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Resistive Switching From Fundamentals of Nanoionic Redox Processes to Memristive Device Applications

Author: Daniele Ielmini; Rainer Waser; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
Publisher: Weinheim Wiley-VCH 2016
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 1., AuflageView all editions and formats
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Comprehensive in its coverage, this invaluable, self-contained reference introduces readers to this wide field, providing the knowledge, tools, and methods needed to understand, characterize and  Read more...

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Genre/Form: Aufsatzsammlung
Additional Physical Format: Erscheint auch als
Resistive Switching.
Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, 2015
Online-Ressource, 180 Illustrationen
Online-Ausgabe
(DE-101)1082205575
Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Daniele Ielmini; Rainer Waser; Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
ISBN: 9783527334179 3527334173
OCLC Number: 915163669
Description: 600 Seiten 130 schw.-w. Illustrationen, 50 farbige Illustrationen 244 x 170 mm
Contents: Preface XIX List of Contributors XXI 1 Introduction to Nanoionic Elements for Information Technology 1 Rainer Waser, Daniele Ielmini, Hiro Akinaga, Hisashi Shima, H.-S. Philip Wong, Joshua J. Yang, and Simon Yu 1.1 Concept of Two-Terminal Memristive Elements 1 1.1.1 Classifications Based on Behavior, Mechanisms, and Operation Modes 1 1.1.2 Scope of the Book 6 1.1.3 History 9 1.2 Memory Applications 12 1.2.1 Performance Requirements and ParameterWindows 12 1.2.2 Device Isolation in Crossbar Arrays 16 1.2.3 3-D Technology 19 1.2.4 Memory Hierarchy 20 1.3 Logic Circuits 21 1.4 Prospects and Challenges 24 Acknowledgments 25 References 25 2 ReRAM Cells in the Framework of Two-Terminal Devices 31 E. Linn, M. Di Ventra, and Y. V. Pershin 2.1 Introduction 31 2.2 Two-Terminal Device Models 32 2.2.1 Lumped Elements 32 2.2.2 Ideal Circuit Element Approach 32 2.2.3 Dynamical Systems Approach 33 2.2.3.1 Memristive Systems 33 2.2.3.2 Memristor 34 2.2.4 Significance of the Initial Memristor and Memristive System Definitions in the Light of Physics 34 2.2.4.1 Limitations of Ideal Memristor Models 35 2.2.5 Memristive, Memcapacitive, and Meminductive Systems 35 2.2.6 ReRAM: Combination of Elements, Combination of Memory Features, and Consideration of Inherent Battery Effects 36 2.3 Fundamental Description of Electronic Devices with Memory 38 2.4 Device Engineer s View on ReRAM Devices as Two-Terminal Elements 40 2.4.1 Modeling of Electrochemical Metallization (ECM) Devices 41 2.4.2 Modeling of Valence Change Mechanism (VCM) Devices 43 2.5 Conclusions 46 Acknowledgment 47 References 47 3 Atomic and Electronic Structure of Oxides 49 Tobias Zacherle, Peter C. Schmidt, and Manfred Martin 3.1 Introduction 49 3.2 Crystal Structures 50 3.3 Electronic Structure 54 3.3.1 From Free Atoms to the Solid State 55 3.3.2 Electrons in Crystals 58 3.3.2.1 Free Electron Model (Sommerfeld Model) 58 3.3.2.2 Band Structure Model 60 3.3.2.3 Density of States (DOS) and Partial DOS 62 3.3.2.4 Crystal Field Splitting 64 3.3.2.5 Exchange and Correlation 65 3.3.2.6 Computational Details 66 3.4 Material Classes and Characterization of the Electronic States 67 3.4.1 Metals 67 3.4.2 Semiconductors 68 3.4.3 Insulators 71 3.4.4 Point Defect States 72 3.4.5 Surface States 73 3.4.6 Amorphous States 75 3.5 Electronic Structure of Selected Oxides 76 3.5.1 Nontransition Metal Oxides 76 3.5.1.1 Al2O3 76 3.5.1.2 SrO 77 3.5.1.3 ZnO 77 3.5.2 Titanates 79 3.5.2.1 TiO 79 3.5.2.2 Ti2O3 79 3.5.2.3 TiO2 81 3.5.2.4 SrTiO3 82 3.5.3 Magnetic Insulators 82 3.5.3.1 NiO 84 3.5.3.2 MnO 85 3.5.4 MVB Metal Oxides 86 3.5.4.1 