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Research methodology : a step-by-step guide for beginners

Author: Ranjit Kumar
Publisher: Los Angeles : SAGE, 2014.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : Fourth editionView all editions and formats
Summary:
This text has been written specifically for those with no previous experience of research or research methodology. Written in a logical and accessible style and providing helpful techniques and examples, it breaks the process of designing and doing a research project into eight manageable operational steps. The book guides you through your project from beginning to end by offering practical advice on: formulating a  Read more...
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Ranjit Kumar
ISBN: 9781446269961 1446269965 1446269973 9781446269978
OCLC Number: 863173091
Notes: Previous edition: 2010.
Description: xxvii, 399 pages : illustrations (chiefly color) ; 23 cm
Contents: 1. Research : a way of thinking --
2. The research process : a quick glance --
Step I. Formulating a research problem. 3. Reviewing the literature --
4. Formulating a research problem --
5. Identifying variables --
6. Constructing hypotheses --
Step II. Conceptualizing a research design. 7. The research design --
8. Selecting a study design --
Step III. Constructing an instrument for data collection. 9. Selecting a method of data collection --
10. Collecting data using attitudinal scales --
11. Establishing the validity and reliability of a research instrument --
Step IV. Selecting a sample. 12. Selecting a sample --
Step V. Writing a research proposal. 13. Writing a research proposal --
Step VI. Collecting data. 14. Considering ethical issues in data collection --
Step VII. Processing and displaying data. 15. Processing --
16. Displaying data --
Step VIII. Writing a research report. 17 Writing a research report. Machine generated contents note: 1. Research: a way of thinking --
Research: a way of thinking --
Research: an integral part of your professional practice --
Research: a way to gather evidence for your practice --
Applications of research in practice development and policy formulation --
Research: what does it mean? --
The research process: characteristics and requirements --
Types of research --
Application perspective --
Objectives perspective --
Mode of enquiry perspective --
The mixed/multiple methods approach --
Introduction --
Defining the approach --
Rationale underpinning the approach --
When to use the approach --
Ways of mixing methods --
Advantages and disadvantages --
Considerations to be kept in mind --
Situations in which the approach can be used --
Paradigms of research --
Summary --
2. The research process: a quick glance --
The research process: an eight-step model --
A. Deciding what to research --
Step I Formulating a research problem. Contents note continued: B. Planning how to conduct the study --
Step II Conceptualising a research design --
Step III Constructing an instrument for data collection --
Step IV Selecting a sample --
Step V Writing a research proposal --
C. Conducting a research study --
Step VI Collecting data --
Step VII Processing and displaying data --
Step VIII Writing a research report --
Summary --
Step I Formulating a Research Problem --
3. Reviewing the literature --
The place of the literature review in research --
Bringing clarity and focus to your research problem --
Improving your research methodology --
Broadening your knowledge base in your research area --
Contextualising your findings --
Difference between a literature review and a summary of the literature --
How to review the literature --
Searching for the existing literature --
Reviewing the selected literature --
Developing a theoretical framework --
Developing a conceptual framework --
Writing about the literature reviewed. Contents note continued: Summary --
4. Formulating a research problem --
The research problem --
The importance of formulating a research problem --
Sources of research problems --
Considerations in selecting a research problem --
Steps in formulating a research problem --
The formulation of research objectives --
The study population --
Establishing operational definitions --
Formulating a research problem in qualitative research --
Summary --
5. Identifying variables --
What is a variable? --
The difference between a concept and a variable --
Converting concepts into variables --
Types of variable --
From the viewpoint of causal relationship --
From the viewpoint of the study design --
From the viewpoint of the unit of measurement --
Types of measurement scale --
The nominal or classificatory scale --
The ordinal or ranking scale --
The interval scale --
The ratio scale --
Summary --
6. Constructing hypotheses --
The definition of a hypothesis --
The functions of a hypothesis. Contents note continued: The testing of a hypothesis --
The characteristics of a hypothesis --
Types of hypothesis --
Errors in testing a hypothesis --
Hypotheses in qualitative research --
Summary --
Developing a research project: a set of exercises for beginners --
Exercise I Formulation of a research problem --
Step II Conceptualising a Research Design --
7. The research design --
What is a research design? --
The functions of a research design --
The theory of causality and the research design --
Summary --
8. Selecting a study design --
Differences between quantitative and qualitative study designs --
Study designs in quantitative research --
Study designs based on the number of contacts --
Study designs based on the reference period --
Study designs based on the nature of the investigation --
Other designs commonly used in quantitative research --
Study designs in qualitative research --
Case study --
Oral history --
Focus groups/group interviews --
Participant observation. Contents note continued: Holistic research --
Community discussion forums --
Reflective journal log --
Other commonly used philosophy-guided designs --
Action research --
Feminist research --
Participatory research and collaborative enquiry --
Summary --
Exercise II Conceptualising a study design --
Step III Constructing an Instrument for Data Collection --
9. Selecting a method of data collection --
