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Restoration of contaminated aquifers : petroleum hydrocarbons and organic compounds

Author: Stephen M Testa; Duane L Winegardner
Publisher: Boca Raton : Lewis, ©2000.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 2nd edView all editions and formats
Summary:

Describes various advances in in situ remediation and natural attenuation. This book emphasizes the remediation of Non-aqueous Phase Liquids (NAPLs), Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs), and the  Read more...

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Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: Stephen M Testa; Duane L Winegardner
ISBN: 1566703204 9781566703208
OCLC Number: 43930134
Notes: Revised edition of: Restoration of petroleum-contaminated aquifers. c1991.
Description: 446 pages : illustrations, maps ; 24 cm
Contents: 1.1 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Use in Society 1 --
1.2 Use of Organic Compounds in Society 7 --
1.3 Role of the Professional Environmentalist 8 --
1.3.1 Role of the Environmental Geologist 9 --
1.3.2 Role of the Environmental Engineer 10 --
1.4 Defining the Environmental Challenge 11 --
Chapter 2 Regulatory Framework --
2.2 Agency Responsibilities 18 --
2.2.1 Environmental Protection Agency 18 --
2.2.2 Department of Transportation 19 --
2.2.3 Other Federal Agencies 19 --
2.2.4 State Agencies 20 --
2.3 Federal Regulatory Process 20 --
2.4 Pertinent Federal Regulations 21 --
2.4.1 National Environmental Policy Act 21 --
2.4.2 Spill Prevention, Control and Countermeasures 21 --
2.4.3 Safe Drinking Water Act 21 --
2.4.3.1 Drinking Water Standards 23 --
2.4.3.2 Underground Injection Control Program 23 --
2.4.3.3 Sole Source Aquifers 24 --
2.4.4 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 25 --
2.4.4.1 Treatment, Disposal, and Storage Facilities 25 --
2.4.4.2 Underground Storage Tanks 26 --
2.4.5 Clean Water Act 28 --
2.4.5.1 Storm Water Permitting Program 29 --
2.4.6 Toxic Substance Control Act 29 --
2.4.7 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act 30 --
2.4.8 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act 31 --
2.4.9 Pipeline Safety Act 31 --
2.5 State Programs and Regulations 32 --
2.5.1 Voluntary Cleanup Programs 32 --
2.5.2 Brownfield Initiative 32 --
2.5.3 Underground and Aboveground Storage Tanks Program 33 --
2.5.4 State Programs Affecting the Petroleum Refining Industry 35 --
2.6 Risk-Based Corrective Action or "Rebecca" 36 --
Chapter 3 Hydrogeologic Principles --
3.2 Porosity, Permeability, and Diagenesis 42 --
3.3 Sedimentary Sequences and Facies Architecture 46 --
3.3.1 Hydrogeologic Facies 48 --
3.3.2 Hydrostratigraphic Models 49 --
3.3.3 Sequence Stratigraphy 50 --
3.4 Structural Style 51 --
3.5 Flux Equation 53 --
3.5.1 Darcy's Law 54 --
3.5.2 Fick's Law 55 --
3.5.3 Gases and Vapors 55 --
3.6 Saturated Systems 56 --
3.6.1 Types of Aquifers 63 --
3.6.2 Steady-State Flow 68 --
3.6.3 Nonsteady Flow 77 --
3.7 Unsaturated Systems 77 --
Chapter 4 Hydrocarbon Chemistry --
4.2 Defining Petroleum 90 --
4.3 Hydrocarbon Structure 90 --
4.4 Hydrocarbon Products 97 --
4.4.1 Refining Processes 97 --
4.4.1.1 Separation 97 --
4.4.1.2 Conversion 101 --
4.4.1.3 Treatment 102 --
4.5 Degradation Processes 102 --
4.6 Forensic Chemistry 104 --
4.6.1 API Gravity 106 --
4.6.2 Distillation Curves 107 --
4.6.3 Trace Metals Analysis 109 --
4.6.4 Gas Chromatography Fingerprinting 110 --
4.6.4.1 Gasoline-Range Hydrocarbons 110 --
