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The reign of Elizabeth, 1558-1603

Author: J B Black
Publisher: Oxford : Clarendon Press, [1945]
Series: Oxford history of England, v. 8.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: J B Black
OCLC Number: 5077207
Description: vii, 448 pages : illustrations ; 23 cm.
Contents: I. The queen and the religious settlement : Condition of England at Elizabeth's accession ; Character of the Queen ; Opening of the reign ; The impending revolution in policy and religion ; Appointment of Sir William Cecil as secretary of state ; His character ; Caution of the government ; Inconsistency of the queen ; First parliament ; The conference of Westminster ; The acts of supremacy and uniformity ; Execution of the acts ; Resistance of the catholic episcopate ; Surrender of the lower clergy ; Reception of the settlement by the laity ; Second parliament ; The settlement in its European aspect: Attitude of the papacy ; Attitude of Philip II of Spain ; Papal missions to England ; Explanation of the fall of Catholicism in England ; Installation of Matthew Parker as archbishop of Canterbury ; Task of the archbishop ; Doctrine and discipline ; Bishop Jewel's 'Apology' ; Spoliation of the church II. England and France : The question of Calais ; Attitude of Philip II to its recovery ; Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ; Continued hostility of France ; Dominance of the house of Guise: position of the French in Scotland ; The Scottish reformation: John Knox ; Elizabeth assists the Scots underhand ; English council decides upon open intervention ; An offensive and defensive alliance concluded with Scotland ; Sir Thomas Gresham's exploits in the Netherlands ; Sir Nicholas Throckmorton's advice ; The tumult of Amboise and the war in Scotland ; Treaty of Edinburg: its sequel ; The Guises fall from power ; Elizabeth, Lord Robert Dudley, and Amy Robsart ; The tragedy at Cumnor Place ; Elizabeth seeks allies abroad ; Rumors of Catholic leagues Growing anarchy in France : Duke of Guise returns to power: the Huguenots appeal to Elizabeth for help ; Elizabeth's offer of mediation refused: Throckmorton's plan for intervention ; Conditions of English assistance to Huguenots ; Treaty of Richmond and its character ; Philip II's dilemma ; The English occupy Le Havre ; Effect upon France: siege of Le Havre by the French ; Evacuation of Le Havre by the English ; Treaty of Troyes III. Mary Stuart and the succession : Mary Stuart returns to Scotland: her character ; Position of Anglo-Scottish relations ; Scottish fears as to Mary's intentions ; Her moderation ; Her success ; The question of the Stuart claim to the English Succession ; Maitland of Lethington's mission to the English Court ; Elizabeth's attitude to the Stuart claim ; The war in France prevents a conference ; Mary decides to "marry powerfully" ; The Don Carlos marriage proposal ; Elizabeth offers Lord Robert Dudley ; The Berwick conference: its failure ; The Earl of Lennox and Lord Darnley in Scotland ; Mary defies Elizabeth and marries Darnley ; Rebellion of the Earl of Murray: his expulsion from Scotland ; Dismissal of English ambassador from Edinburgh: Mary's relations with the Papacy ; Her appeal to Rome and Spain for help ; Collapse of her plans: murder of Rizzio ; Return of Murray to Edinburgh ; The English parliament, Elizabeth's marriage, and the succession question ; Elizabeth's reply to parliament ; Parliament demands the declaration of a successor ; Elizabeth refuses; Darnley's estrangement of his wife ; The tragedy of Kirk o' Field ; Mary's conduct after the murder: her marriage to the Earl of Bothwell ; Rebellion of the Scottish lords: imprisonment of Mary in Loch Leven castle: Elizabeth's intervention ; Compulsory abdication of Mary: resentment of the Scots at English interference ; Battle of Langside: escape of Mary to England: Elizabeth's quandary ; The conference at York ; The conference at Westminster ; Consequences of Mary's imprisonment in England IV. Years of crisis: 1568-75 : Beginning of the quarrel with Spain: Philip II's troubles in the Netherlands ; England foments the troubles ; Fugitive Flemings in England ; Philip's relations with English catholics ; Economic rivalry of England and Spain: John Hawkins's slaving voyages to the West Indies ; Spanish precautions ; The 'affair' at San Juan de Ulloa ; Other economic differences: piracy ; Alva in the Netherlands: Elizabeth favours the gueux de mer ; Seizure of Spanish treasure ; Machinations of Don Guerau de Spes: recommends an economic blockade of England ; Foments the plot against Cecil: unsatisfactory state of Anglo-French relations ; Failure of the blockade: failure of the plot against Cecil ; Alva warns de Spes: Elizabeth forbids the marriage of the Duck of Norfolk and Mary Stuart ; The rebellion of the earls: backwardness of the North ; Feudalism and Catholicism ; Elizabeth's treatment of the northern lords ; Precautions of the government against rebellion ; The Earl of Sussex fails to retain the earls in their allegiance: outbreak of rebellion: its objects ; Immobility of Sussex at York: march of the rebels southward ; Their defeat and flight to Scotland ; The aftermath: the Dacre rebellion: battle of the Gelt ; Spoliation of the north ; Punishment of the rebels: miserable state of the North ; English punitive raids into Scotland: Elizabeth refuses to become further involved: seeks a restoration of Mary Stuart ; Spanish scare in England ; Negotiations for the restoration of Mary: Elizabeth's terms: failure of the negotiations ; Proposal for the marriage of Elizabeth and the Duke of Anjou ; The Ridolfi conspiracy ; Norfolk's part in it ; Alva discountenances it ; Discovery of the plot: execution of Norfolk ; Failure of the Anjou marriage project ; Walsingham's scheme for assisting a Huguenot invasion of the Netherlands ; The treaty of Blois ; The capture of Brill: revolt of the Netherlands: Sir Humphrey Gilbert at Flushing: defeat of the Huguenots under Genlis at Mons ; Massacre of St. Bartholomew ; Its effect upon Europe ; Attitude of England to it ; Elizabeth resolves to maintain relations with France ; Elizabeth intervenes again in Scotland: reduction of Edinburgh castle by the English ; Peace restored in France: Henry III succeeds to the throne: uncertainty of his attitude to England ; Renewal of the league with France: changed attitude of England to Spain ; Settlement of the economic impasse: reopening of trade between England and the Netherlands V. Catholic and Puritan : Changed position of English catholics after 1570 ; Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth: defects of the papal bull ; Its purpose ; Its reception on the continent: in England ; Reply of the government: the first penal statue: recusancy begins ; Foundation of the catholic seminary at Douai ; Non-political aims of the seminarists ; Pope Gregory XIII and the English 'Jezebel': the Jesuit mission: its instructions ; The Explanatio: the Empresa ; Sir Thomas Stukeley conducts a papal expedition to Ireland: the Jesuit mission compromised ; Gregory approves of the assassination of Elizabeth ; Edmund Campion and Robert Persons ; A secret catholic printing press set up in England ; Book-running: Ralph Emerson ; More penal statutes against catholics ; A reign of terror in England ; Heroism of the priests: condemnation of Elizabeth abroad ; Comparative mildness of the persecution: the Puritan attack on the church ; General meaning of puritanism ; Corruption in the church ; The Vestiarian controversy ; Irregularities in the church service: Parker's Book of Advertisements ; The puritans attack the bishops ; Parker's difficulties: Dr. Thomas Cartwright ; His views on church polity: the Admonitions to parliament ; Puritanism in parliament: Walter Strickland ; Archbishop Grindal and the 'prophesyings': his suspension from office ; Whitgift as archbishop of Canterbury: his policy ; The court of High Commission ; The classical movement: separatism ; Martin Marprelate controversy ; Richard Bancroft ; Repression of the extremist puritans ; Note on Anabaptism VI. The Constitution : Constitutional interest of the reign ; The Privy Council ; Its composition: rivalry among its members ; Functions of the council ; The Court of Star Chamber ; Its procedure ; Local administration ; The Justice of the Peace: the Sheriff ; The Lord Lieutenant ; Sphere of parliament ; Means by which the crown controlled it: position of the Speaker ; Elizabeth's dislike of long parliaments: the four parliamentary liberties ; Freedom of speech restricted: the principal matters withdrawn from parliamentary discussion ; Conflict of crown and parliament : Over the succession ; Over ecclesiastical affairs. Walter Strickland detained ; Peter Wentworth's speech against 'rumours and messages': his imprisonment ; Paul Wentworth ; Anthony Cope's Bill and Book: Peter Wentworth's questions ; Cope and Wentworth sent to the Tower: Wentworth revives the succession question: is again sent to prison ; Mr. Attorney Morrice and the tyranny of the ecclesiastical courts ; Parliament and finance ; Increased subsidy bills: parliamentary opposition ; Last parliament of the reign: angry debates on finance ; Monopolies ; The queen intervenes ; Her last speech to Parliament VII. The expansion of England, and the economic and social revolution : England's relative backwardness in maritime exploit: economically a poor country ; extent of trade in 1558: the Muscovy Company and the north-east passage to Cathay: Stephen Burrough ; Anthony Jenkinson's journey to Bokhara and Persia ; Growing trade with Russia: prosperity of the Muscovy Company ; Sir Humphrey Gilbert and the north-west passage: Sir Martin Frobisher's voyages to the Arctic ; Voyage of Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman to the Kara Sea: William Harborne at Constantinople ; Trade with Turkey : Thomas Newbery and Ralph Fitch journey to India ; Sir John Davis and the north-west passage ; The plantation of America mooted ; Gilbert's voyage to Newfoundland: his death ; Sir Walter Raleigh plants Virginia: causes of his failure ; Sir Francis Drake ; His piratical expeditions to Central America ; The voyage of circumnavigation ; Sir Thomas Cavendish: Sir James Lancaster's voyage to Ceylon, Malacca, and Sumatra ; Foundation of the East India Company ; An important phase in England's economic development ; Enclosures for pasture continue ; Enclosures for arable also prevalent ; The economic problem of the age: rising prices: the enclosures blamed ; Statutes against the enclosers: suffering of the poorer classes ; Prosperity of the free-holders: industrial expansion ; The cloth industry: the extractive industries ; Covetousness of gain: company promoters, clerical cupidity, speculators, embezzlers ; Land-hunger: litigiousness of the age: lawlessness ; Government measures: coinage reform, statute of apprentices, regulation of prices, markets, forestalling and regrating, weights and measures, etc ; Condition of the roads: highwaymen ; Rogues and vagabonds ; Government policy in regard to the problem of poverty ; Evolution of the Poor Law ; The social revolution ; The mingle mangle of dress ; Elements of male costume ; Women's dress ; Cuts, cosmetics, and perfumes ; A militant civility: houses ; Food ; Garaussing: tobacco: gardens ; London ; St. Paul's, theatre, the bear garden ; Sports and pastimes: bear-baiting ; Deer hunting, falconry, archery, fencing ; Prevailing tone of society VIII. Literature, art, and thought : Connection between life and literature of the age ; Elizabethan literature neither political nor romantic ; Prevalence of historical and geographical works ; William Camden and Richard Hakluyt ; History in verse: heroic poetry ; Glorification of the English language ; Vogue of translations ; Erotic verse: the sonnet: the ballad ; Edmund Spenser ; The Faerie Queene ; Elizabethan prose: Euphues ; Grene, Dekker, Deloney, and Nash ; Increasing use of prose: its perfection ; The drama: its beginnings ; Thomas Kyd and Christopher Marlowe ; Shakespeare ; Ben Jonson ; Other dramatists ; The fine arts : Painting ; Sculpture and architecture : Gresham's Royal Exchange ; Domestic dwellings ; Character of Elizabethan architecture ; The demand for symmetry and light ; Sitting and structure of houses. Music : William Byrd ; The madrigal ; John Dowland. Physical Science : Copernicus ; English Copernicans: persistence of Ptolemaic imagery ; Astrology ; Alchemy ; Medicine : Galenism discredited ; Backwardness of England: study of anatomy and physicology ; The theory of humours: the apothecary: Beginnings of clinical study ; Physicians and surgeons of the time. Zoology : Dr. Caius and John Maplet. Botany : William Turner, Matthias Lobel, Henry Lyte, and John Gerard. Geography : Progress during the reign: Dr. John Dee. Camden and Hakluyt: their limitations ; Education : Schools and universities ; Subjects of study ; Roger Ascham's Scholemaster: his principles of education and method of instruction: the object of education. Superstitions ; Witchcraft ; Sorcery ; Spread of the scientific spirit IX. Elizabeth and the Netherlands : Character of Elizabeth's foreign policy ; Position of England in 1575 ; Pacification of the Netherlands the chief problem: attitudes of the queen, William of Orange, and Philip II ; Conflicting ideas of Elizabeth and Orange ; The queen and Spanish policy : perilous state of Holland and Zeeland ; Tension between English and Dutch: mutiny of Spanish troops ; Pacification of Ghent: arrival of Don John of Austria: his reception and plans ; Don John's dilemma: the Perpetual Edict: Orange suspicious ; Elizabeth's doubtful attitude: Don John seizes Namur: William Davison's mission to the States General ; Offer of English assistance to Orange: further appeal for peace to Philip II: danger of French intervention ; Duke of Anjou (Alencon) plans an invasion of the Netherlands ; Elizabeth holds aloof, but subsidizes John Casimir: arrival of Don Bernardino de Mendoza in England ; Mendoza's mission: his reception: clamor of war party in England ; Walsingham sent to the Netherlands: his failure ; Chaos in the Netherlands: Elizabeth revives the Anjou marriage proposal ; Advantages of the marriage: mission of Jean de Simier to England ; Puritan opposition to the marriage ; The marriage negotiations abandoned: Parma becomes governor of the Netherlands ; Fears of Spanish aggrandizement: the Portuguese succession question ; Portugal annexed by Spain: Elizabeth encourages Anjou to invade the Netherlands ; The Anjou marriage proposal gain: Walsingham's mission to the French Court ; Anjou in England ; Unpopularity of Anjou in the Netherlands: defeat of the French at the battle of Terceira ; The 'French Fury' at Antwerp: discredit of Anjou ; Political revolution in Scotland ; Arrival of Esme Stuart: fall of Morton ; Character of James VI ; The Lennox-Guise plot ; Triumph of the Anglophil party: flight of Lennox ; The plot reconstructed: Walsingham sent to Scotland ; Discovery of the plot: Mendoza expelled from England ; Parma's triumphant career in the Netherlands: assassination of Orange: feebleness of France ; Elizabeth accepts the protectorate of the Netherlands ; Leicester's expedition: its failure ; Sir Philip Sidney ; Drake sets out for the West Indies ; Further revolution in Scotland: Treaty of Berwick ; Note on Scotland: Note on the change in the calendar X. The execution of Mary Stuart: The Spanish