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The psychology of judgment and decision making

Author: Scott Plous
Publisher: Philadelphia : Temple University Press, ©1993.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:
Americans are faced with a bewildering array of choices. In this lively introduction to psychological research on how people make decisions, Scott Plous focuses on the social aspects of decision making and includes everyday examples from medicine, law, business, education, and nuclear arms control, among other areas. Intended for nonspecialists, this book highlights experimental findings rather than psychological  Read more...
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Details

Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Scott Plous
ISBN: 0877229139 9780877229131
OCLC Number: 26548229
Description: xvi, 302 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: Sect. I. Perception, Memory, and Context. Ch. 1. Selective Perception. Ch. 2. Cognitive Dissonance. Ch. 3. Memory and Hindsight Biases. Ch. 4. Context Dependence --
Sect. II. How Questions Affect Answers. Ch. 5. Plasticity. Ch. 6. The Effects of Question Wording and Framing --
Sect. III. Models of Decision Making. Ch. 7. Expected Utility Theory. Ch. 8. Paradoxes in Rationality. Ch. 9. Descriptive Models of Decision Making --
Sect. IV. Heuristics and Biases. Ch. 10. The Representativeness Heuristic. Ch. 11. The Availability Heuristic. Ch. 12. Probability and Risk. Ch. 13. Anchoring and Adjustment. Ch. 14. The Perception of Randomness. Ch. 15. Correlation, Causation, and Control. Ch. 16. Attribution Theory --
Sect. V. The Social Side of Judgment and Decision Making. Ch. 17. Social Influences. Ch. 18. Group Judgments and Decisions --
Sect. VI. Common Traps. Ch. 19. Overconfidence. Ch. 20. Self-Fulfilling Prophecies. Ch. 21. Behavioral Traps --
Afterword: Taking a Step Back.
Responsibility: Scott Plous.

Abstract:

Americans are faced with a bewildering array of choices. In this lively introduction to psychological research on how people make decisions, Scott Plous focuses on the social aspects of decision making and includes everyday examples from medicine, law, business, education, and nuclear arms control, among other areas. Intended for nonspecialists, this book highlights experimental findings rather than psychological theory and presents information in descriptive prose rather than through mathematics. A unique feature of the volume is the "Reader Survey" that precedes the first chapter. Readers are asked to answer questions that are taken from studies discussed later in the book. This brief (and entertaining) exercise allows readers to compare their answers with the responses people gave in the original studies and to better understand their own processes of choosing. In a comprehensive yet nontechnical presentation, Plous explores the building blocks of judgment and decision making: perception, memory, context, and question format. He contrasts historical models of decision making with recent models that take into account various biases in judgment. In addition, the author examines judgments made by and about groups and discusses common traps in judgment and decision making. Not only does he suggest ways to improve decision making, but he offers the following pledge to readers not yet familiar with research on judgment and decision making: "By judiciously applying the results described in this book, you should be better able to avoid decision biases, errors, and traps, and you will better understand the decisions made by other people."

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