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Research design and methods : a process approach

Author: Kenneth S Bordens; Bruce B Abbott
Publisher: New York : McGraw-Hill, ©2011.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 8th edView all editions and formats
Summary:

Guides students through the research process, from conceiving of and developing a research idea, to designing and conducting a study, to analyzing and reporting data. This book offers information on  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Textbooks
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Kenneth S Bordens; Bruce B Abbott
ISBN: 9780073532028 0073532029 9780071289153 0071289151
OCLC Number: 436028182
Description: xxi, 544 pages [57] pages : color illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: Machine generated contents note: ch. 1 Explaining Behavior --
What Is Science, and What Do Scientists Do? --
Science as a Way of Thinking --
How Do Scientists Do Science? --
Basic and Applied Research --
Framing a Problem in Scientific Terms --
Learning About Research: Why Should You Care? --
Exploring the Causes of Behavior --
Explaining Behavior --
Science, Nonscience, and Pseudoscience --
Scientific Explanations --
Commonsense Explanations Versus Scientific Explanations --
Belief-Based Explanations Versus Scientific Explanations --
When Scientific Explanations Fail --
Failures Due to Faulty Inference --
Pseudoexplanations --
Methods of Inquiry --
The Method of Authority --
The Rational Method --
The Scientific Method --
The Scientific Method at Work: Talking on a Cell Phone and the Ability to Drive --
The Steps of the Research Process --
Summary --
Key Terms --
ch. 2 Developing and Evaluating Theories of Behavior --
What Is a Theory? --
Theory Versus Hypothesis --
Theory Versus Law. Theory Versus Model --
Mechanistic Explanations Versus Functional Explanations --
Classifying Theories --
Is the Theory Quantitative or Qualitative? --
At What Level of Description Does the Theory Operate? --
What Is the Theory's Domain? --
Roles of Theory in Science --
Understanding --
Prediction --
Organizing and Interpreting Research Results --
Generating Research --
Characteristics of a Good Theory --
Ability to Account for Data --
Explanatory Relevance --
Testability --
Prediction of Novel Events --
Parsimony --
Strategies for Testing Theories --
Following a Confirmational Strategy --
Following a Disconfirmational Strategy --
Using Confirmational and Disconfirmational Strategies Together --
Using Strong Inference --
Theory-Driven Versus Data-Driven Research --
Summary --
Key Terms --
ch. 3 Getting Ideas for Research --
Sources of Research Ideas --
Experience --
Theory --
Applied Issues --
Developing Good Research Questions --
Asking Answerable Questions --
Asking Important Questions --
Developing Research Ideas: Reviewing the Literature. Reasons for Reviewing the Scientific Literature --
Sources of Research Information --
Performing Library Research --
The Basic Strategy --
Using PsycINFO --
Using PsycARTICLES --
Other Computerized Databases --
General Internet Resources --
Computer Searching for Books and Other Library Materials --
Other Resources --
Reading a Research Report --
Obtaining a Copy --
Reading the Literature Critically --
Factors Affecting the Quality of a Source of Research Information --
Publication Practices --
Statistical Significance --
Consistency With Previous Knowledge --
Significance of the Contribution --
Editorial Policy --
Peer Review --
Values Reflected in Research --
Developing Hypotheses --
Summary --
Key Terms --
ch. 4 Choosing a Research Design --
Functions of a Research Design --
Causal Versus Correlational Relationships --
Correlational Research --
An Example of Correlational Research: Cell Phone Use and Motor Vehicle Accidents --
Behavior Causation and the Correlational Approach --
Why Use Correlational Research? --
Experimental Research. Characteristics of Experimental Research --
An Example of Experimental Research: Cell Phone Use While Driving --
Strengths and Limitations of the Experimental Approach --
Experiments Versus Demonstrations --
Internal and External Validity --
Internal Validity --
External Validity --
Internal Versus External Validity --
Research Settings --
The Laboratory Setting --
The Field Setting --
A Look Ahead --
Summary --
Key Terms --
ch. 5 Making Systematic Observations --
Deciding What to Observe --
Choosing Specific Variables for Your Study --
Research Tradition --
Theory --
Availability of New Techniques --
Availability of Equipment --
Choosing Your Measures --
Reliability of a Measure --
Accuracy of a Measure --
Validity of a Measure --
Acceptance as an Established Measure --
Scale of Measurement --
Variables and Scales of Measurement --
Choosing a Scale of Measurement --
Adequacy of a Dependent Measure --
Tailoring Your Measures to Your Research Participants --
Types of Dependent Variables and How to Use Them --
Choosing When to Observe. The Reactive Nature of Psychological Measurement --
Reactivity in Research with Human Participants --
Demand Characteristics --
Other Influences --
The Role of the Experimenter --
Reactivity in Research with Animal Subjects --
Automating Your Experiments --
Detecting and Correcting Problems --