armada : Elizabeth protects Mary from the English protestants ; Her life in captivity ; Her plotting: failure to reach a modus vivendi with her ; Elizabeth threatened with assassination ; The Bond of Association : Mary removed to Tutbury: Sir Amyas Paulet becomes her jailer ; Walsingham plans her destruction: the trap set at Chartley ; The Babington conspiracy: Mary's complicity in it ; Round-up of the conspirators ; Elizabeth tormented by scruples: appoints a commission to try Mary ; The verdict: parliament demands the death penalty ; Elizabeth hesitates: Mary resolves to die a martyr's death ; The death warrant signed: its execution: Elizabeth's anger ; Outcry in Scotland and France ; Philip II's decision to launch an armada against England ; Machinations of Olivarez at Rome ; Real design of Philip: the exclusion of James VI ; Spain prepares: plan of Santa Cruz: Mendoza's advice ; Help expected from the catholics in England: first reports of Spanish preparations reach England ; Drake's raid on Cadiz ; Parma counsels a settlement by negotiation: Duke of Medina Sidonia in command: departure of Armada ; Anxiety in Spain: confidence in England: instructions to Sidona ; Criticism of the instructions ; English preparations to meet Armada ; Howard passes from the defensive to the offensive ; The Armada sights the Lizard: fighting in the Channel ; The fire-ships and the battle of Gravelines ; Causes of the defeat of the Spaniards: mystery of the whereabouts of the Armada after the battle ; Arrival of the remnant at Santader ; Effect of the disaster on the Spanish king ; Note on losses XI. The Elizabethan state at war: last years of the reign : England's failure to use her strategic advantage after Gravelines: reasons for this: its consequences ; Anxiety in the country: reorganization of military defence: fear of Spanish aggression in Picardy and Brittany ; Intensification of the campaign against catholics: economic troubles ; General character of the naval war ; Expedition of Drake and Norreys to Spain ; Other expeditions to Spanish waters ; Last fight of the Revenge: the Madre de Dios ; Elizabeth assists Henry IV: Spaniars at Blavet: Norreys at Paimpol ; Roger Williams and Essex in Normandy: Norreys defeated at Craon: conversion of Henry IV ; Spaniards attack Brest: capture of fort Crozen by the English ; Drake and Hawkins in the West Indies: death of Hawkins ; Death of Drake: Spaniards capture Calais ; Essex at Cadiz: greatness of Essex ; His character, opportunities, and rivals: his popularity ; Elizabeth distrusts him: his disappointments ; A second Spanish Armada dispersed: Essex, Howard, Vere, and Raleigh at the Azores ; A third Armada dispersed: France makes peace with Spain at Vervins: death of Burghley ; Essex sent to Ireland ; His failure, disobedience, rebellion, and condemnation ; He is executed for treason ; Desire of English catholics for alleviation of their position ; Division in their ranks: difficulties of enforcing the laws against them ; Reasons for the changed attitude: seculars and Jesuits ; The archpriest controversy ; Bancroft's plan for a settlement of the catholic problem: Elizabeth's refusal to grant toleration ; Failure of Bancroft's plan ; Submission of thirteen priests ; The problem of puritanism: Hooker's 'Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity' : His argument and purpose ; The puritans irreconcilable ; Baffling character of the Irish problem: reasons for English failure ; Political state of the country ; The inhabitants: English, Anglo-Irish, and mere Irish: their traits ; The problem of the English government stated: religious condition of the Irish ; First Irish parliament and church reform ; Slow progress fo the reformation: Sir Henry Sidney's reports ; Anarchy in Ulster: Shan O'Neill ; His ambitions, policy, and death ; Anarchy in Munster the Earl of Desmond: recommendations of Sidney ; Henry VIII's policy revived: the 'composition' of Connaught ; Revolutionary policy of the English: Sir John Perrot's regulations ; The 'plantation' of Ireland mooted: experiments in Munster and Ulster ; Sir Walter Raleigh's colony in Munster ; Beginnings of Irish reaction: James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald ; His appeal for help to Spain and Rome ; The Fitzmaurice rebellion: its aftermath ; Attitude of Spain: O'Donnell of Ulster in revolt ; The Earl of Tyrone: his character and policy ; Geographical difficulty of subduing Ireland: unpopularity of Irish wars ; use of mercenary Irish by the English ; Spain becomes actively interested in Ireland ; Exploits of Tyrone: general rising of the Irish ; Earl of Essex in Ireland: his parleys with Tyrone ; Sir Arthur Mountjoy succeeds Essex: difficulty of his task: conquest of Ulster imperative ; The Spaniards arrive at Kinsale: siege of the town by the English ; Expulsion of the Spaniards: reduction of Ireland to obedience ; Results of the struggle: economic and other consequences XIII. The end : Increasing loneliness of the queen ; Her prolonged depression after the death of Essex ; Her last illness and death.
Series Title: Oxford history of England, v. 8.
Responsibility: by J.B. Black.

