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|All Authors / Contributors:||
Ronald Jay Cohen; Mark E Swerdlik
|Contents:||PART I : An Overview Chapter 1: PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING AND ASSESSMENT TESTING AND ASSESSMENT Testing and Assessment Defined The process of assessment THE TOOLS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT The Test The Interview The Portfolio Case History Data Behavioral Observation Role-Play Tests Computers as Tools Other tools WHO, WHAT, WHY, HOW, AND WHERE? Who Are the Parties? The test developer The test user The testtaker Society at large Other parties In What Types of Settings Are Assessments Conducted, and Why? Educational settings Clinical setting Counseling settings Geriatric settings Business and military settings Governmental and organizational credentialing Other settings How Are Assessments Conducted? Assessment of People with Disabilities Where To Go for Authoritative Information: Reference Sources Test catalogues Test manuals Reference volumes Journal articles Online databases Other sources Close-up: Should Observers be Parties to the Assessment Process? Everyday Psychometrics: Everyday Accommodations Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Barbara Pavlo Self Assessment Chapter 2 Historical, Cultural, and Legal/Ethical Considerations A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century The Twentieth Century The measurement of intelligence The measurement of personality The academic and applied traditions CULTURE AND ASSESSMENT Evolving Interest in Culture-Related Issues Some Issues Regarding Culture and Assessment Verbal communication Nonverbal communication and behavior Standards of evaluation Tests and Group Membership Psychology, tests, and public policy LEGAL AND ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS The Concerns of the Public Legislation Litigation The Concerns of the Profession Test-user qualifications Testing people with disabilities Computerized test administration, scoring, and interpretation The Rights of Testtakers The right of informed consent The right to be informed of test findings The right to privacy and confidentiality The right to the least stigmatizing label Close-up: The Controversial Henry Herbert Goddard Everyday Psychometrics: Life-or-Death Psychological Assessment Meet A Test User: Meet Dr. Diana D. Jeffery Self-Assessment PART II The Science of Psychological Measurement Chapter 3 A Statistics Refresher SCALES OF MEASUREMENT Nominal Scales Ordinal Scales Interval Scales Ratio Scales Measurement Scales in Psychology DESCRIBING DATA Frequency Distributions Measures of Central Tendency The arithmetic mean The median The mode Measures of Variability The range The interquartile and the semi-interquartile ranges The average deviation The standard deviation Skewness Kurtosis THE NORMAL CURVE The Area Under the Normal Curve STANDARD SCORES z Scores T Scores Other Standard Scores Normalized standard scores Close-up: The Normal Curve and Psychological Tests Everyday Psychometrics: Consumer (of Graphed Data), Beware! Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Jeff Laurent Self-Assessment Chapter 4 OF TESTS AND TESTING SOME ASSUMPTIONS ABOUT PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING AND ASSESSMENT Assumption 1: Psychological Traits and States Exist Assumption 2: Psychological Traits and States Can Be Quantified and Measured Assumption 3: Test-Related Behavior Predicts Non-Test-Related Behavior Assumption 4: Tests and Other Measurement Techniques Have Strengths and Weaknesses Assumption 5: Various Sources of Error Are Part of the Assessment Process Assumption 6: Testing and Assessment Can Be Conducted in a Fair and Unbiased Manner Assumption 7: Testing and Assessment Benefit Society WHAT'S A "GOOD TEST"? Reliability Validity Other Considerations NORMS Sampling to Develop Norms Developing norms for a standardized test Types of Norms Percentiles Age norms Grade norms National norms National anchor norms Subgroup norms Local norms Fixed Reference Group Scoring Systems Norm-Referenced versus Criterion-Referenced Evaluation CORRELATION AND INFERENCE The Concept of Correlation The Pearson r The Spearman Rho Graphic Representations of Correlation Regression Multiple regression INFERENCE FROM MEASUREMENT Meta-Analysis Culture and Inference Close-up: How "Standard" is Standard in Measurement? Everyday Psychometrics: Putting Tests to the Test Meet a Team of Test Users: Meet Dr. Howard Atlas and Dr. Steve Julius Self-Assessment Chapter 5 RELIABILITY THE CONCEPT OF RELIABILITY Sources of Error Variance Test construction Test administration Test scoring and interpretation Other sources of error RELIABILITY ESTIMATES Test-Retest Reliability Estimates Parallel-Forms and Alternate-Forms Reliability Estimates Split-Half Reliability Estimates The Spearman-Brown formula Other Methods of Estimating Internal Consistency The Kuder-Richardson formulas Coefficient alpha Measures of Inter-Scorer Reliability USING AND INTERPRETING A COEFFICIENT OF RELIABILITY The Purpose of the ReliabilityCoefficient The Nature of the Test Homogeneity versus heterogeneity of test items Dynamic versus static characteristics Restriction or inflation of range Speed tests versus power tests Criterion-referenced tests Alternatives to the True Score Model Generalizability theory Item response theory RELIABILITY AND INDIVIDUAL SCORES The Standard Error of Measurement The Standard Error of the Difference Between Two Scores Close-up: Item Response Theory Everyday Psychometrics: The Reliability Defense and the Breathalyzer Test Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Bryce B. Reeve Self-Assessment Chapter 6 VALIDITY THE CONCEPT OF VALIDITY Face Validity Content Validity The Quantification of Content Validity Culture and the Relativity of Content Validity CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY What Is a Criterion? Characteristics of a criterion Concurrent Validity Predictive Validity The validity coefficient Incremental validity Expectancy data Decision theory and test utility CONSTRUCT VALIDITY Evidence of Construct Validity Evidence of homogeneity Evidence of changes with age Evidence of pretest/posttest changes Evidence from distinct groups Convergent evidence Discriminate evidence Factor analysis VALIDITY, BIAS, AND FAIRNESS Test Bias Rating error Test Fairness Close-up: Base Rates and Predictive Validity Everyday Psychometrics: Adjustment of Test Scores by Group Membership: Fairness in Testing or Foul Play? Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Adam Shoemaker Self-Assessment Chapter 7 UTILITY WHAT IS UTILITY? Factors that Affect Test Utility Psychometric soundness Costs Benefits UTILITY ANALYSIS What is a Utility Analysis? How is a Utility Analysis Conducted? Expectancy data The Brogden-Cronbach-Gleser Formula Some Practical Considerations The pool of job applicants The complexity of the job The cut score in use METHODS FOR SETTINGS CUT SCORES The Angoff Method The Known Groups Method IRT-based methods Other Methods Close-up: Utility Analysis: An Illustration Everyday Psychometrics: Re-thinking the Costs of Testing-and Not Testing Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Erik Viirre Self-Assessment Chapter 8 Test Development TEST CONCEPTUALIZATION Some Preliminary Questions Norm-referenced versus criterion-referenced tests: Item development issues Pilot Work TEST CONSTRUCTION Scaling Types of scales Scaling methods Writing Items Item format Writing items for computer administration Scoring Items TEST TRYOUT What Is a Good Item? ITEM ANALYSIS Item-Difficulty Index Item-Reliability Index Factor analysis and inter-item consistency Item-Validity Index Item-Discrimination Index Analysis of item alternatives Item-Characteristic Curves Item response theory Other Considerations in Item Analysis Guessing Item fairness Speed tests Qualitati ve Item Analysis "Think aloud" test administration Expert panels TEST REVISION Test Revision as a Stage in New Test Development Test Revision in the Life Cycle of an Existing Test Cross-validation and co-validation Quality assurance during test revision The Use of IRT in Building and Revising Tests Evaluating the properties of existing tests and guiding test revision. Determining measurement equivalence across research populations. Developing item banks. Close-up: Designing an Item Bank Everyday Psychometrics: Psychometrics in the Classroom Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Scott Birkeland Self-Assessment PART III The Assessment of Intelligence Chapter 9 Intelligence and Its Measurement WHAT IS INTELLIGENCE? Intelligence Defined: Views of the Lay Public Intelligence Defined: Views of Scholars and Test Professionals Francis Galton Alfred Binet David Wechsler Jean Piaget Factor-Analytic Theories of Intelligence The CHC