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Research methods : a modular approach

Author: Sherri L Jackson
Publisher: Belmont, CA : Thomson Wadsworth, ©2008.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English
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Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Sherri L Jackson
ISBN: 9780495098904 0495098906
OCLC Number: 124031670
Description: xix, 331 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: Section 1 Thinking Like a Scientist 1 --
Module 1 Science and Psychology 3 --
Areas of Psychological Research 4 --
Psychobiology 4 --
Cognition 5 --
Human Development 6 --
Social Psychology 6 --
Psychotherapy 6 --
Sources of Knowledge 6 --
Superstition and Intuition 6 --
Authority 7 --
Tenacity 8 --
Rationalism 8 --
Empiricism 9 --
Science 9 --
The Scientific (Critical Thinking) Approach and Psychology 10 --
Systematic Empiricism 11 --
Public Verification 11 --
Solvable Problems 12 --
Goals of Science 13 --
Description 14 --
Prediction 14 --
Explanation 14 --
Basic and Applied Research 14 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 16 --
Module 2 An Introduction to Research Methods 17 --
Descriptive Methods 17 --
Predictive (Relational) Methods 18 --
Explanatory Method 19 --
Doing Science 22 --
Proof and Disproof 23 --
The Research Process 24 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 25 --
Module 3 Research Ideas 32 --
Reviewing the Literature 33 --
Library Research 33 --
Journals 33 --
Psychological Abstracts 35 --
PsycINFO and PsycLIT 36 --
Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index 37 --
Reading a Journal Article: What to Expect 39 --
Results 39 --
Module 4 Ethical Research 41 --
Ethical Standards in Research with Human Participants 41 --
Institutional Review Boards 47 --
Informed Consent 47 --
Risk 48 --
Deception 50 --
Debriefing 30 --
Ethical Standards in Research with Children 51 --
Ethical Standards in Research with Animals 51 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 56 --
Module 5 Defining, Measuring, and Manipulating Variables 57 --
Defining Variables 57 --
The Properties of Measurement 58 --
Identity 58 --
Magnitude 58 --
Equal Unit Size 58 --
Absolute Zero 59 --
The Scales of Measurement 59 --
Nominal Scale 59 --
Ordinal Scale 59 --
Interval Scale 60 --
Ratio Scale 60 --
Discrete and Continuous Variables 61 --
Types of Measures 62 --
Self-Report Measures 62 --
Behavioral Measures 63 --
Physical Measures 64 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 66 --
Module 6 Reliability and Validity 67 --
Reliability 67 --
Error in Measurement 67 --
How to Measure Reliability: Correlation Coefficients 68 --
Types of Reliability 69 --
Test/Retest Reliability 69 --
Alternate-Forms Reliability 70 --
Split-Half Reliability 70 --
Interrater Reliability 70 --
Validity 71 --
Content Validity 72 --
Criterion Validity 72 --
Construct Validity 72 --
The Relationship Between Reliability and Validity 73 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 75 --
Section 3 Descriptive Methods 79 --
Module 7 Observational and Other Descriptive Methods 81 --
Naturalistic Observation 81 --
Options When Using Observation 81 --
Laboratory Observation 83 --
Data Collection 84 --
Narrative Records 84 --
Case Study Method 86 --
Archival Method 87 --
Qualitative Methods 88 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 89 --
Lab Resources 90 --
Module 8 Survey Methods 91 --
Survey Construction 91 --
Writing the Questions 91 --
Arranging the Questions 94 --
Administering Surveys 94 --
Mail Surveys 94 --
Telephone Surveys 96 --
Personal Interviews 96 --
Sampling Techniques 97 --
Probability Sampling 97 --
Nonprobability Sampling 99 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 101 --
Lab Resources 102 --
Section 4 Predictive (Relational) Methods 107 --
Module 9 Conducting Correlational Research 109 --
Magnitude, Scatterplots, and Types of Relationships 109 --
Magnitude 110 --
Scatterplots 110 --
Positive Relationships 111 --
Negative Relationships 111 --
No Relationship 112 --
Curvilinear Relationships 112 --
Misinterpreting Correlations 114 --
The Assumptions of Causality and Directionality 114 --
The Third-Variable Problem 115 --
Restrictive Range 116 --
Curvilinear Relationships 117 --
Prediction and Correlation 118 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 119 --
Lab Resources 120 --
Module 10 Quasi-Experimental Designs 121 --
Nonmanipulated Independent Variables 121 --
An Example: Snow and Cholera 122 --
Types of Quasi-Experimental Designs 124 --
Single-Group Posttest-Only Design 124 --
Single-Group Pretest/Posttest Design 124 --
Single-Group Time-Series Design 125 --
Nonequivalent Control Group Posttest-Only Design 126 --
Nonequivalent Control Group Pretest/Posttest Design 127 --
Multiple-Group Time-Series Design 127 --
Internal Validity and Confounds in Quasi-Experimental Designs 128 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 130 --
Lab Resources 131 --
Module 11 Conducting Single-Case Research 132 --
Types of Single-Case Designs 133 --