Metal Insulator Transitions: NbO2, VO2, and V2O3 86 3.5.4.2 Tantalum Oxides TaOx 87 3.6 Ellingham Diagram for Binary Oxides 90 Acknowledgments 91 References 91 4 Defect Structure of Metal Oxides 95 Giuliano Gregori 4.1 Definition of Defects 95 4.1.1 Zero-Dimensional Defects 95 4.1.2 One-Dimensional Defects 95 4.1.3 Two-Dimensional Defects 97 4.1.4 Three-Dimensional Defects 97 4.2 General Considerations on the EquilibriumThermodynamics of Point Defects 98 4.3 Definition of Point Defects 99 4.3.1 Intrinsic Defects 99 4.3.1.1 Frenkel Defects 99 4.3.1.2 Anti-Frenkel Defects 99 4.3.1.3 Schottky Defects 100 4.3.1.4 Anti-Schottky Defects 100 4.3.1.5 Electron Band Band Transfer 100 4.3.2 Extrinsic Defects 100 4.3.2.1 Reactions with the Environment 100 4.3.2.2 The Brouwer Diagram 101 4.3.2.3 Impurities and Dopants 102 4.4 Space-Charge Effects 103 4.4.1 Mott Schottky Situation 104 4.4.2 Gouy Chapman Situation 105 4.5 Case Studies 106 4.5.1 Titanium Oxide (Rutile) 106 4.5.1.1 Nominally Pure TiO2 107 4.5.1.2 Acceptor-Doped TiO2 108 4.5.1.3 Donor-Doped TiO2 108 4.5.1.4 The Role of Dislocations 109 4.5.2 Strontium Titanate 110 4.5.2.1 Acceptor-Doped SrTiO3 110 4.5.2.2 Donor-Doped SrTiO3 111 4.5.2.3 Grain Boundaries in SrTiO3 111 4.5.3 Zirconium and Hafnium Oxide 113 4.5.3.1 Zirconium Oxide 113 4.5.3.2 The Role of Grain Boundaries and Dislocations 115 4.5.3.3 Hafnium Oxide 116 4.5.4 Aluminum Oxide 116 4.5.4.1 Acceptor-Doped Alumina 117 4.5.4.2 Donor-Doped Alumina 118 4.5.5 Tantalum Oxide 119 References 121 5 Ion Transport in Metal Oxides 125 Roger A. De Souza 5.1 Introduction 125 5.2 Macroscopic Definition 126 5.2.1 Two Solutions of the Diffusion Equation 127 5.2.2 Dependence of the Diffusion Coefficient on Characteristic Thermodynamic Parameters 128 5.3 Microscopic Definition 129 5.3.1 Mechanisms of Diffusion 130 5.3.2 Diffusion Coefficients of Defects and Ions 131 5.3.3 The Activation Barrier for Migration 132 5.4 Types of Diffusion Experiments 134 5.4.1 Chemical Diffusion 135 5.4.2 Tracer Diffusion 137 5.4.3 Conductivity 139 5.5 Mass Transport along and across Extended Defects 141 5.5.1 Accelerated Transport along Extended Defects 143 5.5.2 Hindered Transport across Extended Defects 145 5.6 Case Studies 145 5.6.1 Strontium Titanate 147 5.6.2 Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ) 150 5.6.3 Alumina 153 5.6.4 Tantalum Pentoxide 155 Acknowledgments 156 References 157 6 Electrical Transport in Transition Metal Oxides 165 Franklin J.Wong and Shriram Ramanathan 6.1 Overview 165 6.2 Structure of Transition Metal Oxides 166 6.2.1 Crystal Structures of Oxides 166 6.2.2 Bonding and Electronic Structure 167 6.3 Models of Electrical Transport 168 6.3.1 Band Transport of Carriers 168 6.3.2 Electronic Bandwidth 169 6.3.3 Small Polaron Formation 169 6.3.4 Small Polaron Transport 171 6.3.5 Thermopower (Seebeck Coefficient) 172 6.3.6 Hopping Transport via Defect States 172 6.3.7 Bad Metallic Behavior 174 6.4 Band Insulators 175 6.4.1 SnO2: 3d10 System 175 6.4.2 TiO2: 3d0 System 176 6.5 Half-Filled Mott Insulators 177 6.5.1 Correlations and the Hubbard U 177 6.5.2 MnO: 3d5 System 179 6.5.3 NiO: 3d8 System 179 6.5.4 -Fe2O3: 3d5 System 182 6.5.5 Summary 184 6.6 Temperature-Induced Metal Insulator Transitions in Oxides 184 6.6.1 Orbitals and Metal Insulator Transitions 184 6.6.2 VO2: 3d1 System 186 6.6.3 Ti2O3: 3d1 System 187 6.6.4 V2O3: 3d2 System 189 6.6.5 Fe3O4: Mixed-Valent System 190 6.6.6 Limitations 191 6.6.7 Summary 192 References 193 7 Quantum Point Contact Conduction 197 Jan van Ruitenbeek, Monica Morales Masis, and Enrique Miranda 7.1 Introduction 197 7.2 Conductance Quantization in Metallic Nanowires 197 7.3 Conductance Quantization in Electrochemical Metallization Cells 204 7.3.1 Current Voltage Characteristics and Definition of Initial Device