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    schema:description "IV. Years of crisis: 1568-75 : Beginning of the quarrel with Spain: Philip II's troubles in the Netherlands ; England foments the troubles ; Fugitive Flemings in England ; Philip's relations with English catholics ; Economic rivalry of England and Spain: John Hawkins's slaving voyages to the West Indies ; Spanish precautions ; The 'affair' at San Juan de Ulloa ; Other economic differences: piracy ; Alva in the Netherlands: Elizabeth favours the gueux de mer ; Seizure of Spanish treasure ; Machinations of Don Guerau de Spes: recommends an economic blockade of England ; Foments the plot against Cecil: unsatisfactory state of Anglo-French relations ; Failure of the blockade: failure of the plot against Cecil ; Alva warns de Spes: Elizabeth forbids the marriage of the Duck of Norfolk and Mary Stuart ; The rebellion of the earls: backwardness of the North ; Feudalism and Catholicism ; Elizabeth's treatment of the northern lords ; Precautions of the government against rebellion ; The Earl of Sussex fails to retain the earls in their allegiance: outbreak of rebellion: its objects ; Immobility of Sussex at York: march of the rebels southward ; Their defeat and flight to Scotland ; The aftermath: the Dacre rebellion: battle of the Gelt ; Spoliation of the north ; Punishment of the rebels: miserable state of the North ; English punitive raids into Scotland: Elizabeth refuses to become further involved: seeks a restoration of Mary Stuart ; Spanish scare in England ; Negotiations for the restoration of Mary: Elizabeth's terms: failure of the negotiations ; Proposal for the marriage of Elizabeth and the Duke of Anjou ; The Ridolfi conspiracy ; Norfolk's part in it ; Alva discountenances it ; Discovery of the plot: execution of Norfolk ; Failure of the Anjou marriage project ; Walsingham's scheme for assisting a Huguenot invasion of the Netherlands ; The treaty of Blois ; The capture of Brill: revolt of the Netherlands: Sir Humphrey Gilbert at Flushing: defeat of the Huguenots under Genlis at Mons ; Massacre of St. Bartholomew ; Its effect upon Europe ; Attitude of England to it ; Elizabeth resolves to maintain relations with France ; Elizabeth intervenes again in Scotland: reduction of Edinburgh castle by the English ; Peace restored in France: Henry III succeeds to the throne: uncertainty of his attitude to England ; Renewal of the league with France: changed attitude of England to Spain ; Settlement of the economic impasse: reopening of trade between England and the Netherlands"@en ;
    schema:description "I. The queen and the religious settlement : Condition of England at Elizabeth's accession ; Character of the Queen ; Opening of the reign ; The impending revolution in policy and religion ; Appointment of Sir William Cecil as secretary of state ; His character ; Caution of the government ; Inconsistency of the queen ; First parliament ; The conference of Westminster ; The acts of supremacy and uniformity ; Execution of the acts ; Resistance of the catholic episcopate ; Surrender of the lower clergy ; Reception of the settlement by the laity ; Second parliament ; The settlement in its European aspect: Attitude of the papacy ; Attitude of Philip II of Spain ; Papal missions to England ; Explanation of the fall of Catholicism in England ; Installation of Matthew Parker as archbishop of Canterbury ; Task of the archbishop ; Doctrine and discipline ; Bishop Jewel's 'Apology' ; Spoliation of the church"@en ;
    schema:description "VII. The expansion of England, and the economic and social revolution : England's relative backwardness in maritime exploit: economically a poor country ; extent of trade in 1558: the Muscovy Company and the north-east passage to Cathay: Stephen Burrough ; Anthony Jenkinson's journey to Bokhara and Persia ; Growing trade with Russia: prosperity of the Muscovy Company ; Sir Humphrey Gilbert and the north-west passage: Sir Martin Frobisher's voyages to the Arctic ; Voyage of Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman to the Kara Sea: William Harborne at Constantinople ; Trade with Turkey : Thomas Newbery and Ralph Fitch journey to India ; Sir John Davis and the north-west passage ; The plantation of America mooted ; Gilbert's voyage to Newfoundland: his death ; Sir Walter Raleigh plants Virginia: causes of his failure ; Sir Francis Drake ; His piratical expeditions to Central America ; The voyage of circumnavigation ; Sir Thomas Cavendish: Sir James Lancaster's voyage to Ceylon, Malacca, and Sumatra ; Foundation of the East India Company ; An important phase in England's economic development ; Enclosures for pasture continue ; Enclosures for arable also prevalent ; The economic problem of the age: rising prices: the enclosures blamed ; Statutes against the enclosers: suffering of the poorer classes ; Prosperity of the free-holders: industrial expansion ; The cloth industry: the extractive industries ; Covetousness of gain: company promoters, clerical cupidity, speculators, embezzlers ; Land-hunger: litigiousness of the age: lawlessness ; Government measures: coinage reform, statute of apprentices, regulation of prices, markets, forestalling and regrating, weights and measures, etc ; Condition of the roads: highwaymen ; Rogues and vagabonds ; Government policy in regard to the problem of poverty ; Evolution of the Poor Law ; The social revolution ; The mingle mangle of dress ; Elements of male costume ; Women's dress ; Cuts, cosmetics, and perfumes ; A militant civility: houses ; Food ; Garaussing: tobacco: gardens ; London ; St. Paul's, theatre, the bear garden ; Sports and pastimes: bear-baiting ; Deer hunting, falconry, archery, fencing ; Prevailing tone of society"@en ;
