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Process equipment malfunctions : techniques to identify and correct plant problems

Author: Norman P Lieberman
Publisher: New York : McGraw-Hill, ©2011.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:
This practical guide contains everything plant operators, supervisors, technicians, and field consultants need to know to troubleshoot process equipment malfunctions.
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Genre/Form: Handbooks, manuals, etc
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Norman P Lieberman
ISBN: 9780071770200 0071770208
OCLC Number: 721902692
Notes: Includes index.
Description: xxviii, 526 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: M. Note continued: Convective Tube Failure in Steam Generation Service --
Exterior Tube Failure in Oil-Fired Heaters --
Excessive Average Heat Flux Rates --
Effect of Air Preheat and Energy Savings --
Water in Feed to Coker Heater Radiant Tubes --
Carbon Steel Tube Failures --
24. Fired Heaters: Air Preheaters --
Preheating Air to a Vacuum Tower Heater --
Air Preheater Fouling and Delta P --
Air Preheater Creates Draft Limitations --
Example of Flue Gas Bypassing --
Air Preheat Using Low-Pressure Steam --
Preheater Leaks Reduce Combustion Air --
Loss of Draft Through an Empty Air Preheater Exchanger --
Overheating Combustion Air --
Fire Damage to an Air Preheater --
Restrictive Air Intake --
Correct Design Alternatives for Air Preheater --
Rules of Thumb for Temperature Gradients --
25. Disabling Safety Systems --
Acid Plant Shut-Down --
What Constitutes an Emergency --
Sulfur Plant Hydrogen Sulfide Feed Gas Trip --
Bypassing the Startup or Trip Panel --
Flame-Out Detector Malfunction --
Intentionally Disabled Safety Devices and Trips --
Incinerator Pilot Light Malfunction --
Furnace High-Temperature Fuel Gas Trip --
Author's Comment --
26. Vacuum Systems and Steam Jets --
Converging-Diverging Ejector --
Velocity Boost --
Wet Steam --
Surging --
Water in Motive Steam --
Effect of Spill-Back on Pressure Stability --
Bypassing Primary Ejector --
Mechanical Defects of Jets --
Diffuser Erosion --
Steam Nozzle Erosion --
Critical Jet Discharge Pressure --
Fouling of Waste Gas Burner --
Overloading Vacuum Jets --
Air Equivalent --
Relative Jet Efficiency --
High Discharge Pressure --
Hogging Jets --
Liquid Seal Ring Compressor --
Liquid Ejectors --
High-Pressure, Superheated Motive Steam --
Fouled Steam Nozzle --
27. Vacuum Surface Condensers and Precondensers --
Condensate Backup Due to Air Leak in Barometric Drain Line --
Leaks Inside Seal Drum --
Sludge Accumulation in Seal Drum --
Detecting Condensate Backup --
Air Baffle Internal Leakage --
Oversized Impingement Plate --
Impingement Plates as Vapor Distributors --
Cooling Water Pressure to Surface Condensers --
Tube Leaks --
Air Leaks --
Cooling Water Flow Configuration --
Management Malfunctions --
Fixed Tube Sheet Condensers --
Author's Comments --
28. Excess Gas Overloads: Vacuum System Ejectors --
Air Leaks --
How to Find Air Leaks --
Air Leaks on Vacuum Towers --
Exchanger Leaks --
Poor Vacuum Tower Feed Stripping --
Evolution of Cracked Gas --
Sources of Cracked Gas --
Effect of Heater Outlet Temperature --
Cracked Gas Evolution from Boot --
Air Leaks in Heater Transfer Lines --
Purges and Seal Gas --
Reminder about Water Partial Pressure --
29. Centrifugal Pump NPSH Limitations: Cavitation, Seal, and Bearing Failures --
Symptoms of Cavitation --
Seal Failure Due to Piping Alignment Problems --
Causes of Lack of NPSH --
Starting NPSH Requirements --
Leaks into Pump Suction --
Mixing Two Dissimilar Streams in a Pump Suction --
Correcting Vaporization in a Draw-Off Sump --
Low NPSH Pumps --
Plugged Suction Screens --
Preserving Mechanical Seal Integrity --
Effect of Increased Vessel Pressure --
Effect of Lighter Liquid --
Effect of Lower Temperature on Pump Cavitation --
Sump Pumps --
Other Causes of Seal Damage --
Bearing Vibrations --
Pumping Aerated Liquids --
Pressure Control and Pump Cavitation --
30. Centrifugal Pump and Driver Capacity Limits: Lubrication Failures --
Combating Excessive Motor Loads --
Pump Operation on Flat Part of Performance Curve --
Turbine-Driven Pumps --
Steam Quality Issues --
Effect of Specific Gravity on Pump Capacity --
Marginal Cavitation Limits --
Checking Performance on Pump Curve --
Pump Spinning Backwards --
Undersized Control Valves --
Running Pumps in Parallel --
Negative Pump Curve --
Bearing Lubrication --
Pressure Accumulation in Bearing Housing --
Pump Rotation Schedule --
Motor Lubrication --
Origin of Pump Vibrations --
31. Steam Turbine Drivers --
Is Wet Steam Good or Bad? --
Interaction of Speeding Steam with a Machine --
Turbine-Driven Pumps --
Governor Speed Control --
Steam Chest Port Valves --
Port Valve Malfunctions --
Low Steam Chest Pressure --
Overspeed Trip Malfunctions --
Accidentally Closed Port Valve --
Condensing Steam Turbines --
Water in Turbine-Driven Pump Bearing Housing --
Critical Speed Vibrations --
Turbine versus Motor Drivers --
Gas-Fired Turbines --
32. Centrifugal Compressors: Surge, Fouling, and Driver Limits --
Ratio of Specific Heats of a Gas --
The Dynamic Nature of Centrifugal Compressors --
Factors Affecting Vapor Density (PV) --
Factors Affecting Feet of Head (HP) --
Density versus Head Requirements --
What Is Surge? --
Effect of Spill-Back on Surge --
Suction Throttling versus Spill-Back --
Stonewalling --
Rotor Fouling --
Salt Accumulation in Rotor Wheels --
Excessive Vibrations --
Work versus Flow in Dynamic Compressors --
33. Reciprocating Compressors: Unloading and Efficiency --
The Carnot Cycle --
Pulsation Malfunctions --
Indicator Card (or Beta Scan) --
Drawing Conclusions from Indicator Card --
Typical Reciprocating Compressor Efficiency --
Pulsation Damping Plates --
Breaking Piston Rods --
Gas Engine Drives --
Starting Volumetric Efficiency --
Controlling Compressor Gas Flow Rates --
Head-End Adjustable Unloaders --
Effect of Molecular Weight on Compressor Performance --
Reciprocating versus Centrifugal Compressor Selection --
34. Summary: Typical Energy Savings and Efficiency Projects --
How to Harvest an Apple Orchard --
Steam Turbines --
Centrifugal Pumps --
Distillation --
FCU Air Blower Limitations --
Vacuum Towers --
Fired Heaters --
What's the Problem?
Responsibility: Norman P. Lieberman.

