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Psychopharmacology of Aversively Motivated Behavior

Author: Hymie Anisman; Giorgio Bignami
Publisher: Boston, MA : Springer US, 1978.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats

While such texts have been most useful in elucidating drug mechanisms and the etiology of a number of behaviors, few attempts have been made to evaluate and integrate pharmacological treatments  Read more...


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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Printed edition
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Hymie Anisman; Giorgio Bignami
ISBN: 9781468423969 1468423967 9781468423945 1468423940
OCLC Number: 851794221
Description: 1 online resource (volumes)
Contents: 1 Aversively Motivated Behavior as a Tool in Psychopharmacologic Analysis.- I. Introduction.- II. Theoretical Models.- III. Components of Avoidance Behavior-Implications for Psychopharmacology.- A. Associative Processes-Drive Components.- B. Associative versus Nonassociative Processes-Response Components.- C. Stimulus-Response Interface.- D. Pseudoconditioning and Anticipatory Responding.- E. Deductions and Predictions.- IV. Strategies for the Assessment of Treatment Effects.- A. Discrete-Trial Active Avoidance: Task Manipulations and Multiple Testing Procedures.- B. Response Suppression.- C. Controls for Activity and Responsivity to Shock.- D. Discriminated Avoidance: Simultaneous and Successive Procedures.- E. Sidman (Continuous) Avoidance.- F. Drugs as Aversive Stimuli.- G. Transfer Designs.- H. Genetic Manipulations.- I. Cluster Analysis.- V. General Summary.- References.- 2 Behavioral Genetics and Animal Learning.- I. Introduction.- II. Basic Concepts and Methods.- A. Heredity and Genetics.- B. Origins of Laboratory Animals.- C. Breeding Systems and Research Applications.- III. Major Research Questions.- A. General Learning Ability.- B. Dimensional versus Pairwise Variation.- C. Dissection of the Learning Process.- D. Equating Effects of Experimental Manipulations.- IV. Mendelian Inheritance, Pleiotropy, and Relations between Characters.- A. Mendelian Inheritance.- B. Genetic Correlation and Physiological Causation.- C. Behavioral Pleiotropy.- D. "Trivial" Pleiotropy and Genuine Relations.- E. "Genuine" Pleiotropy and Spurious Relations.- F. A Reformulation.- References.- 3 Neurochemical Changes Elicited by Stress: Behavioral Correlates.- I. Introduction.- II. Effects of Acute Stress on Levels and Turnover of NE, DA, and 5-HT.- A. Electric Foot Shock.- B. Cold, Restraint, and Oscillation Stress.- C. Isolation.- III. Stress-Induced Increases in Amine Levels.- IV. Neurochemical Change and Coping Style.- A. Escapable versus Inescapable Stress.- B. Effects of Repeated or Chronic Stress.- V. Hormonal Changes after Stress.- VI. Genetic Factors.- A. Endogenous Differences in Neurochemical Levels.- B. Stress-Induced Neurochemical Effects.- C. Stress Effects after Drug Treatments.- VII. Stress-Induced Neurochemical Changes: Implications for Avoidance Behavior.- VIII. Implications for Human Behavior.- A. Depression.- B. Schizophrenia.- IX. Overview.- References.- 4 Cholinergic Mechanisms and Aversively Motivated Behaviors.- I. Introduction.- II. Selected Neurochemical Aspects of Cholinergic Drug Action.- A. Characterization of Cholinergic Receptors.- B. Effects of Cholinergic Agonists.- C. Effects of Cholinergic Antagonists.- D. Some Effects of Other Agents.- III. Behavioral Effects of Muscarinic Agonists and Antagonists.- A. Activity, Exploration, Habituation, and Sensory Reinforcement.- B. Responses to Aversive Stimuli.- C. Fear Conditioning.- D. Passive Avoidance.- E. Active Avoidance.- IV. Sites of Drug Action.- A. Neuropsychological Investigations.- B. Selected Anatomical and Physiological Data on Cholinergic Mechanisms and Pathways.- C. Tentative Conclusions on Muscarinic Mechanisms.- V. Nicotinic Stimulation and Blockade.- A. Nonmonotonic Response Changes after Nicotine.- B. Possible Mechanisms of Nicotine Action: Nicotinic Blockers.