Resistance 206 7.3.2 Stepwise Conductance Changes in Metallic Filaments 207 7.4 Filamentary Conduction and Quantization Effects in Binary Oxides 210 7.5 Conclusion and Outlook 218 References 218 8 Dielectric Breakdown Processes 225 Jordi Su ne, Nagarajan Raghavan, and K. L. Pey 8.1 Introduction 225 8.2 Basics of Dielectric Breakdown 226 8.3 Physics of Defect Generation 231 8.3.1 Thermochemical Model of Defect Generation 232 8.3.2 Anode Hydrogen Release Model of Defect Generation 233 8.4 Breakdown and Oxide Failure Statistics 235 8.5 Implications of Breakdown Statistics for ReRAM 237 8.6 Chemistry of the Breakdown Path and Inference on Filament Formation 241 8.7 Summary and Conclusions 246 References 247 9 Physics and Chemistry of Nanoionic Cells 253 Ilia Valov and Rainer Waser 9.1 Introduction 253 9.2 Basic Thermodynamics and Heterogeneous Equilibria 254 9.3 Phase Boundaries and Boundary Layers 258 9.3.1 Driving Force for the Formation of Space-Charge Layers 258 9.3.2 Enrichment andWeak Depletion Layers 260 9.3.3 Strong Depletion Layers 261 9.3.4 Nanosize Effects on Space-Charge Regions 263 9.3.5 Nanosize Effects due to Surface Curvature 265 9.3.6 Formation of New Phases at Phase Boundaries 265 9.4 Nucleation and Growth 266 9.4.1 Macroscopic View 266 9.4.2 Atomistic Theory 267 9.5 Electromotive Force 269 9.5.1 Electrochemical Cells of Different Half Cells 269 9.5.2 Emf Caused by Surface Curvature Effects 270 9.5.3 Emf Caused by Concentration Differences 271 9.5.4 Diffusion Potentials 273 9.6 General Transport Processes and Chemical Reactions 274 9.7 Solid-State Reactions 275 9.8 Electrochemical (Electrode) Reactions 280 9.8.1 Charge-Transfer Process Limitations 280 9.8.2 Diffusion-Limited Electrochemical Processes 282 9.9 Stoichiometry Polarization 283 Summary 285 Acknowledgments 286 References 286 10 Electroforming Processes in Metal Oxide Resistive-Switching Cells 289 Doo Seok Jeong, Byung Joon Choi, and Cheol Seong Hwang 10.1 Introduction 289 10.1.1 Forming Methods 290 10.1.2 Dependence of the Bipolar Switching Behavior on the Forming Conditions 291 10.1.3 Factors Influencing Forming Behavior 294 10.1.4 Forming in Bipolar and Unipolar Switching 295 10.1.5 Phenomenological Understanding of Forming 297 10.2 Forming Mechanisms 297 10.2.1 Early Suggested Forming Mechanisms 298 10.2.2 Conducting Filament Formation 298 10.2.3 Redox Reactions and Ion or Ionic Defect Migration during Forming 300 10.2.4 Point Defect Introduction 302 10.2.5 Point Defect Dynamics during the Forming Process 304 10.2.6 Microscopic Evidence for CF Formation during Forming 308 10.3 Technical Issues Related to Forming 310 10.3.1 Problems of Current Overshoot Forming 310 10.3.2 Nonuniform Forming Voltage Distribution 311 10.3.3 Forming-Free Resistive Switching 311 10.4 Summary and Outlook 312 Acknowledgments 313 References 313 11 Universal Switching Behavior 317 Daniele Ielmini and StephanMenzel 11.1 General Properties of ReRAMs and Their Universal Behavior 317 11.2 Explaining the Universal Switching of ReRAM 320 11.3 Variable-Diameter Model 321 11.4 Variable-Gap Model 329 11.5 Coexistence of Variable-Gap/Variable-Diameter States 334 11.6 Summary 337 Acknowledgment 337 References 338 12 Quasistatic and PulseMeasuring Techniques 341 Antonio Torrezan, Gilberto Medeiros-Ribeiro, and Stephan Tiedke 12.1 Brief Introduction to Electronic Transport Testing of ReRAM 341 12.2 Quasistatic Measurement of Current Voltage Characteristics 342 12.2.1 Dependence of Switching Parameters on Sweep Rate 345 12.3 Current Compliance and Overshoot Effects 346 12.4 Pulsed Measurements for the Study of Switching Dynamics 350 12.4.1 Experimental Setup and Results for Nanosecond Switching with Real-Time Monitoring of Device Dynamics 353 12.4.2 Experimental Setup and Results for Subnanosecond