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Psychology : a behavioral overview

Author: Alan D Poling
Publisher: New York : Plenum Press, ©1990.
Series: Applied clinical psychology.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats

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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
New York : Plenum Press, ©1990
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Alan D Poling
ISBN: 0306434326 9780306434327
OCLC Number: 21408106
Description: xvi, 395 pages : illustrations ; 27 cm.
Contents: 1: The Study of Behavior.- What Is Psychology?.- A Brief History of Behaviorism.- The Behavioral Perspective.- Defining Behavior.- Three Myths Concerning Behaviorism.- 2: Science and Psychology.- Characteristics of Science.- Inadequate Explanations of Behavior.- Psychological Theories.- Objections to a Science of Behavior.- Science and Pseudoscience.- 3: Research Methods.- What Is Research?.- General Research Strategies.- Naturalistic Observation.- Correlational Research.- Case Studies.- Experimentation.- Relations among Variables.- Internal and External Validity.- Experimental Designs.- Experimental Questions.- Six Steps in Experimentation.- Within-Subject Designs: An Example.- Between-Subjects Designs: An Example.- Data Analysis: Type 1 and Type 2 Errors.- 4: Evolution and Behavior.- Historical Overview.- Natural Selection.- Genetics.- DNA and the Genetic Code.- Genetic Mutation.- Genetic Variation.- Evolution in Action.- Evolution of Behavior.- The Inheritance of Behavior.- Interpreting Heritability.- Nature and Nurture.- Behaviorism and Inherited Behavior.- Human Evolutionary (Phylogenetic) Development.- Hominid Evolutionary Development.- 5: Physiology and Behavior.- Sensation.- Vision.- Audition.- Gustation.- Olfaction.- The Skin Senses.- The Body Senses.- Sensation versus Perception.- Neurons.- Structure and Function of Neurons.- The Nerve Impulse.- The Synapse.- The Peripheral Nervous System.- The Somatic Nervous System.- The Autonomic Nervous System.- The Central Nervous System.- The Spinal Cord.- The Brain.- Cerebral Structure and Function.- Hemispheric Specialization.- Effectors.- Muscles.- Glands.- Neuroscience and Psychology.- Physiology and a Science of Behavior.- 6: Learning.- Respondent Conditioning.- Unconditioned Reflexes.- Stimulus-Stimulus Pairing and Conditioned Reflexes.- Higher Order Conditioning.- Quantifying Respondent Behaviors.- Temporal Relations.- Respondent Extinction.- Respondent Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination.- The Importance of Respondent Behavior.- Operant Conditioning.- Reinforcement.- Classifying Reinforcers.- The Opportunity to Behave as a Reinforcer.- Motivational Variables.- Operant Extinction.- Intermittent Reinforcement.- Stimulus Control.- Conceptual Behavior and Functional Equivalence.- Shaping and Chaining.- Punishment.- Rule-Governed Behavior.- The Importance of Operant Conditioning.- 7: Language, Consciousness, and Memory.- Language.- Chomsky's Analysis of Language.- A Behavioral Analysis of Language.- Stages of Prespeech Development.- Linguistic Development.- Linguistic Input.- The Physiology of Speech.- The Brain.- Why Is Language Important?.- Consciousness.- Consciousness and Verbal Behavior.- Self-Awareness.- The Role of Awareness in Learning.- Memory.- A Behavioral Perspective.- Some Memory Phenomena.- A Cognitive Perspective.- The Information-Processing Model.- Summary.- 8: Child Development.- Conception and Prenatal Development.- Stages of Development.- Effects of the External Environment on Prenatal Development.- Genetic Abnormalities.- Birth and Postnatal Development.- Neurological Development.- Motor Development.- Body Management.- Mobility.- Visual Development.- Basic Visual Abilities of Infants.- Perception of Depth.- Cognitive Behavioral Development: Piaget's Analysis.- Cognitive Structure and Processes.- Periods of Cognitive Development.- Evaluation of Piaget's Theory.- The Development of Social Behavior.- Development of Attachment.- Theories of Attachment.- Emotional Development.- Physiological Arousal.- Motivation.- Intelligence and Its Development.- 9: Personality.- A Psychoanalytic Theory.- Motivation.- Structure.- Defense Mechanisms.- Personality Development.- Personality Assessment.- Are Freudian Explanations of Behavior Adequate?.- A Humanistic Theory.- Motivation.- Personality Development and Structure.- Incongruence.- Personality Assessment.- Are Rogersian Explanations of Behavior Adequate?.- A Constitutional Theory.- Structure.- Behavior.- Somatotype-Behavior Relations.- Personality Assessment.- Does Sheldon's Theory Provide Adequate Explanations of Behavior?.- A Trait Theory.- What Are Traits?.- Structure.- Motivation.- Personality Development.- Personality Assessment.- Are Trait Theories Adequate Explanations of Behavior?.- A Behavioral Theory.- Motivation.- Structure.- Personality Development.- Personality Assessment.- Role of the Individual.- Is Skinner's Theory an Adequate Explanation of Behavior?.- Summary and Conclusions.- 10: Social Psychology.- Social Cognition: Attitudes and Behavior.- Correspondence between Verbal and Nonverbal Behavior.- Attribution.- Attributional Errors.- Social Influence.- Conformity.- Compliance.- Obedience.- Persuasion.- Social Facilitation.- Social Loafing.- Social Relations.- Aggression.- Altruism.- Attraction.- Social Psychology and Behavior Analysis.- 11: Abnormal Behavior.- What Makes Behavior Troublesome?.- Mental Illness.- Schizophrenia.- Mood Disorders.- Anxiety Disorders.- Mental Retardation.- Etiology.- Treatment.- Drug Abuse.- Causes of Drug Abuse.- Treating Drug Abuse.- 12: Applications of Behavioral Psychology.- Community and Environmental Problems.- Reducing Energy Use.- Littering.- Safety Hazards in the Home.- Safety in the Dental Office.- Crime.- Unemployment.- Business and Industry.- Worker Tardiness and Absenteeism.- Worker Productivity.- Worker Safety.- Phone Use.- Clinical Applications.- Anxiety Disorders and Phobias.- Depression.- Hysteria.- Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.- Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders.- Marital Discord.- Multiple Personalities.- Behavioral Medicine.- Obesity.- Anorexia Nervosa.- Bulimia Nervosa.- Hypertension.- Chronic Pain.- Headache.- Asthma.- Sexual Dysfunction.- Patient Compliance.- General Education.- Studying.- Disruptive Behavior.- Specific Skills.- Broad-Spectrum Applications.- Educating Developmentally Disabled Persons.- Communication Skills.- Vocational Skills.- Community-Living Skills.- Disruptive Behavior and Self-Injury.- Conclusions.- References.
Series Title: Applied clinical psychology.
Responsibility: Alan Poling [and others].


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'[This book] is an introductory text with an orienting perspective that is frankly behavioral...Students who use [this text] will be ideally prepared for further work in a behaviorally oriented Read more...

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