- VI. General Conclusions.- References.- 5 Monoamines and Aversively Motivated Behaviors.- I. Introduction.- II. Neuropharmacology of the Monoamines.- A. General Characteristics.- B. Monoamine Pathways.- C. Biosynthesis of the Catecholamines.- D. Biosynthesis of Serotonin.- E. The Metabolic Inactivation of the Monoamines.- III. Some Aspects of the Neuropharmacology of the Monamines.- A. Monoamine Synthesis Inhibitors.- B. Cytotoxic Agents.- C. Drugs That Increase Monoamine Levels at Receptors.- D. Drugs That Affect Monoamine Storage.- E. Serotonin Antagonists.- IV. Catecholaminergic Mechanisms and Nonassociative Behavioral Change.- A. Catecholamine Involvement in Motor Activity.- V. Catecholaminergic Mechanisms and Aversively Motivated Behaviors.- A. Chemical Lesions.- B. Receptor Blockade and Synthesis Inhibition.- C. Catecholamine Stimulants.- D. Memory Interpretations Concerning Behavioral Changes Induced by Catecholaminergic Agents.- VI. Serotonergic Mechanisms and Aversively Motivated Behaviors.- A. Chemical Lesions, Synthesis Inhibition, and Administration of Precursors.- VII. Conclusions.- References.- 6 Hallucinogens.- I. Introduction.- II. The General Pharmacology of Hallucinogens.- A. Indolealkylamines.- B. Phenethylamines.- C. Miscellaneous Anticholinergics.- D. Phenylcyclohexyl Derivatives.- III. Effects of Hallucinogens on Animal Behavior.- A. Effects on Habituation, Spontaneous Alternation, and Locomotor Activity.- B. Active Avoidance.- C. Passive Avoidance and Go-No-Go Paradigms.- D. Effects on Appetitive Operant Responding.- E. Conditioned Aversion.- IV. Current Models and Hypotheses for the Effects of Hallucinogens.- A. Indole and Phenethylamine Hallucinogens.- B. Cannabis.- V. Relevance to Human Effects.- VI. Conclusion.- References.- 7 Effects of Neuroleptics, Ethanol, Hypnotic-Sedatives, Tranquilizers, Narcotics, and Minor Stimulants in Aversive Paradigms.- I. Introduction.- II. Neuroleptics (Major Tranquilizers).- A. Antiavoidance Action.- B. Unlikely or Insufficient Explanations of the Antiavoidance Action: Antinociception-Associative and Motivational Deficits.- C. Sensory versus Motor Explanations of the Neuroleptic Syndrome.- D. Miscellaneous Problems.- III. Ethanol, Hypnotic-Sedatives, and Minor Tranquilizers.- A. The Anticonflict or Antipunishment Action.- B. Effects on Other Aversively Motivated Behaviors.- C. Hypotheses on the Mechanisms Underlying the Anticonflict Action.- IV. Narcotic Agonists and Antagonists.- A. Punishment Suppression.- B. Active Avoidance.- V. Miscellaneous Stimulants.- A. Xanthines (Caffeine and Related Agents).- B. Antidepressants.- C. Magnesium Pemoline.- VI. Conclusions.- References.- 8 Stimulus Attributes of Drugs.- I. Drugs as Unconditioned Punishing Stimuli.- A. Toxic Drug Effects.- B. Tolerance and Withdrawal Illness.- C. Conditioned Stimulus for Aversive Drug Effects.- II. Drugs as Unconditioned Reinforcing Stimuli.- A. Drug Self-Administration to Relieve Aversive Conditions.- B. Chronic Drug Intake.- C. Conditioned Stimulus for Drug-Mediated Relief.- III. Drugs as Conditioned Stimuli.- A. Variations in Discriminative Responses.- B. General Attributes of Discriminative Drug Effects.- C. State-Dependent Effects and Amnesia.- IV. Summary.- References.- 9 A Comparative Neurochemical, Pharmacological, and Functional Analysis of Aversively Motivated Behaviors: Caveats and General Considerations.- I. Theoretical Frameworks for Aversively Motivated Behaviors.- A. General Considerations.- B. Methodological Issues in Pharmacological and Neuropsychological Analysis.- II. Role of Neurochemical Activity in Aversive Situations.- A. Acetylcholine.- B. Dopamine and Norepinephrine.- C. Serotonin.- D. Neurotransmitter Interactions.- III. Comparative Analysis of Selected Drug-Induced Syndromes.- IV. Relevance of Research on Infrahuman Subjects to Human Psychopharmacology.- V. Conclusions.- References.- Author Index.
Responsibility: edited by Hymie Anisman, Giorgio Bignami.


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