Abstract:

This practical guide contains everything plant operators, supervisors, technicians, and field consultants need to know to troubleshoot process equipment malfunctions.  Read more...

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Disabling Safety Systems -- Acid Plant Shut-Down -- What Constitutes an Emergency -- Sulfur Plant Hydrogen Sulfide Feed Gas Trip -- Bypassing the Startup or Trip Panel -- Flame-Out Detector Malfunction -- Intentionally Disabled Safety Devices and Trips -- Incinerator Pilot Light Malfunction -- Furnace High-Temperature Fuel Gas Trip -- Author's Comment -- 26. Vacuum Systems and Steam Jets -- Converging-Diverging Ejector -- Velocity Boost -- Wet Steam -- Surging -- Water in Motive Steam -- Effect of Spill-Back on Pressure Stability -- Bypassing Primary Ejector -- Mechanical Defects of Jets -- Diffuser Erosion -- Steam Nozzle Erosion -- Critical Jet Discharge Pressure -- Fouling of Waste Gas Burner -- Overloading Vacuum Jets -- Air Equivalent -- Relative Jet Efficiency -- High Discharge Pressure -- Hogging Jets -- Liquid Seal Ring Compressor -- Liquid Ejectors -- High-Pressure, Superheated Motive Steam -- Fouled Steam Nozzle -- 27. Vacuum Surface Condensers and Precondensers -- Condensate Backup Due to Air Leak in Barometric Drain Line -- Leaks Inside Seal Drum -- Sludge Accumulation in Seal Drum -- Detecting Condensate Backup -- Air Baffle Internal Leakage -- Oversized Impingement Plate -- Impingement Plates as Vapor Distributors -- Cooling Water Pressure to Surface Condensers -- Tube Leaks -- Air Leaks -- Cooling Water Flow Configuration -- Management Malfunctions -- Fixed Tube Sheet Condensers -- Author's Comments -- 28. Excess Gas Overloads: Vacuum System Ejectors -- Air Leaks -- How to Find Air Leaks -- Air Leaks on Vacuum Towers -- Exchanger Leaks -- Poor Vacuum Tower Feed Stripping -- Evolution of Cracked Gas -- Sources of Cracked Gas -- Effect of Heater Outlet Temperature -- Cracked Gas Evolution from Boot -- Air Leaks in Heater Transfer Lines -- Purges and Seal Gas -- Reminder about Water Partial Pressure -- 29. 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