Conducting a Pilot Study --
Adding Manipulation Checks --
Summary --
Key Terms --
ch. 6 Choosing and Using Research Subjects --
General Considerations --
Populations and Samples --
Sampling and Generalization --
Nonrandom Sampling --
Is Random Sampling Always Necessary? --
Acquiring Human Participants for Research --
The Research Setting --
The Needs of Your Research --
Institutional Policies and Ethical Guidelines --
Voluntary Participation and Validity --
Factors That Affect the Decision to Volunteer --
Volunteerism and Internal Validity --
Volunteerism and External Validity --
Remedies for Volunteerism --
Research Using Deception --
Types of Research Deception --
Problems Involved in Using Deception --
Solutions to the Problem of Deception --
Considerations When Using Animals as Subjects in Research. Contributions of Research Using Animal Subjects --
Choosing Which Animal to Use --
Why Use Animals? --
How to Acquire Animals for Research --
Generality of Animal Research Data --
The Animal Rights Movement --
Animal Research Issues --
Alternatives to Animals in Research: In Vitro Methods and Computer Simulation --
Summary --
Key Terms --
ch. 7 Understanding Ethical Issues in the Research Process --
Ethical Research Practice With Human Participants --
John Watson and Little Albert --
Is It Fear or Is It Anger? --
Putting Ethical Considerations in Context --
The Evolution of Ethical Principles for Research With Human Participants --
Nazi War Crimes and the Nuremberg Code --
The Declaration of Helsinki --
The Belmont Report --
APA Ethical Guidelines --
Government Regulations --
Internet Research and Ethical Research Practice --
Ethical Guidelines, Your Research, and the Institutional Review Board --
Ethical Considerations When Using Animal Subjects --
The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee --
Cost-Benefit Assessment: Should the Research Be Done? --
Treating Science Ethically: The Importance of Research Integrity and the Problem of Research Fraud. What Constitutes Fraud in Research? --
The Prevalence of Research Fraud --
Explanations for Research Fraud --
Dealing With Research Fraud --
Summary --
Key Terms --
ch. 8 Using Nonexperimental Research --
Conducting Observational Research --
An Example of Observational Research: Are Children Really Cruel? --
Developing Behavioral Categories --
Quantifying Behavior in an Observational Study --
Recording Single Events or Behavior Sequences --
Coping With Complexity --
Establishing the Reliability of Your Observations --
Sources of Bias in Observational Research --
Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches to Data Collection --
Nonexperimental Research Designs --
Naturalistic Observation --
Ethnography --
Sociometry --
The Case History --
Archival Research --
Content Analysis --
Meta-Analysis: A Tool for Comparing Results Across Studies --
Step 1 Identifying Relevant Variables --
Step 2 Locating Relevant Research to Review --
Step 3 Conducting the Meta-Analysis --
Drawbacks to Meta-Analysis --
Summary --
Key Terms --
ch. 9 Using Survey Research --
Survey Research --
Designing Your Questionnaire. Writing Questionnaire Items --
Assembling Your Questionnaire --
Administering Your Questionnaire --
Mail Surveys --
Internet Surveys --
Telephone Surveys --
Group-Administered Surveys --
Face-to-Face Interviews --
A Final Note on Survey Techniques --
Assessing the Reliability of Your Questionnaire --
Assessing Reliability by Repeated Administration --
Assessing Reliability With a Single Administration --
Increasing Reliability --
Assessing the Validity of Your Questionnaire --
Acquiring a Sample for Your Survey --
Representativeness --
Sampling Techniques --
Random and Nonrandom Sampling Revisited --
Sample Size --
Summary --
Key Terms --
ch. 10 Using Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects Experimental Designs --
Types of Experimental Design --
The Problem of Error Variance in Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects Designs --
Sources of Error Variance --
Handling Error Variance --
Between-Subjects Designs --
The Single-Factor Randomized-Groups Design --
Matched-Groups Designs --
Within-Subjects Designs --
An Example of a Within-Subjects Design: Does Caffeine Keep Us Going? Advantages and Disadvantages of the Within-Subjects Design --
Sources of Carryover --
Dealing With Carryover Effects --
When to Use a Within-Subjects Design --
Within-Subjects Versus Matched-Groups Designs --
Types of Within-Subjects Designs --
Factorial Designs: Designs With Two or More Independent Variables --
An Example of a Factorial Design: Can That Witness Really Not Remember an Important Event? --
Main Effects and Interactions --
Factorial Within-Subjects Designs --
Higher-Order Factorial Designs --
Other Group-Based Designs --
Designs With Two or More Dependent Variables --
Confounding and Experimental Design --
Summary --
Key Terms --
ch. 11 Using Specialized Research Designs --
Combining Between-Subjects and Within-Subjects Designs. Note continued: The Mixed Design --
The Nested Design --
Combining Experimental and Correlational Designs --
Including a Covariate in Your Experimental Design --
Including Quasi-Independent Variables in an Experiment --
An Example of a Combined Design: Is Coffee a Physical or Psychological Stimulant? --