Switching with Real-Time Monitoring of Device Dynamics 354 12.5 Conclusions 358 Acknowledgment 359 References 359 13 Unipolar Resistive-Switching Mechanisms 363 Ludovic Goux and Sabina Spiga 13.1 Introduction to Unipolar Resistive Switching 363 13.2 Principle of Unipolar Switching 364 13.2.1 Basic Operation of Unipolar Memory Cells 364 13.2.2 Structure of Unipolar Memory Arrays 365 13.2.3 Experimental Evidences of Filamentary-Switching Mechanism 366 13.2.4 Typical Materials Used in Unipolar-Switching Cells 367 13.3 Unipolar-Switching Mechanisms in Model System Pt/NiO/Pt 368 13.3.1 Microscopic Origin of Switching in NiO Layers 368 13.3.1.1 Defect Chemistry 368 13.3.1.2 Microscopic Mechanism of the Switching 371 13.3.2 Physics-Based Electrical Models 372 13.3.2.1 Modeling of the Reset Switching 372 13.3.2.2 Modeling of the Set Switching 373 13.3.3 Model Implications on the Device Level 375 13.3.3.1 CF Size and RLRS Scaling with IC 375 13.3.3.2 Ireset Scaling with CF Size Scaling 376 13.3.3.3 Switching Speed 377 13.4 Influence of Oxide and Electrode Materials on Unipolar-Switching Mechanisms 379 13.4.1 Influence of the Oxide Material 380 13.4.1.1 The Specific Case of TiO2 380 13.4.1.2 Influence of the Oxide Microstructure 380 13.4.1.3 Random Circuit Breaker Model 381 13.4.1.4 Coexistence of Bipolar and Unipolar Switching 382 13.4.1.5 Switching Variability and Endurance 383 13.4.2 Impacts and Roles of Electrodes 384 13.4.2.1 Anode-Mediated Reset Operation 384 13.4.2.2 Selection Criteria of Electrode Materials 385 13.5 Conclusion 386 References 387 14 Modeling the VCM- and ECM-Type Switching Kinetics 395 Stephan Menzel and Ji-Hyun Hur 14.1 Introduction 395 14.2 Microscopic Switching Mechanism of VCM Cells 395 14.3 Microscopic Switching Mechanism of ECM Cells 397 14.4 Classification of Simulation Approaches 398 14.4.1 Ab initio and Molecular Dynamics Simulation Models 398 14.4.2 Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation Models 398 14.4.3 Continuum Models 398 14.4.4 Compact Models 399 14.5 General Considerations of the Physical Origin of the Nonlinear Switching Kinetics 399 14.6 Modeling of VCM Cells 402 14.6.1 Ab initio Models and MD Models 402 14.6.1.1 HRS and LRS State Modeling 402 14.6.1.2 Electron Transfer 404 14.6.1.3 Phase Transformations and Nucleation 405 14.6.1.4 Calculation of Migration Barriers 406 14.6.2 Kinetic Monte Carlo Modeling 407 14.6.3 Continuum Modeling 410 14.6.4 Compact Modeling 417 14.7 Modeling of ECM Cells 422 14.7.1 Ab initio Models and MD Models 422 14.7.2 KMC Modeling 423 14.7.3 Continuum Modeling 426 14.7.4 Compact Modeling 428 14.8 Summary and Outlook 431 Acknowledgment 433 References 433 15 Valence Change Observed by Nanospectroscopy and Spectromicroscopy 437 Christian Lenser, Regina Dittmann, and John Paul Strachan 15.1 Introduction 437 15.2 Methods and Techniques 439 15.3 Interface Phenomena 442 15.3.1 Reactive Metal Layers on Insulating Oxides 442 15.3.2 Formation of a Blocking Layer on Conducting Oxides 443 15.3.3 Electrically Induced Redox Reactions at the Interface 444 15.4 Localized Redox Reactions in Transition Metal Oxides 446 15.4.1 Single Crystalline Model System Doped SrTiO3 446 15.4.2 Localized Structural and Compositional Changes in TiO2 448 15.4.3 Compositional Changes in Ta2O5 and HfO2 450 15.5 Conclusions 453 Acknowledgment 453 References 453 16 Interface-Type Switching 457 Akihito Sawa and Rene Meyer 16.1 Introduction 457 16.2 Metal/Conducting Oxide Interfaces: I V Characteristics and Fundamentals 459 16.2.1 Schottky-Like Metal/Conducting Oxide Interfaces 459 16.2.2 Electronic Properties of Donor-Doped SrTiO3 460 16.2.3 Electronic Properties of Mixed-Valent Manganites 461 16.3 Resistive Switching of Metal/Donor-Doped SrTiO3 Cells 463 16.4 Resistive Switching of p-Type PCMO Cells 465 