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Rethinking cognitive computation : Turing and the science of the mind

저자: Andrew Wells
출판사: Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, England ; New York : Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
판/형식:   도서 : 영어모든 판과 형식 보기
데이터베이스:WorldCat
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명시된 사람: Alan Mathison Turing; Alan Mathison Turing; Alan Mathison Turing
자료 유형: 인터넷 자료
문서 형식: 책, 인터넷 자원
모든 저자 / 참여자: Andrew Wells
ISBN: 1403911614 9781403911612 1403911622 9781403911629
OCLC 번호: 60798559
설명: xx, 265 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
내용: Computable numbers 1 --
Turing's later work 2 --
Computation in cognitive science 3 --
The reception and understanding of Turing's work 4 --
Summary and goals of the book 7 --
2 Making the Modern Mind 11 --
William James: mind, brain and consciousness 12 --
J.B. Watson: behaviourism 13 --
F.C. Bartlett: the effort after meaning 14 --
Kenneth Craik: mental models 16 --
McCulloch and Pitts: artificial neural networks 17 --
John von Neumann: computer architecture 17 --
Donald Hebb: the neuropsychology of learning 18 --
Miller, Galanter and Pribram: plans 18 --
Newell and Simon: physical symbol systems 19 --
Rumelhart and McClelland: PDP 20 --
The current situation 20 --
3 Functional States and Mini-minds 22 --
Functional states and processes 22 --
Computing numbers 23 --
Functional states and everyday processes 24 --
Functional and physical analysis 25 --
Representing happiness and sadness 27 --
Mini-minds 30 --
4 Exploring Sets of Mini-minds 33 --
Configurations 33 --
Instructions and machine tables 33 --
Deterministic and non-deterministic models 34 --
Description numbers 35 --
Logical possibility and psychological plausibility 36 --
Counting mini-minds 36 --
Four-state mini-minds 37 --
Plausibility constraints: selecting subsets of mini-minds 38 --
Appendix 4.1 Binary to decimal and decimal to binary conversion 46 --
Appendix 4.2 Thirty-six four-state, two-input mini-minds 47 --
5 Environments and Actions 53 --
Specifying places 53 --
Places and objects 54 --
Linear environments 56 --
Situated mini-minds 57 --
Getting inside a mini-mind 57 --
The first sheep and dogs Turing machine 58 --
Complete configurations and traces of behaviour 60 --
Configuration-governed and rule-governed behaviour 62 --
A further example 63 --
Memory in mini-minds 66 --
Counting situated mini-minds 68 --
Appendix 5.1 Answers to sheep and dog exercises 70 --
6 Turing's Analysis of Computation 74 --
The scope of Turing's analysis 75 --
Derivation of the machine model 78 --
The construction of a machine to do the work of a computant 86 --
7 Turing's Example Machines 88 --
m-configurations, configurations and complete configurations 88 --
Infinite tapes 89 --
Symbols of the first and second kinds 89 --
Circle-free and circular machines 90 --
Organization of the tape: F-squares and E-squares 90 --
Turing's first machine: TM1 91 --
Turing's second machine: TM2 93 --
8 Turing's Functional Notation 98 --
Skeleton tables and m-functions 98 --
Building composite m-functions by linking 101 --
Defining m-functions in terms of other m-functions 102 --
9 Standard Descriptions and Description Numbers 106 --
How many Turing machines are there? 107 --
Standard descriptions 108 --
Description numbers 111 --
10 Basic Components of the Universal Machine 113 --
The rightmost symbol finder 114 --
Printing figures 115 --
Copying marked symbols 116 --
Copying marked symbols and erasing the markers 117 --
Comparing marked symbols 118 --
Comparing marked symbols and erasing the markers 120 --
Marking configurations 122 --
11 Simulation 123 --
The simulation cycle in outline 123 --
Observation and participation 124 --
12 The Universal Machine in Detail 133 --
Initiating a computation 133 --
Marking and matching configurations 134 --
Marking the tape in preparation for writing the next complete configuration 137 --
Printing figures 141 --
Printing the next complete configuration 144 --
Housekeeping 146 --
Further processing cycles 147 --
13 Turing's Unsolvability Proofs 148 --
Turing's thesis 148 --
Uncomputable numbers 149 --
The unsolvability of the halting problem 150 --
The unsolvability of the printing problem 154 --
The unsolvability of the Entscheidungsproblem 155 --
Unsolvability proofs and the nature of the mind 156 --
Godel and Turing 159 --
14 Von Neumann Computer Architecture 161 --
Turing's instruction note model 162 --
The ENIAC 164 --
John von Neumann and the stored program concept 165 --
The design of the EDVAC 166 --
The case for serial processing 167 --
Internal organization of von Neumann architecture 169 --
15 Virtual Architecture 174 --
Standard descriptions as virtual machines 174 --
Hierarchies of virtual machines 175 --
The mind as virtual machine 176 --
Virtual machines depend on the underlying hardware 177 --
Virtual control regimes 178 --
Production systems 179 --
Turing machines and production systems 180 --
16 The Commitments of the Computational Theory of Mind 183 --
The CTM and von Neumann architecture 185 --
Fudging the issues 187 --
Can you make a computer out of anything? 190 --
Is everything a computer? 191 --
The attractions of the computational theory of mind 194 --
17 Evaluating the Computational Theory of Mind 198 --
Does the brain contain flip-flops? 199 --
Positional specification of meaning in the brain 200 --
Hierarchical encoding 201 --
Constituency and neural constraints 202 --
Encoding and decoding: the transduction problem 203 --
Could the brain have evolved as a universal computer? 205 --
18 Connectionism 209 --
McCulloch-Pitts networks 209 --
Learning in single-layer networks 210 --
Multi-layer networks 210 --
Symbol systems versus connectionism 210 --
Styles of connectionist modelling 211 --
Networks and finite automata 212 --
supervised learning 212 --
Performance and limitations of trained feed-forward networks 219 --
Networks with recurrent structure 221 --
Problems and a proposed solution 222 --
19 Ecological Functionalism: Computation 224 --
Neural and environmental structure 224 --
The need for a more expressive formal system 225 --
Studying concurrency: the [pi]-calculus 226 --
Turing machines and [pi]-calculus processes 234 --
20 Ecological Functionalism: Psychology 236 --
Behavioural flexibility 237 --
Rational, adaptive, goal-oriented behaviour 238 --
Real time operation 238 --
Environmental embedding 239 --
Use of symbols and abstractions 241 --
Use of language, both natural and artificial 244 --
Learning from the environment and from experience 244 --
Acquisition of capabilities through development 245 --
Autonomous operation within a social community 245 --
Self-awareness and sense of self 246 --
Neural realization 246 --
Construction by an embryological growth process 247 --
Evolutionary history 247.
책임: A.J. Wells.
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