model The Information-Processing View MEASURING INTELLIGENCE Types of Tasks Used in Intelligence Tests Theory in Intelligence Test Development and Interpretation INTELLIGENCE: SOME ISSUES Nature Versus Nurture Inheritance and interactionism The Stability of Intelligence Other Issues Personality Gender Family environment Culture A Perspective Close-up: Culture Fair/Culture Loaded Everyday Psychometrics: Being Gifted Meet A Test User: Meet John Garruto, M.S. Self-Assessment Chapter 10 Tests of Intelligence THE STANFORD-BINET INTELLIGENCE SCALES The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales: Fifth Edition Standardization Psychometric soundness Test administration Scoring and interpretation THE WECHSLER TESTS The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) Standardization and norms Psychometric issues The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children- Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) Background The test today The WISC-IV Compared to the SB5 The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence- Third Edition (WPPSI-III) Wechsler, Binet, and the Short Form The Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence The Wechsler Tests in Perspective OTHER MEASURES OF INTELLIGENCE Tests Designed for Individual Administration Tests Designed for Group Administration Group tests in the military Group tests in the schools Measures of Specific Intellectual Abilities Close-up: Factor Analysis Everyday Psychometrics: The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB): A Test You Can Take Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Rivka Olley Self-Assessment Chapter 11 Preschool and Educational Assessment PRESCHOOL ASSESSMENT Tools of Preschool Assessment Checklists and rating scales Psychological tests Other measures ACHIEVEMENT TESTS Measures of General Achievement Measures of Achievement in Specific Subject Areas APTITUDE TESTS The Elementary School Level The Metropolitan Readiness Tests (MRT) The Secondary School Level The Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) The ACT Assessment (ACT) The College Level and Beyond The Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) The Miller Analogies Test (MAT) Other aptitude tests Dynamic Assessment DIAGNOSTIC TESTS Reading Tests The Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests- Revised (WRMT-R) Math Tests Other Diagnostic Tests PSYCHOEDUCATIONAL TEST BATTERIES The Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC), and the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II) The Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III) OTHER TOOLS OF ASSESSMENT IN EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS Performance, Portfolio, and Authentic Assessment Peer Appraisal Techniques Measuring Study Habits, Interests, and Attitudes Close-up: Tests of Minimum Competency Everyday Psychometrics: First Impressions Meet A Test User: Meet Dr. Rebecca Anderson Self-Assessment PART IV: THE ASSESSMENT OF PERSONALITY Chapter 12 Personality Assessment: An Overview PERSONALITY AND PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT DEFINED Personality Personality Assessment Traits, Types, and States Personality traits Personality types Personality states PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT: SOME BASIC QUESTIONS Who? The self as the primary referent Another person as the referent The cultural background of assessees What? Primary content area sampled Testtaker response styles Where? How? Scope and theory Procedures and item formats Frame of reference Scoring and interpretation Issues in personality test development and use DEVELOPING INSTRUMENTS TO ASSESS PERSONALITY Logic and Reason Theory Data Reduction Methods The Big Five Criterion Groups The MMPI The MMPI-2 The MMPI-2-RF The MMPI-A The MMPI and its revisions in perspective PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT AND CULTURE Acculturation and Related Considerations Close-up: Assessing Acculturation and Related Variables Everyday Psychometrics: Some Common Item Formats Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Eric A. Zillmer Self-Assessment Chapter 13 PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT METHODS OBJECTIVE METHODS PROJECTIVE METHODS Inkblots as Projective Stimuli The Rorschach Pictures as Projective Stimuli The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Other tests using pictures as projective