Reversal Designs 133 --
ABA Reversal Designs 133 --
ABAB Reversal Designs 134 --
Multiple-Baseline Designs 135 --
Multiple Baselines Across Participants 135 --
Multiple Baselines Across Behaviors 136 --
Multiple Baselines Across Situations 137 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 139 --
Lab Resources 139 --
Section 5 Explanatory Methods 143 --
Module 12 Between-Participants Experimental Designs 145 --
Control and Confounds 148 --
Threats to Internal Validity 148 --
Nonequivalent Control Group 149 --
History 149 --
Maturation 149 --
Testing 150 --
Regression to the Mean 150 --
Instrumentation 150 --
Mortality or Attrition 150 --
Diffusion of Treatment 151 --
Experimenter and Participant Effects 151 --
Floor and Ceiling Effects 153 --
Threats to External Validity 155 --
Generalization to Populations 155 --
Generalization from Laboratory Settings 156 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 157 --
Lab Resources 157 --
Module 13 Correlated-Groups and Developmental Designs 158 --
Within-Participants Experimental Designs 158 --
Matched-Participants Experimental Designs 161 --
Developmental Designs 163 --
Cross-Sectional Designs 163 --
Longitudinal Designs 164 --
Sequential Designs 164 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 165 --
Lab Resources 165 --
Module 14 Advanced Experimental Designs 166 --
Using Designs with More Than Two Levels of an Independent Variable 166 --
Comparing More Than Two Kinds of Treatment in One Study 166 --
Comparing Two or More Kinds of Treatment with the Control Group (No Treatment) 167 --
Comparing a Placebo Group with the Control and Experimental Groups 169 --
Using Designs with More Than One Independent Variable 169 --
Factorial Notation and Factorial Designs 170 --
Main Effects and Interaction Effects 171 --
Possible Outcomes of a 2 X 2 Factorial Design 173 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 177 --
Lab Resources 178 --
Section 6 Statistical Concepts 183 --
Module 15 Data Organization and Descriptive Statistics I 185 --
Organizing Data 185 --
Frequency Distributions 185 --
Graphs 187 --
Bar Graphs and Histograms 187 --
Frequency Polygons 189 --
Descriptive Statistics 190 --
Measures of Central Tendency 190 --
Mean 190 --
Median 192 --
Mode 193 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 195 --
Statistical Software Resources 196 --
Module 16 Descriptive Statistics II 197 --
Measures of Variation 197 --
Range 197 --
Standard Deviation 197 --
Types of Distributions 201 --
Normal Distributions 201 --
Kurtosis 202 --
Positively Skewed Distributions 202 --
Negatively Skewed Distributions 203 --
z-Scores 204 --
z-Scores, the Standard Normal Distribution, Probability, and Percentile Ranks 206 --
Correlation Coefficients 213 --
Advanced Correlational Techniques: Regression Analysis 216 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 219 --
Statistical Software Resources 219 --
Module 17 Inferential Statistics I-Hypothesis Testing 220 --
Null and Alternative Hypotheses 220 --
One- and Two-Tailed Hypothesis Tests 221 --
Type I and Type II Errors in Hypothesis Testing 222 --
Statistical Significance and Errors 223 --
Parametric Statistics for Two-Group Designs 225 --
t Test for Independent Groups (Samples): What It Is and What It Does 226 --
Calculations for the Independent-Groups t Test 227 --
Interpreting the t Test 229 --
Graphing the Means 230 --
Effect Size: Cohen's d 231 --
Assumptions of the Independent-Groups t Test 231 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 234 --
Statistical Software Resources 235 --
Module 18 Inferential Statistics II 236 --
Comparing More Than Two Kinds of Treatment in One Study 236 --
Analyzing the Multiple-Group Experiment 237 --
Between-Participants Designs: One-Way Randomized ANOVA 237 --
One-Way Randomized ANOVA: What It Is and What It Does 238 --
Calculations for the One-Way Randomized ANOVA 241 --
Interpreting the One-Way Randomized ANOVA 245 --
Graphing the Means and Effect Size 246 --
Assumptions of the One-Way Randomized ANOVA 247 --
Tukey's Post Hoc Test 247 --
One-Way Repeated Measure and Two-Way ANOVAs 249 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 252 --
Lab Resources 252 --
Statistical Software Resources 252 --
Section 7 APA Communications Guidelines 259 --
Module 19 Communicating Research Findings 261 --
Writing Clearly 261 --
Avoiding Grammatical Problems 261 --
Reporting Numbers 263 --
Citing and Referencing 264 --
Citation Style: One Author 265 --
Citation Style: Multiple Authors 265 --
Reference Style 265 --
Typing and Word Processing 267 --
Organizing the Paper 267 --
Title Page 267 --
Results 269 --
The Use of Headings 271 --
APA Formatting Checklist 272 --
Conference Presentations 273 --
Oral Paper Presentations 273 --
Poster Presentations 273 --
Critical Thinking Check Answers 274 --
Module 20 APA Sample Manuscript 276 --
Appendix A Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises 296 --
Appendix B Statistical Tables 304.
Responsibility: Sherri L. Jackson.
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