16.5 Resistive Switching in the Presence of a Tunnel Barrier 469 16.5.1 Device Structure and Materials 469 16.5.2 Electrical Characteristics 470 16.5.3 Mechanism and Modeling 472 16.5.4 Passive Cross-Point Arrays 473 16.6 Ferroelectric Resistive Switching 475 16.6.1 Classification of Ferroelectric Resistive Switching 475 16.6.2 Ferroelectric Resistive-Switching Diode 475 16.7 Summary 479 Acknowledgment 480 References 480 17 Electrochemical Metallization Memories 483 Michael N. Kozicki, MariaMitkova, and Ilia Valov 17.1 Introduction 483 17.2 Metal Ion Conductors 484 17.2.1 Materials 484 17.2.2 Ion Transport 490 17.3 Electrochemistry of CBRAM (ECM) Cells 492 17.3.1 Fundamental Processes 492 17.3.2 Filament Growth and Dissolution 495 17.3.3 Filament Morphology 500 17.4 Devices 503 17.4.1 Device Operation 503 17.4.2 Memory Arrays 506 17.5 Technological Challenges and Future Directions 508 Acknowledgment 509 References 510 18 Atomic Switches 515 Kazuya Terabe, Tohru Tsuruoka, Tsuyoshi Hasegawa, Alpana Nayak, Takeo Ohno, Tomonobu Nakayama, and Masakazu Aono 18.1 Introduction 515 18.1.1 Brief History of the Development of the Atomic Switch 516 18.1.2 BasicWorking Principle of the Atomic Switch 517 18.2 Gap-Type Atomic Switches 519 18.2.1 Switching Time 519 18.2.2 Electrochemical Process 521 18.2.3 Cross-Bar Structure 523 18.2.4 Quantized Conductance 524 18.2.5 Logic-Gate Operation 526 18.2.6 Synaptic Behavior 527 18.2.7 Photo-Assisted Switch 528 18.3 Gapless-Type Atomic Switches 529 18.3.1 Sulfide-Based Switch 529 18.3.2 Oxide-Based Switch 530 18.3.3 Effect of Moisture 533 18.3.4 Switching Time 534 18.3.5 Quantized Conductance and Synaptic Behavior 535 18.3.6 Polymer-Based Switch 536 18.4 Three-Terminal Atomic Switches 537 18.4.1 Filament-Growth-Controlled Type 537 18.4.2 Nucleation-Controlled Type 539 18.5 Summary 541 References 542 19 Scaling Limits of Nanoionic Devices 547 Victor Zhirnov and Gurtej Sandhu 19.1 Introduction 547 19.2 Basic Operations of ICT Devices 547 19.3 Minimal Nanoionic ICT 549 19.3.1 Switching Mechanisms and the Material Systems 549 19.3.2 Atomic Filament: Classical and Quantum Resistance 551 19.3.2.1 Classical Resistance 551 19.3.2.2 Quantum Resistance 552 19.3.2.3 Conductance in the Presence of Barriers 553 19.3.2.4 Barriers in Atomic Gaps: Nonrectangular Barrier 555 19.3.2.5 Transmission through Atomic Gaps 555 19.3.3 Interface Controlled Resistance (ICR) 556 19.3.3.1 Electrical Properties of Material Interfaces 557 19.3.3.2 Contact Resistance in a M S (M I) Structure 560 19.3.4 Stability of the Minimal Nanoionic State 563 19.4 Energetics of Nanoionic Devices 565 19.4.1 Switching Speed and Energy 565 19.4.2 Heat Dissipation and Transfer in a Minimal Nanoionic Device 567 19.5 Summary 569 Acknowledgment 569 Appendix A Physical Origin of the Barrier Potential 569 References 571 20 Integration Technology and Cell Design 573 Fred Chen, Jun Y. Seok, and Cheol S. Hwang 20.1 Materials 573 20.1.1 Resistance Switching (RS) Materials 573 20.1.1.1 Insulating Oxides 573 20.1.1.2 Semiconducting Oxides 574 20.1.1.3 Electrolyte Chalcogenides 574 20.1.1.4 Phase-Change Materials 575 20.1.2 Electrode Materials, Including Reductants 575 20.2 Structures 576 20.2.1 Planar Stack 576 20.2.2 Sidewall-Conforming Stack 577 20.2.3 Lateral Structure 578 20.3 Integration Architectures 579 20.3.1 Transistor in Series with RRAM (1T1R) 579 20.3.2 Transistor in Parallel with RRAM (T||R) 582 20.3.3 1S1R Stacked Crosspoint 583 20.3.3.1 The Selector Device 583 20.3.3.2 Sensing Margin 584 20.3.3.3 Write Margin 586 20.3.3.4 Cumulative Line Resistance 586 20.3.4 Through-Multilayer via Array 588 20.3.4.1 Through-Multilayer Vias 588 20.3.4.2 Staircase Connections 589 20.3.4.3 Horizontal Electrodes 589 20.3.4.4 Bathtub-Type Peripheral Connection 592 20.3.5 Array