Quasi-Experimental Designs --
Time Series Designs --
Equivalent Time Samples Design --
Advantages and Disadvantages of Quasi Experiments --
Nonequivalent Control Group Design --
Pretest-Posttest Designs --
Problems With the Pretest-Posttest Design --
The Solomon Four-Group Design --
Eliminating the Pretest --
Developmental Designs --
The Cross-Sectional Design --
The Longitudinal Design --
The Cohort-Sequential Design --
Summary --
Key Terms --
ch. 12 Using Single-Subject Designs --
A Little History --
Baseline, Dynamic, and Discrete Trials Designs. Baseline Designs --
An Example Baseline Experiment: Do Rats Prefer Signaled or Unsignaled Shocks? --
Issues Surrounding the Use of Baseline Designs --
Dealing With Uncontrolled Variability --
Determining the Generality of Findings --
Dealing With Problem Baselines --
Types of Single-Subject Baseline Design --
Dynamic Designs --
Discrete Trials Designs --
Characteristics of the Discrete Trials Design --
Analysis of Data from Discrete Trials Designs --
Inferential Statistics and Single-Subject Designs --
Advantages and Disadvantages of the Single-Subject Approach --
Summary --
Key Terms --
ch. 13 Describing Data --
Descriptive Statistics and Exploratory Data Analysis --
Organizing Your Data --
Organizing Your Data for Computer Entry --
Entering Your Data --
Grouped Versus Individual Data --
Graphing Your Data --
Elements of a Graph --
Bar Graphs --
Line Graphs --
Scatter Plots --
Pie Graphs --
The Importance of Graphing Data. The Frequency Distribution --
Displaying Distributions --
Examining Your Distribution --
Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Center and Spread --
Measures of Center --
Measures of Spread --
Boxplots and the Five-Number Summary --
Measures of Association, Regression, and Related Topics --
The Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient --
The Point-Biserial Correlation --
The Spearman Rank-Order Correlation --
The Phi Coefficient --
Linear Regression and Prediction --
The Coefficient of Determination --
The Correlation Matrix --
Multivariate Correlational Techniques --
Summary --
Key Terms --
ch. 14 Using Inferential Statistics --
Inferential Statistics: Basic Concepts --
Sampling Distribution --
Sampling Error --
Degrees of Freedom --
Parametric Versus Nonparametric Statistics --
The Logic Behind Inferential Statistics --
Statistical Errors --
Statistical Significance --
One-Tailed Versus Two-Tailed Tests. Parametric Statistics --
Assumptions Underlying a Parametric Statistic --
Inferential Statistics With Two Samples --
The t Test --
An Example from the Literature: Contrasting Two Groups --
The z Test for the Difference Between Two Proportions --
Beyond Two Groups: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) --
The One-Factor Between-Subjects ANOVA --
The One-Factor Within-Subjects ANOVA --
The Two-Factor Between-Subjects ANOVA --
The Two-Factor Within-Subjects ANOVA --
Mixed Designs --
Higher-Order and Special-Case ANOVAs --
ANOVA Summing Up --
Nonparametric Statistics --
Chi-Square --
The Mann-Whitney U Test --
The Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test --
Parametric Versus Nonparametric Statistics --
Special Topics in Inferential Statistics --
Power of a Statistical Test --
Statistical Versus Practical Significance --
The Meaning of the Level of Significance --
Data Transformations --
Alternatives to Inferential Statistics --
Summary --
Key Terms. Ch. 15 Using Multivariate Design and Analysis --
Correlational and Experimental Multivariate Designs --
Correlational Multivariate Design --
Experimental Multivariate Design --
Causal Inference --
Assumptions and Requirements of Multivariate Statistics --
Linearity --
Outliers --
Normality and Homoscedasticity --
Multicollinearity --
Error of Measurement --
Sample Size --
Correlational Multivariate Statistical Tests --
Factor Analysis --
Partial and Part Correlations --
Multiple Regression --
Discriminant Analysis --
Canonical Correlation --
Experimental Multivariate Statistical Tests --
Multivariate Analysis of Variance --
Multiway Frequency Analysis --
Multivariate Statistical Techniques and Causal Modeling --
Path Analysis --
Structural Equation Modeling --
Multivariate Analysis: A Cautionary Note --
Summary --
Key Terms --
ch. 16 Reporting Your Research Results --
APA Writing Style --
Writing an APA-Style Research Report. Getting Ready to Write --
Parts and Order of Manuscript Sections --
The Title Page --
The Abstract --
The Introduction --
The Method Section --
The Results Section --
The Discussion Section --
The Reference Section --
Footnotes --
Tables --
Figures --
Elements of APA Style --
Citing References in Your Report --
Citing Quoted Material --
Using Numbers in the Text --
Avoiding Biased Language --
Expression, Organization, and Style --
Precision and Clarity of Expression --
Economy of Expression --
Organization --
Style --
Making It Work --
Avoiding Plagiarism and Lazy Writing --
Telling the World About Your Results --
Publishing Your Results --
Paper Presentations --
The Ethics of Reporting or Publishing Your Results --
Summary --
Key Terms.
Responsibility: Kenneth S. Bordens, Bruce B. Abbott.

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