4.6.4.2 C[superscript 8+] Alkane Gas Chromatography 114 --
4.6.4.3 Aromatic-Range Hydrocarbons 114 --
4.6.4.4 Higher-Range Petroleum Fractions 115 --
4.6.5 Isotope Fingerprinting 118 --
4.7 Age Dating of NAPL Pools and Dissolved Hydrocarbon Plumes 122 --
4.7.1 Radioisotope Age Dating Techniques 124 --
4.7.2 Changes in Configuration of Plume over Time 125 --
4.7.3 Changes in Concentrations over Time 126 --
4.7.4 Degradation Rates 127 --
4.7.5 Changes in Concentration of Two Contaminants over Time 127 --
Chapter 5 Fate and Transport --
5.2 NAPL Characteristics and Subsurface Behavior 132 --
5.3 Subsurface Processes 138 --
5.3.1 Volatilization 139 --
5.3.2 Sorption 143 --
5.3.3 Advection, Dispersion, and Diffusion 145 --
5.4 Occurrence and Flow of Immiscible Liquids 148 --
5.4.1 Unsaturated Zone (above the Water Table) 148 --
5.4.1.1 Water Flow through the Unsaturated Zone 148 --
5.4.1.2 Multiphase Fluid Flow in the Unsaturated Zone 150 --
5.4.1.3 Saturation Volumes 152 --
5.4.1.4 NAPL Migration 153 --
5.4.1.5 Three Phase--Two Immiscible Liquids and Air in the Unsaturated Zone 154 --
5.4.2 Saturated Zone (below the Water Table) 159 --
5.4.2.1 Steady-State Saturated Flow--Single Fluid 159 --
5.4.2.2 Flow of Two Immiscible Fluids 160 --
5.4.2.3 Dispersion from NAPL to Solution 161 --
Chapter 6 NAPL Subsurface Characterization --
6.2 Field Methods for Subsurface NAPL Detection 168 --
6.2.1 Monitoring Well Installation and Design 168 --
6.2.2 NAPL Detection Methods 168 --
6.3 Apparent vs. Actual NAPL Thickness 171 --
6.3.1 LNAPL Apparent vs. Actual Thickness 171 --
6.3.2 DNAPL Apparent vs. Actual Thickness 177 --
6.4 Apparent vs. Actual LNAPL Thickness Determination 178 --
6.4.1 Indirect Empirical Approach 178 --
6.4.2 Direct Field Approach 186 --
6.4.2.1 Bailer Test 186 --
6.4.2.2 Continuous Core Analysis 187 --
6.4.2.3 Test Pit Method 187 --
6.4.2.4 Baildown Test 187 --
6.4.2.5 Recovery Well Recharge Test 190 --
6.4.2.6 Dielectric Well Logging Tool 191 --
6.4.2.7 Optoelectronic Sensor 191 --
6.5 Volume Determination 191 --
6.6 Recoverability 196 --
6.6.1 Residual Hydrocarbon 196 --
6.6.2 Relative Permeability 197 --
6.6.3 LNAPL Transmissivity 199 --
6.6.4 Other Factors 200 --
6.7 Time Frame for NAPL Recovery 200 --
Chapter 7 Remedial Technologies for NAPLs --
7.2 Passive Systems 212 --
7.2.1 Linear Interception 212 --
7.2.1.1 Trenches 212 --
7.2.1.2 Funnel and Gate Technology 213 --
7.2.1.3 Hydraulic Underflow and Skimmer 214 --
7.2.2 Density Skimmers 215 --
7.3 Active Systems 215 --
7.3.1 Well-Point Systems 216 --
7.3.2 Vacuum-Enhanced Suction-Lift Well-Point System 219 --
7.3.3 One-Pump System 224 --
7.3.3.1 Submersible Turbine Pumps 225 --
7.3.3.2 Positive Displacement Pumps 227 --
7.3.3.3 Pneumatic Skimmer Pumps 227 --
7.3.4 Two-Pump System 228 --
7.3.5 Other Recovery Systems 230 --
7.3.5.1 Timed Bailers 230 --
7.3.5.2 Rope and Belt Skimmers 230 --
7.3.5.3 Vapor Extraction and Biodegradation 232 --
7.3.5.4 Air Sparging 232 --
7.3.5.5 Bioslurping 234 --
7.4 Coproduced Water-Handling Considerations 235 --
7.5 DNAPL Recovery Strategies 237 --
7.5.1 Surfactants 237 --
7.5.2 Thermally Enhanced Extraction (Steam Injection) 237 --
7.5.3 Cosolvent Flooding 238 --
7.5.4 Density Manipulations 238 --
Chapter 8 Handling of Coproduced Water --
8.2 Oil-Water Separation 242 --
8.2.1 Gravity Separation 242 --
8.2.2 Dissolved Air Flotation 242 --
8.2.3 Chemical Coagulation-Flocculation and Sedimentation 243 --
8.2.4 Coalescers 243 --
8.2.5 Membrane Processes 244 --
