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Research methods : a process of inquiry

Author: Anthony M Graziano; Michael L Raulin
Publisher: Boston, Mass. [u.a.] Allyn & Bacon 2010
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 7th ed., Pearson internat. edView all editions and formats

This comprehensive text explores the entire range of research methodologies in psychology, using a carefully constructed programmatic approach to introduce topics and systematically build on the  Read more...


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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Anthony M Graziano; Michael L Raulin
ISBN: 0205634028 0205637450 9780205634026 9780205637454
OCLC Number: 830750158
Notes: Literaturverz. S. 371 - 383
Previous ed.: Boston, Mass.: Pearson Allyn and Bacon, 2006
Description: XXV, 400 S. Ill., graph. Darst. 24 cm
Contents: Chapter 1: Curiosity, Creativity, and Commitment Science Science Is a Way of Thinking Asking Questions Science and Art Acquiring Knowledge Tenacity Intuition Authority Rationalism Empiricism Science Emergence of Science Early Civilization Greek Science Medieval Science The Scientific Revolution Psychology The History of Psychology Women and Minorities in Psychology Modern Psychology The Science of Psychology Ethical Principles Using the Resources of this Text Exploring the Student Resource Website Using SPSS for Windows Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 2: Research is a Process of Inquiry The Scientific Process Basic Assumptions of Science Observation and Inference: Facts and Constructs Inductive and Deductive Thinking Models and Theories in Science A Model of the Research Process Phases of Research Levels of Constraint Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 3: The Starting Point: Asking Questions Asking and Refining Questions Pursuing Your Personal Interests Following Up on the Work of Others Applied and Basic Research Refining Questions for Research Types of Variables in Research Classifying Variables Based on Their Nature Classifying Variables Based on Their Use in Research Validity and the Control of Extraneous Variables Ethical Principles Ethical Principles for Human Research Ethical Principles for Animal Research Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 4: Data and the Nature of Measurement Measurement Scales of Measurement Nominal Scales Ordinal Scales Interval Scales Ratio Scales Measuring and Manipulating Variables Measurement Error Operational Definitions Evaluating Measures Reliability Effective Range Validity The Need for Objective Measurement Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 5: Statistical Analysis of Data Individual Differences Organizing Data Frequency Distributions Graphical Representation of Data Descriptive Statistics Measures of Central Tendency Measures of Variability Measures of Relationship Standard Scores Statistical Inference Populations and Samples The Null Hypothesis Statistical Decisions and Alpha Levels Type I and Type II Errors Inferential Statistics Testing for Mean Differences The Power of a Statistical Test Effect Size Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 6: Field Research: Naturalistic and Case-Study Research The Challenge of Low-Constraint Research Examples of Naturalistic Observation Examples of Case-Study Research The Value of Low-Constraint Methods Conditions for Using Low-Constraint Research Information Gained from Low-Constraint Research Using Low-Constraint Methods Problem Statements and Research Hypotheses Making Observations Sampling of Participants Sampling of Situations Sampling of Behaviors Evaluating and Interpreting Data Limitations of Low-Constraint Methods Poor Representativeness Poor Replicability Causal Inference and Low-Constraint Research Limitations of the Observer Going Beyond the Data Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 7: Correlational and Differential Methods of Research Correlational Research Methods Differential Research Methods Cross-Sectional versus Longitudinal Research Artifacts and Confounding Understanding Correlational and Differential Methods Comparing These Methods When to Use These Methods Conducting Correlational Research Problem Statements Secondary Analyses Measuring the Variables Sampling Analyzing the Data Interpreting the Correlation Conducting Differential Research Problem Statements Measuring the Variables Selecting Appropriate Control Groups Sampling Analyzing the Data Interpreting the Data Limitations of Correlational and Differential Research Problems in Determining Causation Confounding Variables Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 8: Hypothesis