -- Universal and comprehensive character of the Christian ethic."@en ;
    schema:description "CHAPTER 10. The family -- The orders of creation and social gospel -- Divisions of social ethics -- Ethical significance of family -- Distinctiveness of human family -- Origin of family -- Criticisms of Christian influence on family and replies to them -- Family as training school of moral life -- The moral validity of marriage -- Free choice of couple concerned -- Necessity of marriage ceremony -- Monogamy -- Influence of Christianity on development of monogamy -- Arguments in favor of monogamy -- Divorce -- The Christian ideal -- History of Christian attitude toward divorce -- Moral justification of divorce -- Birth Control -- Objections to it -- Considerations in support of it."@en ;
    schema:description "CHAPTER 8. Christian character -- Distinction between moral character and moral principles -- Example of Jesus -- Relativity of Jesus' teaching and conduct -- Uniqueness of his mission and its bearing on his moral authority -- The natural Life -- Alleged antithesis between Christian and natural morality -- Distinctive elements in Christian character -- Relation of Christian ethic to moral ideals of Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans -- The Christian virtues -- Lists of virtues in New Testament and their relation to cardinal virtues of Greeks -- Brotherly love -- Purity -- Humility -- Patience -- Fidelity -- Hope -- Distinctive elements in cardinal Christian virtues -- Early Christianity and world."@en ;
    schema:description "PART V. Conclusion -- CHAPTER 14. The validity of Christian ethics -- Philosophical justification of moral life -- Divine will as Ground of Christian ethics -- Assumed antithesis between theocentric and autonomous morality -- Divine will not an independent source of moral insight -- Schopenhauer and Hartmann -- Prophetic moralization of religion and its hearing on principle of moral autonomy -- General moral skepticism -- Different methods of discrediting idea of duty -- Similar arguments would lead to intellectual skepticism -- Self-verification the ultimate basis of all spiritual ideals -- Ethic of power -- Nietzsche's rejection of the Christian ethic -- His immoralism -- The pragmatic test -- Criticisms of Christian ethic: lack of virility, antimoralism, sacrifice of intellectual and moral integrity, false spirituality, irrelevance -- Replies to these criticisms -- Distinction between Christian ideal and practice -- Humanitarian influence of Christianity and its apologetic significance -- Religious basis of Christian ethic -- Charge of otherworldliness -- Christian faith and Christian ethic support each other."@en ;
    schema:description "CHAPTER 11. The state and war -- The state as an order of creation -- Origin of the state -- The state both natural and artificial -- Psychological roots of the state -- Essential nature of the state -- The state as power -- The state as instrument of justice -- Sovereignty of state -- Penal law -- Two moral grounds of the penal law -- Conception of wrongdoing as a disease -- Punishment and guilt -- Punishment as function of state -- Purpose of punishment -- Capital punishment -- War and the Christian ideal -- Treitschke's view -- Is war inevitable? -- Naturalistic and theological grounds for affirmative answer -- Possibility of a warless world -- Can there be a just war? -- Meaning of just war -- Christian aversion to shedding of blood -- Futility of war -- Principle of non-resistance -- Distinction between army and police force -- Resistance to evil or anarchy -- Methods of promoting peace -- Growth of peace sentiment -- Absolute pacifism -- Removal of economic and nationalistic causes of war -- League of nations."@en ;
    schema:description "CHAPTER 4. Structure of the moral nature -- Psychological origin of predisposition to evil -- Moral nature as capacity for moral experience -- Acquired moral nature -- Inherent sinfulness of man -- Universality of sin and its explanation -- Distinction between standpoint of merit and that of ideal -- Dualism of nature and grace -- Psychological factors conditioning moral life -- Ecclesiastical doctrine of sin -- Jewish theories of origin of sin -- Paul's contributions to doctrine of sin -- Pelagian, semi-Pelagian, and Arminian theories of sin -- Augustinian and Calvinistic theory of sin -- Barthian theory -- Ethical significance of Christian doctrine of sin -- Sin and moral evil -- Concupiscence -- Sensuality and pride -- Idea of the "demonic" -- Objections to doctrine of original sin -- Moral values in traditional doctrine of sin -- Religious solution of moral problem."@en ;
    schema:description "PART II. Presuppositions -- CHAPTER 3. The moral nature -- Three presuppositions of Christian ethic -- Meaning of the moral nature -- Hedonism -- Natural law -- Stoic law of nature -- Natural law in early and medieval church -- Natural law in protestant ethics -- Ethical value of idea of natural law -- Fundamental elements -- Distinction between right and wrong -- Idea of 'ought' -- Principle of good will -- Ideal of humanity -- Sacredness of personality -- Freedom -- Naturalistic determinism -- Theological determinism -- Metaphysical freedom and its vital Importance."@en ;
    schema:description "PART III. The moral ideal -- CHAPTER 6. The principle of love -- Love a universal principle in personal and social world -- New Testament basis of duty of love -- Fundamental nature of love -- Different meanings of love -- Nygren's theory of love as purely giving love -- Augustine's caritas theory -- Luther's theory -- Self-Love and duties to self -- Love to others "unmotivated" -- Rejection of self-love by some Christian moralists -- Altruism and egoism -- Love to God and God's own love -- New Testament view of love to God -- Augustine's theory of relation of our love of God to self-love and love of neighbor -- Augustine's conception of God's own love -- Moral worth in objects of Christian love -- Such worth essential to moral love -- "Court duties" -- Relation of eros and agape to each other -- Brotherly love and its conditioning factors -- Presuppositions of brotherly love -- The moral ideal -- Orders of creation."@en ;
    schema:description "CHAPTER 12. The church and culture -- Church and culture here treated as independent phases of community life -- Nature of church -- Church as order of creation -- Ethical function of church -- Unity of church -- Catholic and protestant conceptions of church unity -- Schisms -- Theocratic imperialism -- Persecution -- Objections to it -- Ecclesiastical discipline -- Its relation to persecution -- Other evil results -- Sacrament of penance -- Value of church discipline -- Church and state -- Causes of conflicts between them -- Rights of the church -- Separation of church and state -- State absolutism -- Distinction between church and other subordinate social unions -- The church and tyranny -- Culture -- Meaning of culture -- Civilization -- Culture as order of creation -- Its relation to religion -- Science and religion -- Art and religion -- Education."@en ;
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