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Resistant starch : sources, applications and health benefits

Author: Yong-Cheng Shi; Clodualdo C Maningat
Publisher: Chichester, West Sussex, UK ; Hoboken, NJ, USA : IFT Press : Wiley Blackwell, 2013.
Series: IFT Press series.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:

The discovery of resistant starch is considered one of the major developments in our understanding of the importance of carbohydrates for health in the past twenty years.

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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Resistant starch.
Chichester, West Sussex, UK : John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2013
(DLC) 2013020178
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Yong-Cheng Shi; Clodualdo C Maningat
ISBN: 9780813809519 0813809517 1118528719 9781118528716 1118528735 9781118528730 1118528751 9781118528754 1118528727 9781118528723
OCLC Number: 843955719
Description: xxv, 285 pages : illustrations (some color) ; 24 cm.
Contents: Preface xvii About the Editors xix List of Contributors xxi Acknowledgements xxv 1 Starch Biosynthesis in Relation to Resistant Starch 1 Geetika Ahuja, Sarita Jaiswal and Ravindra N. Chibbar 1.1 Introduction 1 1.1.1 Starch components 1 1.1.2 Resistant starch 2 1.2 Factors Affecting Starch Digestibility 3 1.3 Starch Biosynthesis 4 1.4 Starch Biosynthesis in Relation to RS 6 1.4.1 ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) 6 1.4.2 Starch synthases (SS) 6 1.4.3 Starch branching enzymes (SBE) 11 1.4.4 Starch debranching enzymes (DBE) 13 1.5 Concluding Remarks 13 Acknowledgements 15 References 15 2 Type 2 Resistant Starch in High-Amylose Maize Starch and its Development 23 Hongxin Jiang and Jay-lin Jane 2.1 Introduction 23 2.2 RS Formation in High-Amylose Maize Starch 28 2.3 RS Formation During Kernel Development 29 2.4 Elongated Starch Granules of High-Amylose Maize Starch 31 2.4.1 Structures of elongated starch granules 31 2.4.2 Formation of elongated starch granules 33 2.4.3 Location of RS in the starch granule 35 2.5 Roles of High-Amylose Modifier (HAM) Gene in Maize ae-Mutant 36 2.6 Conclusions 37 References 38 3 RS4-Type Resistant Starch: Chemistry, Functionality and Health Benefits 43 Clodualdo C. Maningat and Paul A. Seib 3.1 Introduction 43 3.2 Historical Account of Starch Indigestibility 44 3.3 Starch Modification Yielding Increased Resistance to Enzyme Digestibility 47 3.3.1 Cross-linked RS4 starches 50 3.3.2 Substituted RS4 starches 54 3.3.3 Pyrodextrinized RS4 Starches 56 3.4 Physicochemical Properties Affecting Functionality 57 3.5 Physiological Responses and Health Benefits 60 3.6 Performance in Food and Beverage Products 65 3.7 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 68 References 68 4 Novel Applications of Amylose-Lipid Complex as Resistant Starch Type 5 79 Jovin Hasjim, Yongfeng Ai and Jay-lin Jane 4.1 Introduction 79 4.2 Enzyme Digestibility of Amylose-Lipid Complex 80 4.2.1 Effects of lipid structure on the enzyme resistance of amylose-lipid complex 81 4.2.2 Effects of the crystalline structure on the enzyme resistance of amylose-lipid complex 82 4.2.3 Effects of amylose-lipid complex on the enzyme resistance of granular starch 82 4.3 Production of Resistant Granular Starch Through Starch-Lipid Complex Formation 83 4.3.1 Effects of fatty-acid structure on the RS content 83 4.3.2 Effects of debranching on the RS content 85 4.4 Applications of the RS Type 5 86 4.5 Health Benefits of RS Type 5 87 4.5.1 Glycemic and insulinemic control 87 4.5.2 Colon cancer prevention 89 4.6 Conclusion 91 References 92 5 Digestion Resistant Carbohydrates 95 Annette Evans 5.1 Introduction 95 5.2 Starch Digestion 95 5.3 Physical Structures of Starch 97 5.3.1 Starch helices 98 5.3.2 Crystalline structures 99 5.3.3 Starch granule structure 99 5.4 Resistant Starch due to Physical Structure 100 5.5 Molecular Structure of Starch 102 5.6 Enzyme Resistance due to Molecular Structure 103 5.7 Conclusion 106 References 106 6 Slowly Digestible Starch and Health Benefits 111 Genyi Zhang and Bruce R. Hamaker 6.1 Introduction 111 6.2 SDS and Potential Beneficial Health Effects 112 6.2.1 Potential health benefit of SDS relative to RDS 113 6.3 The Process of Starch Digestion 115 6.3.1 Enzyme action 115 6.4 Structural and Physiological Fundamentals of SDS 116 6.4.1 Physical or food matrix structures related to SDS 117 6.4.2 Starch chemical structures leading to SDS 118 6.4.3 Other food factors that decrease digestion rate 120 6.4.4 Physiological control of food motility 121 6.5 Application-Oriented Strategies to Make SDS 121 6.5.1 Starch-based ingredients 121 6.5.2 SDS generation in a food matrix 122 6.6 Considerations 123 References 123 7 Measurement of Resistant Starch and Incorporation of Resistant Starch into Dietary Fibre Measurements 131 Barry V. McCleary 7.1 Introduction 131 7.2 Development of AOAC Official Method 2002.02 133 7.3 Development of an