|所有的作者/貢獻者：||J Schrezenmeir 有關機構： Institute of Physiology and Biochemistry of Nutrition, Federal Dairy Research Center, Kiel, Germany. email@example.com; de Vrese M|
Definitions of different pro-, pre-, and synbiotics suggested by different investigators are critically discussed. On the basis of this analysis, the probiotic concept is confined to effects exerted by viable microorganisms but is applicable independent of the site of action and route of administration. It therefore may include sites such as the oral cavity, the intestine, the vagina, and the skin.