    schema:description "VI. The Constitution : Constitutional interest of the reign ; The Privy Council ; Its composition: rivalry among its members ; Functions of the council ; The Court of Star Chamber ; Its procedure ; Local administration ; The Justice of the Peace: the Sheriff ; The Lord Lieutenant ; Sphere of parliament ; Means by which the crown controlled it: position of the Speaker ; Elizabeth's dislike of long parliaments: the four parliamentary liberties ; Freedom of speech restricted: the principal matters withdrawn from parliamentary discussion ; Conflict of crown and parliament : Over the succession ; Over ecclesiastical affairs. Walter Strickland detained ; Peter Wentworth's speech against 'rumours and messages': his imprisonment ; Paul Wentworth ; Anthony Cope's Bill and Book: Peter Wentworth's questions ; Cope and Wentworth sent to the Tower: Wentworth revives the succession question: is again sent to prison ; Mr. Attorney Morrice and the tyranny of the ecclesiastical courts ; Parliament and finance ; Increased subsidy bills: parliamentary opposition ; Last parliament of the reign: angry debates on finance ; Monopolies ; The queen intervenes ; Her last speech to Parliament"@en ;
    schema:description "X. The execution of Mary Stuart: The Spanish armada : Elizabeth protects Mary from the English protestants ; Her life in captivity ; Her plotting: failure to reach a modus vivendi with her ; Elizabeth threatened with assassination ; The Bond of Association : Mary removed to Tutbury: Sir Amyas Paulet becomes her jailer ; Walsingham plans her destruction: the trap set at Chartley ; The Babington conspiracy: Mary's complicity in it ; Round-up of the conspirators ; Elizabeth tormented by scruples: appoints a commission to try Mary ; The verdict: parliament demands the death penalty ; Elizabeth hesitates: Mary resolves to die a martyr's death ; The death warrant signed: its execution: Elizabeth's anger ; Outcry in Scotland and France ; Philip II's decision to launch an armada against England ; Machinations of Olivarez at Rome ; Real design of Philip: the exclusion of James VI ; Spain prepares: plan of Santa Cruz: Mendoza's advice ; Help expected from the catholics in England: first reports of Spanish preparations reach England ; Drake's raid on Cadiz ; Parma counsels a settlement by negotiation: Duke of Medina Sidonia in command: departure of Armada ; Anxiety in Spain: confidence in England: instructions to Sidona ; Criticism of the instructions ; English preparations to meet Armada ; Howard passes from the defensive to the offensive ; The Armada sights the Lizard: fighting in the Channel ; The fire-ships and the battle of Gravelines ; Causes of the defeat of the Spaniards: mystery of the whereabouts of the Armada after the battle ; Arrival of the remnant at Santader ; Effect of the disaster on the Spanish king ; Note on losses"@en ;
    schema:description "VIII. Literature, art, and thought : Connection between life and literature of the age ; Elizabethan literature neither political nor romantic ; Prevalence of historical and geographical works ; William Camden and Richard Hakluyt ; History in verse: heroic poetry ; Glorification of the English language ; Vogue of translations ; Erotic verse: the sonnet: the ballad ; Edmund Spenser ; The Faerie Queene ; Elizabethan prose: Euphues ; Grene, Dekker, Deloney, and Nash ; Increasing use of prose: its perfection ; The drama: its beginnings ; Thomas Kyd and Christopher Marlowe ; Shakespeare ; Ben Jonson ; Other dramatists ; The fine arts : Painting ; Sculpture and architecture : Gresham's Royal Exchange ; Domestic dwellings ; Character of Elizabethan architecture ; The demand for symmetry and light ; Sitting and structure of houses. Music : William Byrd ; The madrigal ; John Dowland. Physical Science : Copernicus ; English Copernicans: persistence of Ptolemaic imagery ; Astrology ; Alchemy ; Medicine : Galenism discredited ; Backwardness of England: study of anatomy and physicology ; The theory of humours: the apothecary: Beginnings of clinical study ; Physicians and surgeons of the time. Zoology : Dr. Caius and John Maplet. Botany : William Turner, Matthias Lobel, Henry Lyte, and John Gerard. Geography : Progress during the reign: Dr. John Dee. Camden and Hakluyt: their limitations ; Education : Schools and universities ; Subjects of study ; Roger Ascham's Scholemaster: his principles of education and method of instruction: the object of education. Superstitions ; Witchcraft ; Sorcery ; Spread of the scientific spirit"@en ;
