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Radiation protection and NORM residue management in the zircon and zirconia industries.

Author: D G Wymer; International Atomic Energy Agency.
Publisher: Vienna : International Atomic Energy Agency, 2007.
Series: Safety reports series, no. 51.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
Zircon has economic importance as a raw material in its own right and also as a feedstock for the manufacture of zirconia (zirconium dioxide), zirconium chemicals and zirconium metal. The geological processes that formed zircon led to the incorporation of radionuclides of natural origin into the crystal structure. The presence of these radionuclides is not significant enough to be of any commercial value, but  Read more...
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Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: D G Wymer; International Atomic Energy Agency.
ISBN: 9201006071 9789201006073
OCLC Number: 188861927
Notes: "July 2007 ; STI/PUB/1289"--Title page verso.
"The IAEA officer responsible for the preparation of this report was D.G. Wymer"--Foreword.
Description: 149 pages : color illustrations ; 24 cm.
Contents: 1. Introduction --
2. Overview of the zircon and zirconia industries --
3. General radiation protection considerations --
4. Milling of zircon sand --
5. Zircon in ceramic tiles and sanitary ware --
6. Zircon in foundries --
7. Manufacture of zirconia by fusion of zirconium minerals --
8. Manufacture of zirconium compounds by chemical dissolution of zirconium minerals --
9. Chlorination of zircon and production of zirconium metal --
10. Zircon and fused zirconia in refractories --
11. Zircon as a source of zirconia in glass --
12. Fused zirconia in other applications --
Append. I. Uranium and thorium decay series --
Append II. Radionuclide activity concentrations in zirconium minerals --
Append. III. Doses attributable to the transport of zirconium minerals and raw materials --
Annex I. Mining and processing of heavy mineral sands --
Annex II. Monitoring for the assessment of occupational exposure in zircon milling plants.
Series Title: Safety reports series, no. 51.
Other Titles: Radiation protection and naturally occurring radioactive material residue management in the zircon and zirconia industries

Abstract:

Zircon has economic importance as a raw material in its own right and also as a feedstock for the manufacture of zirconia (zirconium dioxide), zirconium chemicals and zirconium metal. The geological processes that formed zircon led to the incorporation of radionuclides of natural origin into the crystal structure. The presence of these radionuclides is not significant enough to be of any commercial value, but creates a possible need to control exposures of workers and members of the public. This report provides detailed information on all the major industrial applications of zircon and zirconia, the processes involved, the management of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) residues arising from such processes, the radiological characteristics of the process materials, exposure pathways to workers and members of the public, exposure levels, annual effective doses, and examples of good practice with respect to monitoring techniques and practical measures to reduce doses. For each process or industrial application, the available information is used as the basis for assessing the regulatory implications in terms of the standards for radiation protection and management of radioactive waste.--Publisher's description.

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