Area Efficiency 592 20.4 Conclusions 593 Acknowledgment 594 References 594 21 Reliability Aspects 597 Dirk J.Wouters, Yang-Yin Chen, Andrea Fantini, and Nagarajan Raghavan 21.1 Introduction 597 21.2 Endurance (Cyclability) 598 21.2.1 Endurance Summary of Bipolar Switching TMO RRAM 598 21.2.2 Balancing the Bipolar Switching for Better Endurance 599 21.2.3 Understanding of Endurance Degradation 600 21.3 Retention 601 21.3.1 Retention Summary of Bipolar TMO RRAM 601 21.3.2 Understanding of Retention Degradation in Bipolar TMO RRAM 603 21.3.3 Trade-Off between Retention/Endurance 604 21.4 Variability 605 21.4.1 Introduction 605 21.4.2 Experimental Aspects of Variability 605 21.4.2.1 Variability of Forming Operation 605 21.4.2.2 Intrinsic and Extrinsic Variability 606 21.4.3 Physical Aspects of Variability 607 21.4.3.1 Variability in Unipolar Devices 607 21.4.3.2 Variability in Bipolar Devices 607 21.5 Random Telegraph Noise (RTN) 609 21.5.1 Introduction 609 21.5.2 Charge Carrier Transport-Induced RTN 610 21.5.3 Oxygen Vacancy Transport-Induced RTN 611 21.5.3.1 Experimental Identification of Vacancy Perturbations 611 21.5.3.2 Vacancy-Induced RTN for Shallow to Moderate Reset 612 21.5.3.3 Vacancy-Induced RTN for Very Deep Reset 613 21.5.3.4 Bimodal Filament Configuration and Disturb Immunity 614 21.5.3.5 Role of Dielectric Microstructure on RTN Immunity 614 21.5.4 Summary of RTN Analysis Studies 615 21.6 Disturb 615 21.6.1 Phenomena 615 21.6.2 Understanding and Modeling 616 21.6.3 Anomalous Disturb Behavior 616 21.7 Conclusions and Outlook 617 Acknowledgment 618 References 618 22 Select Device Concepts for Crossbar Arrays 623 Geoffrey W. Burr, Rohit S. Shenoy, and Hyunsang Hwang 22.1 Introduction 623 22.2 Crossbar Array Considerations 624 22.2.1 Problems Associated with Large Subarrays 625 22.2.2 Considerations During NVM-Write 625 22.2.3 Considerations During NVM-Read 627 22.3 Target Specifications for Select Devices 627 22.4 Types of Select Devices 629 22.4.1 Si Based 629 22.4.2 Oxide Diodes 631 22.4.2.1 Oxide PN Junction 631 22.4.2.2 Metal-Oxide Schottky Barrier 632 22.4.3 Threshold Switch 633 22.4.3.1 Ovonic Threshold Switching 634 22.4.3.2 Metal Insulator Transition (MIT) 636 22.4.3.3 Threshold Vacuum Switch 637 22.4.4 Oxide Tunnel Barrier 638 22.4.4.1 Single Layer Oxide-(Nitride-)Based Select Device (TiO2 and SiNx) 638 22.4.4.2 Multi-Layer Oxide-Based Select Device (TaOx/TiO2/TaOx) 638 22.4.5 Mixed-Ionic-Electronic-Conduction (MIEC) 639 22.5 Self-Selected Resistive Memory 643 22.5.1 Complementary Resistive Switch 645 22.5.2 Hybrid ReRAM-Select Devices 647 22.5.3 Nonlinear ReRAM 649 22.6 Conclusion 651 References 652 23 Bottom-Up Approaches for Resistive Switching Memories 661 Sabina Spiga, Takeshi Yanagida, and Tomoji Kawai 23.1 Introduction 661 23.2 Bottom-Up ReRAM Fabrication Methods 662 23.2.1 Vapor Liquid Solid Method 662 23.2.2 Template-Assisted Fabrication Methods of NWs 663 23.3 Resistive Switching in Single (All-Oxide) NW/Nanoisland ReRAM 664 23.3.1 Resistive Switching in Single NiO NWs and Nanoislands 665 23.3.2 Resistive Switching in Oxide NWs Alternative to NiO 669 23.3.3 Study of Switching Mechanisms in Oxide NWReRAM 671 23.3.4 Resistive Switching in NWReRAM with Active Electrodes: ECM Mechanisms 675 23.4 Resistive Switching in Axial Heterostructured NWs 678 23.5 Core Shell NWs toward Crossbar Architectures 680 23.5.1 Crossbar Devices with Si(core)/a-Si(shell) NWs and Ag Electrodes 681 23.5.2 Crossbar Devices with Ni(core)/NiO(shell) NWs and Ni Electrodes 683 23.6 Emerging Bottom-Up Approaches and Applications 686 23.6.1 1D1R Nanopillar Array 686 23.6.2 Block-Copolymer Self-Assembly for Advanced ReRAM 687 23.7 Conclusions 688 References 689 24 Switch Application in FPGA 695 Toshitsugu Sakamoto, S. SimonWong, and Young Yang Liauw 