Integrated Procedure for the Measurement of Total Dietary Fibre 136 References 142 8 In Vitro Enzymatic Testing Method and Digestion Mechanism of Cross-linked Wheat Starch 145 Radhiah Shukri, Paul A. Seib, Clodualdo C. Maningat, and Yong-Cheng Shi 8.1 Introduction 145 8.2 Materials and Methods 148 8.2.1 Materials 148 8.2.2 General methods 148 8.2.3 Conversion of CL wheat starch to phosphodextrins and 31PNMR spectra of the phosphodextrins 148 8.2.4 Digestibility of CL wheat starch 149 8.2.5 Thermal properties 150 8.2.6 Microscopic observation 150 8.2.7 Scanning electron microscope (SEM) 150 8.2.8 Statistical analysis 150 8.3 Results and Discussion 151 8.3.1 Effects of a-amylase/amyloglucosidase digestion on P content and chemical forms of the phosphate esters on starch 151 8.3.2 Thermal properties 152 8.3.3 Starch granular morphology before and after enzyme digestion 153 8.3.4 Digestibility 160 8.4 Conclusions 162 8.5 Acknowledgements 163 8.6 Abbreviations Used in This Chapter 163 References 163 9 Biscuit Baking and Extruded Snack Applications of Type III Resistant Starch 167 Lynn Haynes, Jeanny Zimeri and Vijay Arora 9.1 Introduction 167 9.2 Thermal Characteristics of Heat-Shear Stable Resistant Starch Type III Ingredient 168 9.3 Application to Biscuit Baking: Cookies 172 9.4 Cracker Baking 175 9.5 Extruded Cereal Application 178 9.5.1 Preparation of extruded RTE cereal and analysis 179 References 189 10 Role of Carbohydrates in the Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes 191 Thomas M.S. Wolever 10.1 Introduction 191 10.2 Background 191 10.2.1 Definition of diabetes 191 10.2.2 Types of diabetes 192 10.2.3 Complications of diabetes 192 10.2.4 Prevalence of diabetes 192 10.2.5 Risk factors for type 2 diabetes 193 10.3 Carbohydrates and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes 193 10.3.1 Markers of carbohydrate quality 193 10.4 Pathogenesis of Type 2 Diabetes 195 10.5 Effect of Altering Source or Amount of Dietary Carbohydrate on Insulin Sensitivity, Insulin Secretion and Disposition Index 197 10.6 Mechanisms by Which Low-GI Foods Improve Beta-Cell Function 199 10.6.1 Glucose toxicity 199 10.6.2 Reduced serum free fatty acids (FFA) 200 10.6.3 Increased GLP-1 secretion 201 10.7 Conclusions 202 References 202 11 Resistant Starch on Glycemia and Satiety in Humans 207 Mark D. Haub 11.1 Introduction 207 11.2 Diet and Resistant Starch 208 11.3 Resistant Starch and Insulin Sensitivity 209 11.4 Current Theoretical Mechanism 209 11.5 Satiety 211 11.6 Fermentation and Gut Microbiota 212 11.7 Effect of RS Type 212 11.8 Summary 213 References 213 12 The Acute Effects of Resistant Starch on Appetite and Satiety 215 Caroline L. Bodinham and M. Denise Robertson 12.1 Appetite Regulation 215 12.2 Measurement of Appetite in Humans 216 12.3 Proposed Mechanisms for an Effect of Resistant Starch on Appetite 217 12.4 Rodent Data 218 12.5 Human Data 221 References 225 13 Metabolic Effects of Resistant Starch 229 Martine Champ 13.1 Fermentation of RS and Its Impact on Colonic Metabolism 230 13.2 Resistant Starch, Glycemia, Insulinaemia and Glucose Tolerance 235 13.3 RS Consumption and Lipid Metabolism 236 13.4 RS Consumption, GIP, GLP-1 and PYY Secretion 238 13.5 RS Consumption, Satiety and Satiation and Fat Deposition 239 13.6 Conclusion 242 References 244 14 The Microbiology of Resistant Starch Fermentation in the Human Large Intestine: A Host of Unanswered Questions 251 Harry J. Flint 14.1 Introduction 251 14.2 Identifying the Major Degraders of Resistant Starch in the Human GI Tract 252 14.2.1 The human colonic microbiota 252 14.2.2 Cultural studies 252 14.2.3 16S rRNA-based studies 253 14.3 Systems for Starch Utilization in Gut Bacteria 254 14.3.1 Bacteroides spp. 255 14.3.2 Bifidobacterium spp. 255 14.3.3 Lachnospiraceae - Roseburia spp., Eubacterium rectale and relatives 256 14.3.4 Ruminococcaceae 256 14.4 Metagenomics 256 14.5 Factors Influencing Competition for Starch as a Growth Substrate 257 14.6 Metabolite Cross-Feeding 258 14.7 Impact of Dietary Resistant Starch upon Colonic Bacteria and Bacterial Metabolites in Humans 259 14.8 Conclusions and Future Prospects 260 Acknowledgements 262 References 262 15 Colon Health and Resistant Starch: Human Studies and Animal Models 267 Suzanne Hendrich, Diane F. Birt, Li Li and Yinsheng Zhao 15.1 RS Classification 267 15.2 RS and Colon Health: Overview 267 15.3 RS, Gut Microbes and Microbial Fermentation 268 15.3.1 RS and laxation 269 15.3.2 RS, IBS and diverticulosis 270 15.3.3 RS and IBD 270 15.3.4 RS and colon cancer risk human studies 271 15.4 Colon Cancer Prevention Animal Models 272 15.5 Conclusions 275 References 275 Index 279
Series Title: IFT Press series.
Responsibility: edited by Yong-Cheng Shi, Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University, USA, Clodualdo C. Maningat, MGP Ingrediants, Inc., USA, Department of Grain Science and Industry, Kansas State University, USA.

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