Testing, Validity, and Threats to Validity Hypothesis Testing Starting Research with an Initial Idea Statement of the Problem Operational Definitions Research Hypothesis The Contribution of Theory to the Research Hypothesis Testing the Research Hypothesis Validity and Threats to Validity Statistical Validity Construct Validity External Validity Internal Validity Major Confounding Variables Maturation History Testing Instrumentation Regression to the Mean Selection Attrition Diffusion of Treatment Sequence Effects Examples of Confounding Subject and Experimenter Effects Subject Effects Experimenter Effects Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 9: Controls to Reduce Threats to Validity General Control Procedures Preparation of the Setting Response Measurement Replication Control over Subject and Experimenter Effects Single- and Double-Blind Procedures Automation Using Objective Measures Multiple Observers Using Deception Control through Participant Selection and Assignment Participant Selection Participant Assignment Advantages of Random Assignment Control through Experimental Design Ethical principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 10: Single-Variable, Independent-Groups Designs Variance Sources of Variance Controlling Variance in Research Nonexperimental Approaches Ex Post Facto Studies Single-Group, Posttest-Only Studies Single-Group, Pretest-Posttest Studies Pretest-Posttest, Natural Control-Group Studies Experimental Designs Randomized, Posttest-Only, Control-Group Design Randomized, Pretest-Posttest, Control-Group Design Multilevel, Completely Randomized, Between-Subjects Design Pretest-Manipulation Interaction: A Potential Problem Analyses of Variance Specific Means Comparisons in ANOVA Graphing the Data Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 11: Correlated-Groups and Single-Subject Designs Within-Subjects Designs Using Within-Subjects Designs Analyzing Within-Subjects Designs Strengths and Weaknesses of Within-Subjects Designs Matched-Subjects Designs Using Matched-Subjects Designs Analyzing Matched-Subjects Designs Strengths and Weaknesses of Matched-Subjects Designs Single-Subject Experimental Designs ABA Reversal Design Multiple-Baseline Design Single-Subject, Randomized, Time-Series Design Replication in Single-Subject Designs Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 12: Factorial Designs Factorial Designs Main Effects and Interactions Possible Outcomes of Factorial Designs An Example: Children's Dark-Fears Study Analysis of Variance in Factorial Designs Variations of Basic Factorial Design Within-Subjects or Repeated-Measures Factorial Mixed Designs ANOVA: A Postscript Analysis of Covariance Multivariate Analysis of Variance Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Chapter 13: A Second Look at Field Research: Field Experiments, Program Evaluation, and Survey Research Conducting Field Research Reasons for Doing Field Research Difficulties in Field Research Flexibility in Research Quasi-Experimental Designs Nonequivalent Control-Group Designs Interrupted Time-Series Designs Program Evaluation Research Practical Problems in Program Evaluation Research Issues of Control Typical Program Evaluation Designs Program Evaluation Research: An Example Surveys Types of Surveys Steps in Survey Research Types of Survey Instruments Developing the Survey Instrument Sampling Participants Survey Research Design Ethical Principles Summary Putting It into Practice Exercises Final Note Appendix A: Using the Student Resource Website Resources Available What to Do If You Have Problems Getting Help Appendix Summary Appendix B: Writing a Research Report in APA Style Structure of a Research Article Writing the Research Report Writing Style Summary Appendix C: Conducting Library Research Using the Library How Research Materials Are Organized Finding the Relevant Research Search Strategies Summary Appendix D: Selecting Statistical Procedures Selecting Appropriate Statistical Procedures Summary Exercises Appendix E: Research Design Checklist I. Initial Problem Definition II. Clarity of the Research Hypotheses III. Statistical Analysis Procedures IV. Theoretical Basis and Operational Definitions V. Adequacy of the Independent Variable Manipulation VI. Adequacy of Dependent Measures VII. Are All Controls in Place? VIII. Participants IX. Preparation of the Setting X. Adequacy of Participant Preparation, Instruction, and Procedures Appendix F: Random Numbers Appendix G: Answers to Quick-Check Review Questions Appendix H: Meta-Analysis Glossary References Name Index Subject Index
Responsibility: Anthony M. Graziano; Michael L. Raulin
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