24.1 Introduction 695 24.2 Monolithically 3D FPGA with BEOL Devices 696 24.3 Resistive Memory Replacing Configuration Memory 698 24.3.1 Architecture 698 24.4 Resistive Configuration Memory Cell 699 24.5 Resistive Configuration Memory Array 700 24.5.1 Prototype 702 24.5.2 Measurement Results 703 24.6 Complementary Atomic Switch Replacing Configuration Switch 706 24.6.1 Complementary Atomic Switch (CAS) 706 24.6.2 Cell Architecture with CAS 707 24.6.3 Demonstration of CAS-Based Programmable Logic 709 24.7 Energy Efficiency of Programmable Logic Accelerator 710 24.8 Conclusion and Outlook 712 References 712 25 ReRAM-Based Neuromorphic Computing 715 Giacomo Indiveri, Eike Linn, and Stefano Ambrogio 25.1 Neuromorphic Systems: Past and Present Approaches 715 25.2 Neuromorphic Engineering 715 25.3 Neuromorphic Computing (The Present) 716 25.4 Neuromorphic ReRAM Approaches (The Future) 718 25.4.1 ReRAM-Based Neuromorphic Approaches 718 25.4.2 Nonvolatility and Volatility of Resistive States 721 25.4.3 Nonlinear Switching Kinetics 722 25.4.4 Multilevel Resistance Behavior 722 25.4.5 Capacitive Properties 725 25.4.6 Switching Statistics 725 25.5 Scaling in Neuromorphic ReRAM Architectures 728 25.6 Applications of Neuromorphic ReRAM Architectures 729 References 731 Index 737
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    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/materials_science> ; # Materials Science
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/elektronische_materialien> ; # Elektronische Materialien
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Topic/resistives_schalten> ; # Resistives Schalten
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/physics> ; # Physics
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/nanomaterialien> ; # Nanomaterialien
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/produktform_hardback> ; # (Produktform)Hardback
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/materialwissenschaften> ; # Materialwissenschaften
    schema:about <http://dewey.info/class/540/> ;
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/elektronikbauteile> ; # Elektronikbauteile
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/physik> ; # Physik
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/solid_state_physics> ; # Solid State Physics
    schema:bookEdition "1., Auflage" ;
    schema:bookFormat bgn:PrintBook ;
    schema:datePublished "2016" ;
    schema:editor <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Person/ielmini_daniele> ; # Daniele Ielmini
    schema:editor <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Person/waser_rainer> ; # Rainer Waser
    schema:exampleOfWork <http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/2584071380> ;
    schema:genre "Aufsatzsammlung" ;
    schema:inLanguage "en" ;
    schema:isSimilarTo <http://worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#CreativeWork/resistive_switching> ;
    schema:name "Resistive Switching From Fundamentals of Nanoionic Redox Processes to Memristive Device Applications" ;
    schema:productID "915163669" ;
    schema:publication <http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/915163669#PublicationEvent/weinheimwiley_vch2016> ;
    schema:publisher <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Organization/wiley_vch_verlag_gmbh_&_co_kgaa> ; # Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
    schema:publisher <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Agent/wiley_vch> ; # Wiley-VCH
    schema:url <http://d-nb.info/1074254600/04> ;
    schema:workExample <http://worldcat.org/isbn/9783527334179> ;
    umbel:isLike <http://d-nb.info/1074254600> ;
    wdrs:describedby <http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/915163669> ;
    .