    schema:description "III. Mary Stuart and the succession : Mary Stuart returns to Scotland: her character ; Position of Anglo-Scottish relations ; Scottish fears as to Mary's intentions ; Her moderation ; Her success ; The question of the Stuart claim to the English Succession ; Maitland of Lethington's mission to the English Court ; Elizabeth's attitude to the Stuart claim ; The war in France prevents a conference ; Mary decides to "marry powerfully" ; The Don Carlos marriage proposal ; Elizabeth offers Lord Robert Dudley ; The Berwick conference: its failure ; The Earl of Lennox and Lord Darnley in Scotland ; Mary defies Elizabeth and marries Darnley ; Rebellion of the Earl of Murray: his expulsion from Scotland ; Dismissal of English ambassador from Edinburgh: Mary's relations with the Papacy ; Her appeal to Rome and Spain for help ; Collapse of her plans: murder of Rizzio ; Return of Murray to Edinburgh ; The English parliament, Elizabeth's marriage, and the succession question ; Elizabeth's reply to parliament ; Parliament demands the declaration of a successor ; Elizabeth refuses; Darnley's estrangement of his wife ; The tragedy of Kirk o' Field ; Mary's conduct after the murder: her marriage to the Earl of Bothwell ; Rebellion of the Scottish lords: imprisonment of Mary in Loch Leven castle: Elizabeth's intervention ; Compulsory abdication of Mary: resentment of the Scots at English interference ; Battle of Langside: escape of Mary to England: Elizabeth's quandary ; The conference at York ; The conference at Westminster ; Consequences of Mary's imprisonment in England"@en ;
    schema:description "V. Catholic and Puritan : Changed position of English catholics after 1570 ; Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth: defects of the papal bull ; Its purpose ; Its reception on the continent: in England ; Reply of the government: the first penal statue: recusancy begins ; Foundation of the catholic seminary at Douai ; Non-political aims of the seminarists ; Pope Gregory XIII and the English 'Jezebel': the Jesuit mission: its instructions ; The Explanatio: the Empresa ; Sir Thomas Stukeley conducts a papal expedition to Ireland: the Jesuit mission compromised ; Gregory approves of the assassination of Elizabeth ; Edmund Campion and Robert Persons ; A secret catholic printing press set up in England ; Book-running: Ralph Emerson ; More penal statutes against catholics ; A reign of terror in England ; Heroism of the priests: condemnation of Elizabeth abroad ; Comparative mildness of the persecution: the Puritan attack on the church ; General meaning of puritanism ; Corruption in the church ; The Vestiarian controversy ; Irregularities in the church service: Parker's Book of Advertisements ; The puritans attack the bishops ; Parker's difficulties: Dr. Thomas Cartwright ; His views on church polity: the Admonitions to parliament ; Puritanism in parliament: Walter Strickland ; Archbishop Grindal and the 'prophesyings': his suspension from office ; Whitgift as archbishop of Canterbury: his policy ; The court of High Commission ; The classical movement: separatism ; Martin Marprelate controversy ; Richard Bancroft ; Repression of the extremist puritans ; Note on Anabaptism"@en ;
    schema:description "XI. The Elizabethan state at war: last years of the reign : England's failure to use her strategic advantage after Gravelines: reasons for this: its consequences ; Anxiety in the country: reorganization of military defence: fear of Spanish aggression in Picardy and Brittany ; Intensification of the campaign against catholics: economic troubles ; General character of the naval war ; Expedition of Drake and Norreys to Spain ; Other expeditions to Spanish waters ; Last fight of the Revenge: the Madre de Dios ; Elizabeth assists Henry IV: Spaniars at Blavet: Norreys at Paimpol ; Roger Williams and Essex in Normandy: Norreys defeated at Craon: conversion of Henry IV ; Spaniards attack Brest: capture of fort Crozen by the English ; Drake and Hawkins in the West Indies: death of Hawkins ; Death of Drake: Spaniards capture Calais ; Essex at Cadiz: greatness of Essex ; His character, opportunities, and rivals: his popularity ; Elizabeth distrusts him: his disappointments ; A second Spanish Armada dispersed: Essex, Howard, Vere, and Raleigh at the Azores ; A third Armada dispersed: France makes peace with Spain at Vervins: death of Burghley ; Essex sent to Ireland ; His failure, disobedience, rebellion, and condemnation ; He is executed for treason ; Desire of English catholics for alleviation of their position ; Division in their ranks: difficulties of enforcing the laws against them ; Reasons for the changed attitude: seculars and Jesuits ; The archpriest controversy ; Bancroft's plan for a settlement of the catholic problem: Elizabeth's refusal to grant toleration ; Failure of Bancroft's plan ; Submission of thirteen priests ; The problem of puritanism: Hooker's 'Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity' : His argument and purpose ; The puritans irreconcilable ; Baffling character of the Irish problem: reasons for English failure ; Political state of the country ; The inhabitants: English, Anglo-Irish, and mere Irish: their traits ; The problem of the English government stated: religious condition of the Irish ; First Irish parliament and church reform ; Slow progress fo the reformation: Sir Henry Sidney's reports ; Anarchy in Ulster: Shan O'Neill ; His ambitions, policy, and death ; Anarchy in Munster the Earl of Desmond: recommendations of Sidney ; Henry VIII's policy revived: the 'composition' of Connaught ; Revolutionary policy of the English: Sir John Perrot's regulations ; The 'plantation' of Ireland mooted: experiments in Munster and Ulster ; Sir Walter Raleigh's colony in Munster ; Beginnings of Irish reaction: James Fitzmaurice Fitzgerald ; His appeal for help to Spain and Rome ; The Fitzmaurice rebellion: its aftermath ; Attitude of Spain: O'Donnell of Ulster in revolt ; The Earl of Tyrone: his character and policy ; Geographical difficulty of subduing Ireland: unpopularity of Irish wars ; use of mercenary Irish by the English ; Spain becomes actively interested in Ireland ; Exploits of Tyrone: general rising of the Irish ; Earl of Essex in Ireland: his parleys with Tyrone ; Sir Arthur Mountjoy succeeds Essex: difficulty of his task: conquest of Ulster imperative ; The Spaniards arrive at Kinsale: siege of the town by the English ; Expulsion of the Spaniards: reduction of Ireland to obedience ; Results of the struggle: economic and other consequences"@en ;
    schema:description "II. England and France : The question of Calais ; Attitude of Philip II to its recovery ; Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis ; Continued hostility of France ; Dominance of the house of Guise: position of the French in Scotland ; The Scottish reformation: John Knox ; Elizabeth assists the Scots underhand ; English council decides upon open intervention ; An offensive and defensive alliance concluded with Scotland ; Sir Thomas Gresham's exploits in the Netherlands ; Sir Nicholas Throckmorton's advice ; The tumult of Amboise and the war in Scotland ; Treaty of Edinburg: its sequel ; The Guises fall from power ; Elizabeth, Lord Robert Dudley, and Amy Robsart ; The tragedy at Cumnor Place ; Elizabeth seeks allies abroad ; Rumors of Catholic leagues Growing anarchy in France : Duke of Guise returns to power: the Huguenots appeal to Elizabeth for help ; Elizabeth's offer of mediation refused: Throckmorton's plan for intervention ; Conditions of English assistance to Huguenots ; Treaty of Richmond and its character ; Philip II's dilemma ; The English occupy Le Havre ; Effect upon France: siege of Le Havre by the French ; Evacuation of Le Havre by the English ; Treaty of Troyes"@en ;
    schema:description "IX. Elizabeth and the Netherlands : Character of Elizabeth's foreign policy ; Position of England in 1575 ; Pacification of the Netherlands the chief problem: attitudes of the queen, William of Orange, and Philip II ; Conflicting ideas of Elizabeth and Orange ; The queen and Spanish policy : perilous state of Holland and Zeeland ; Tension between English and Dutch: mutiny of Spanish troops ; Pacification of Ghent: arrival of Don John of Austria: his reception and plans ; Don John's dilemma: the Perpetual Edict: Orange suspicious ; Elizabeth's doubtful attitude: Don John seizes Namur: William Davison's mission to the States General ; Offer of English assistance to Orange: further appeal for peace to Philip II: danger of French intervention ; Duke of Anjou (Alencon) plans an invasion of the Netherlands ; Elizabeth holds aloof, but subsidizes John Casimir: arrival of Don Bernardino de Mendoza in England ; Mendoza's mission: his reception: clamor of war party in England ; Walsingham sent to the Netherlands: his failure ; Chaos in the Netherlands: Elizabeth revives the Anjou marriage proposal ; Advantages of the marriage: mission of Jean de Simier to England ; Puritan opposition to the marriage ; The marriage negotiations abandoned: Parma becomes governor of the Netherlands ; Fears of Spanish aggrandizement: the Portuguese succession question ; Portugal annexed by Spain: Elizabeth encourages Anjou to invade the Netherlands ; The Anjou marriage proposal gain: Walsingham's mission to the French Court ; Anjou in England ; Unpopularity of Anjou in the Netherlands: defeat of the French at the battle of Terceira ; The 'French Fury' at Antwerp: discredit of Anjou ; Political revolution in Scotland ; Arrival of Esme Stuart: fall of Morton ; Character of James VI ; The Lennox-Guise plot ; Triumph of the Anglophil party: flight of Lennox ; The plot reconstructed: Walsingham sent to Scotland ; Discovery of the plot: Mendoza expelled from England ; Parma's triumphant career in the Netherlands: assassination of Orange: feebleness of France ; Elizabeth accepts the protectorate of the Netherlands ; Leicester's expedition: its failure ; Sir Philip Sidney ; Drake sets out for the West Indies ; Further revolution in Scotland: Treaty of Berwick ; Note on Scotland: Note on the change in the calendar"@en ;
    schema:description "XIII. The end : Increasing loneliness of the queen ; Her prolonged depression after the death of Essex ; Her last illness and death."@en ;
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    schema:publisher <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/415930#Agent/clarendon_press> ; # Clarendon Press
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<http://viaf.org/viaf/66596389> # John Bennett Black
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