Differences in the methods of data collection in quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research --
Major approaches to information gathering --
Collecting data using primary sources --
Observation --
The interview --
The questionnaire --
Constructing a research instrument in quantitative research --
Asking personal and sensitive questions --
The order of questions --
Pre-testing a research instrument --
Prerequisites for data collection --
Methods of data collection in qualitative research --
Unstructured interviews --
Observation --
Secondary sources. Contents note continued: Constructing a research instrument in qualitative research --
Collecting data using secondary sources --
Problems with data from secondary sources --
Summary --
10. Collecting data using attitudinal scales --
Measurement of attitudes in quantitative and qualitative research --
Attitudinal scales in quantitative research --
Functions of attitudinal scales --
Difficulties in developing an attitudinal scale --
Types of attitudinal scale --
The summated rating or Likert scale --
The equal-appearing interval or Thurstone scale --
The cumulative or Guttman scale --
Attitudinal scales and measurement scales --
Attitudes and qualitative research --
Summary --
11. Establishing the validity and reliability of a research instrument --
The concept of validity --
Types of validity in quantitative research --
Face and content validity --
Concurrent and predictive validity --
Construct validity --
The concept of reliability. Contents note continued: Factors affecting the reliability of a research instrument --
Methods of determining the reliability of an instrument in quantitative research --
External consistency procedures --
Internal consistency procedures --
Validity and reliability in qualitative research --
Summary --
Exercise III Developing a research instrument --
Step IV Selecting a Sample --
12. Selecting a sample --
The differences between sampling in quantitative and qualitative research --
Sampling in quantitative research --
The concept of sampling --
Sampling terminology --
Principles of sampling --
Factors affecting the inferences drawn from a sample --
Aims in selecting a sample --
Types of sampling --
The calculation of sample size --
Sampling in qualitative research --
The concept of saturation point in qualitative research --
Summary --
Exercising IV Selecting a sample --
Step V Writing a Research Proposal --
13. Writing a research proposal. Contents note continued: The research proposal in quantitative and qualitative research --
Contents of a research proposal --
Preamble/introduction --
The research problem --
Objectives of the study --
Hypotheses to be tested --
Study design --
The setting --
Measurement procedures --
Ethical issues --
Sampling --
Analysis of data --
Structure of the report --
Problems and limitations --
Appendix --
Work schedule --
Budget --
Summary --
Exercise V Writing a research proposal --
Step VI Collecting Data --
14. Considering ethical issues in data collection --
Ethics: the concept --
Stakeholders in research --
Ethical issues to consider concerning research participants --
Collecting information --
Seeking informed consent --
Providing incentives --
Seeking sensitive information --
The possibility of causing harm to participants --
Maintaining confidentiality --
Ethical issues to consider relating to the researcher --
Avoiding bias --
Provision or deprivation of a treatment. Contents note continued: Using inappropriate research methodology --
Incorrect reporting --
Inappropriate use of information --
Ethical issues regarding the sponsoring organisation --
Restrictions imposed by the sponsoring organisation --
The misuse of information --
Ethical issues in collecting data from secondary sources --
Summary --
Step VII Processing and Displaying Data --
15. Processing data --
Data processing in quantitative studies --
Editing --
Coding --
Developing a frame of analysis --
Analysing quantitative data manually --
Data processing in qualitative studies --
Content analysis in qualitative research --
an example --
Data analysis in mixed methods studies --
The role of statistics and computers in research --
Summary --
16. Displaying data --
Methods of communicating and displaying analysed data --
Text --
Tables --
Graphs --
Statistical Measures --
Summary --
Step VIII Writing a Research Report --
17. Writing a research report --
Writing a research report. Contents note continued: Developing a draft outline --
Writing about variables --
Referencing --
Writing a bibliography --
Summary.
Responsibility: Ranjit Kumar.

Abstract:

This fourth edition continues to make the research project process a manageable feat for those new to research, and will be instrumental in helping students learn how to apply research methodology to  Read more...

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Excellent book, explains research methodology really well, clear and easy to follow. I will be using this book on a number of programmes to develop students understanding of research methodology. -- Read more...

 
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    schema:description "Contents note continued: The testing of a hypothesis -- The characteristics of a hypothesis -- Types of hypothesis -- Errors in testing a hypothesis -- Hypotheses in qualitative research -- Summary -- Developing a research project: a set of exercises for beginners -- Exercise I Formulation of a research problem -- Step II Conceptualising a Research Design -- 7. The research design -- What is a research design? -- The functions of a research design -- The theory of causality and the research design -- Summary -- 8. Selecting a study design -- Differences between quantitative and qualitative study designs -- Study designs in quantitative research -- Study designs based on the number of contacts -- Study designs based on the reference period -- Study designs based on the nature of the investigation -- Other designs commonly used in quantitative research -- Study designs in qualitative research -- Case study -- Oral history -- Focus groups/group interviews -- Participant observation."@en ;
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