8.2.6 Biological Processes 244 --
8.2.7 Carbon Adsorption 244 --
8.3 Removal of Inorganics 244 --
8.4 Removal of Organics 245 --
8.4.1 Air Stripping 245 --
8.4.2 Carbon Adsorption 246 --
8.4.3 Biological Treatment 249 --
8.5 Treatment Trains 251 --
8.6 Cost Comparisons 252 --
8.7 Disposal Options 255 --
8.7.1 Surface Discharge 255 --
8.7.2 Site Reuse 255 --
8.7.3 Reinjection 256 --
8.7.3.1 Regulatory Aspects 256 --
8.7.3.2 Zones of Reinjection 256 --
8.7.3.3 Injection Well Construction 257 --
8.7.3.4 Well Design 258 --
8.7.3.5 Injection Well Operations 260 --
Chapter 9 Remediation Strategies for Dissolved Contaminant Plumes --
9.2 Pump-and-Treat Technology 266 --
9.3 Air Sparging 271 --
9.3.1 Applications 272 --
9.3.2 Field Testing 275 --
9.3.3 Limitations 275 --
9.4 In Situ Groundwater Bioremediation 276 --
9.4.1 Site Characteristics That Control Aquifer Bioremediation 279 --
9.4.1.1 Hydraulic Conductivity 279 --
9.4.1.2 Soil Structure and Stratification 279 --
9.4.1.3 Groundwater Mineral Content 280 --
9.4.1.4 Groundwater pH 280 --
9.4.1.5 Groundwater Temperature 280 --
9.4.1.6 Microbial Presence 281 --
9.4.2 Bench-Scale Testing 281 --
9.4.3 Pilot Studies 282 --
9.4.4 Groundwater Modeling 283 --
9.4.5 System Design 283 --
9.4.5.1 Estimates of Electron Acceptor and Nutrient Requirements 284 --
9.4.5.2 Well Placement 284 --
9.4.5.3 Electron Acceptor and Nutrient Addition 285 --
9.4.5.4 System Controls and Alarms 286 --
9.5 Start-up Operations 286 --
9.6 Operational Monitoring 287 --
9.7 Remedial Progress Monitoring 287 --
9.8 Long-Term Observations 287 --
Chapter 10 Treatment of Impacted Soil in the Vadose Zone --
10.2 In Situ Solidification/Stabilization 292 --
10.3 Soil Vapor Extraction 298 --
10.4 Air Sparging 301 --
10.5 Steam Injection and Hot Air Stripping 303 --
10.6 Soil Washing 306 --
10.6.1 Leaching in Place 306 --
10.6.2 Leaching Aboveground 306 --
10.7 Bioventing 307 --
10.8 Bioremediation 309 --
10.9 Natural Attenuation 310 --
10.10 Other Technologies 310 --
10.10.1 Vacuum-Vaporized Well 310 --
10.10.2 Hydrofracturing Enhancement 313 --
10.10.3 Electrochemical 314 --
10.10.4 Vitrification and Electrical Heating 314 --
10.11 SVE Case Histories 314 --
Chapter 11 Economic Considerations for Aquifer Restoration --
11.2 Impacted Soil Considerations 331 --
11.2.1 Lateral and Vertical Distribution 331 --
11.2.2 Contaminant Type 332 --
11.2.3 Time Frame 332 --
11.2.4 Regulatory Climate 333 --
11.3 LNAPL Recovery 333 --
11.3.1 Preliminary Considerations 334 --
11.3.2 Economics of LNAPL Recovery 335 --
11.3.3 Project Planning and Management 338 --
11.3.4 Estimating Reserves 338 --
11.3.5 Other Factors 342 --
11.4 Dissolved Hydrocarbons in Groundwater Considerations 342 --
11.4.1 Lateral and Vertical Distribution 342 --
11.4.2 Contaminant Type 343 --
11.4.3 Economics and Time Frames 344 --
11.4.4 Site Closure 346 --
11.4.5 Air Sparging Pilot Study Case History 347 --
11.5 Regulatory Climate 348 --
Chapter 12 LNAPL Recovery Case Histories --
12.2 Vacuum-Enhanced Suction-Lift Well-Point System 353 --
12.3 Rope Skimming System 359 --
12.4 Vacuum-Enhanced Eductor System 366.
Responsibility: Stephen M. Testa, Duane L. Winegardner.
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"expands the scope of the earlier text by examining all forms of hydrocarbon contamination. These authors are pros having over 60 years experience in the environmental fieldTheir contribution to the Read more...

 
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