stimuli Words as Projective Stimuli Word association tests Sentence completion tests Sounds as Projective Stimuli The Production of Figure Drawings Figure-drawing tests Projective Methods in Perspective Assumptions Psychometric considerations Behavioral Assessment Methods: The Who, What, When, Where, Why, and How of It Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Approaches to Behavioral Assessment Behavioral observation and rating scales Self-monitoring Analogue studies Situational performance measures Role play Psychophysiological methods Unobtrusive measures Issues in Behavioral Assessment A PERSPECTIVE Close-up: Personality, Life Outcomes, and College Yearbook Photos Everyday Psychometrics: Confessions of a Behavior Rater Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Tonia Caselman Self-Assessment PART V Testing and Assessment in Action Chapter 14 Clinical and Counseling Assessment AN OVERVIEW The Diagnosis of Mental Disorders Biopsychosocial assessment The Interview in Clinical Assessment Types of interviews Psychometric aspects of the interview Case History Data Psychological Tests The psychological test battery CULTURALLY INFORMED PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT Cultural Aspects of the Interview Cultural Considerations and Managed Care SPECIAL APPLICATIONS OF CLINICAL MEASURES The Assessment of Addiction and Substance Abuse Forensic Psychological Assessment Dangerousness to oneself or others Competency to stand trial Criminal responsibility Readiness for parole or probation Diagnosis and evaluation of emotional injury Profiling Custody Evaluations Evaluation of the parent Evaluation of the child Child Abuse and Neglect Physical signs of abuse and neglect Emotional and behavioral signs of abuse and neglect Issues in reporting child abuse and neglect Risk assessment THE PSYCHOLOGICAL REPORT The Barnum Effect Clinical Versus Mechanical Prediction Close-up: Assessment of Dangerousness and the Secret Service Everyday Psychometrics: Elements of a Typical Report of Psychological Assessment Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Alan Raphael Self-Assessment Chapter 15 Neuropsychological Assessment THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND BEHAVIOR Neurological Damage and the Concept of Organicity THE NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL EXAMINATION History Taking, the Case History, and Case Studies The Interview The neuropsychological mental status examination The Physical Examination Neuropsychological Tests Tests of general intellectual ability Tests to measure the ability to abstract Tests of executive function Tests of perceptual, motor, and perceptual-motor function Tests of verbal functioning Tests of memory NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TEST BATTERIES OTHER TOOLS OF NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT Close-up: Fixed Versus Flexible Neuropsychological Test Batteries and the Law Everyday Psychometrics: Medical Diagnostic Aids and Neuropsychological Assessment Meet a Test User: Meet Dr. Kathleen Salomone Self-Assessment Chapter 16 Assessment, Careers, and Business CAREER CHOICE AND CAREER TRANSITION Measures of Interest The Strong Interest Inventory Other interest inventories Measures of Ability and Aptitu de The General Aptitude Test Battery Measures of Personality Measuring personality traits Measuring personality types Other Measures SCREENING, SELECTION, CLASSIFICATION, AND PLACEMENT The Resume and the Letter of Application The Application Form Letters of Recommendation Interviews Portfolio Assessment Performance Tests The assessment center Physical Tests Drug testing PRODUCTIVITY, MOTIVATION, ATTITUDE, AND ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE Measures of Cognitive Ability Personnel selection and diversity issues Productivity Motivation Burnout and its measurement Attitude Job satisfaction Organizational commitment Organizational Culture OTHER APPLICATIONS OF TOOLS OF ASSESSMENT Consumer Psychology The Measurement of Attitudes Measuring implicit attitudes Surveys Motivation Research Methods Behavioral observation Other methods Close-up: Validity Generalization and the GATB Everyday Psychometrics: Assessment of Corporate and Organizational Culture Meet a Test User: Meet Rob Kaiser, M.S. Self-Assessment References R-1 Credits C-1 Name Index N-1 Glossary/Index I-1|
|Responsibility:||Ronald Jay Cohen, Mark E. Swerdlik|