Related Entities

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Organization/wiley_vch_verlag_gmbh_&_co_kgaa> # Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
    a schema:Organization ;
    schema:name "Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA." ;
    schema:sameAs <http://d-nb.info/gnd/1064300391> ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Person/ielmini_daniele> # Daniele Ielmini
    a schema:Person ;
    schema:familyName "Ielmini" ;
    schema:givenName "Daniele" ;
    schema:name "Daniele Ielmini" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Person/waser_rainer> # Rainer Waser
    a schema:Person ;
    schema:familyName "Waser" ;
    schema:givenName "Rainer" ;
    schema:name "Rainer Waser" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/electrical_&_electronics_engineering> # Electrical & Electronics Engineering
    a schema:Thing ;
    schema:name "Electrical & Electronics Engineering" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/electronic_materials> # Electronic Materials
    a schema:Thing ;
    schema:name "Electronic Materials" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/electronic_packaging> # Electronic Packaging
    a schema:Thing ;
    schema:name "Electronic Packaging" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/elektronikbauteile> # Elektronikbauteile
    a schema:Thing ;
    schema:name "Elektronikbauteile" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/elektronische_materialien> # Elektronische Materialien
    a schema:Thing ;
    schema:name "Elektronische Materialien" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/elektrotechnik_u_elektronik> # Elektrotechnik u. Elektronik
    a schema:Thing ;
    schema:name "Elektrotechnik u. Elektronik" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/festkorperphysik> # Festkörperphysik
    a schema:Thing ;
    schema:name "Festkörperphysik" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/materials_science> # Materials Science
    a schema:Thing ;
    schema:name "Materials Science" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/materialwissenschaften> # Materialwissenschaften
    a schema:Thing ;
    schema:name "Materialwissenschaften" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/nanomaterialien> # Nanomaterialien
    a schema:Thing ;
    schema:name "Nanomaterialien" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/nanotechnologie> # Nanotechnologie
    a schema:Thing ;
    schema:name "Nanotechnologie" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/nanotechnology> # Nanotechnology
    a schema:Thing ;
    schema:name "Nanotechnology" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/produktform_hardback> # (Produktform)Hardback
    a schema:Thing ;
    schema:name "(Produktform)Hardback" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/solid_state_physics> # Solid State Physics
    a schema:Thing ;
    schema:name "Solid State Physics" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Thing/vlb_wn_1650_hardcover_softcover_chemie> # (VLB-WN)1650: Hardcover, Softcover / Chemie
    a schema:Thing ;
    schema:name "(VLB-WN)1650: Hardcover, Softcover / Chemie" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Topic/nichtfluchtiger_speicher> # Nichtflüchtiger Speicher
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:name "Nichtflüchtiger Speicher" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#Topic/resistives_schalten> # Resistives Schalten
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:name "Resistives Schalten" ;
    .

<http://worldcat.org/entity/work/data/2584071380#CreativeWork/resistive_switching>
    a schema:CreativeWork ;
    rdfs:label "Resistive Switching." ;
    schema:description "Erscheint auch als" ;
    schema:isSimilarTo <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/915163669> ; # Resistive Switching From Fundamentals of Nanoionic Redox Processes to Memristive Device Applications
    .

<http://worldcat.org/isbn/9783527334179>
    a schema:ProductModel ;
    schema:isbn "3527334173" ;
    schema:isbn "9783527334179" ;
    .

<http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/915163669>
    a genont:InformationResource, genont:ContentTypeGenericResource ;
    schema:about <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/915163669> ; # Resistive Switching From Fundamentals of Nanoionic Redox Processes to Memristive Device Applications
    schema:dateModified "2018-08-04" ;
    void:inDataset <http://purl.oclc.org/dataset/WorldCat> ;
    .


Content-negotiable representations

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