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Risk communication : a handbook for communicating environmental, safety, and health risks

Author: Regina E Lundgren; Andrea H McMakin
Publisher: Hoboken, New Jersey : Wiley ; Piscataway, NJ : IEEE Press, [2013]
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : English : Fifth editionView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:
This fully-updated fifth edition includes real-life examples of current events such as the Japanese tsunami, the Gulf oil disaster, and Hurricane Irene, along with lessons learned from these events. The coverage also includes new chapters on public health campaigns, and on the use and effectiveness of social media such as blogging, video, and image sharing for risk communication purposes. Combing sound, scientific  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Handbooks, manuals, etc
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Lundgren, Regina E., 1959-
Risk communication.
Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons Inc., 2013
(DLC) 2012051127
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Regina E Lundgren; Andrea H McMakin
ISBN: 9781118645734 9781118645741 111864574X 1118645731
OCLC Number: 833381437
Description: 1 online resource (xxi, 393 pages) : illustrations
Contents: LIST OF FIGURES xv LIST OF TABLES xvii PREFACE xix ABOUT THE AUTHORS xxi 1 INTRODUCTION 1 To Begin 2 The Risk Communication Process 5 Audiences, Situations, and Purposes 6 References 7 PART I UNDERSTANDING RISK COMMUNICATION 2 APPROACHES TO COMMUNICATING RISK 11 Communication Process Approach 12 National Research Council's Approach 12 Mental Models Approach 13 Crisis Communication Approach 14 Convergence Communication Approach 15 Three-Challenge Approach 15 Social Constructionist Approach 16 Hazard Plus Outrage Approach 17 Mental Noise Approach 17 Social Network Contagion Approach 18 Social Amplifi cation of Risk Approach 18 Social Trust Approach 19 Evolutionary Theory Approach 20 Extended Parallel Process Model Approach 20 Summary 21 References 21 Additional Resources 22 3 LAWS THAT MANDATE RISK COMMUNICATION 23 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act 24 Executive Order 12898, Environmental Justice in Minority Populations 25 Executive Order 13045, Reduce Environmental Health and Safety Risks to Children 26 Food and Drug Administration Regulations on Prescription Drug Communication 28 National Environmental Policy Act 28 Natural Resource Damage Assessment 30 Occupational Safety and Health Act 30 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act 32 Risk Management Program Rule 32 Privacy Rule 32 Other Government Inducements 33 International Standards 33 North American Standards 34 Grants 34 Summary 35 References 35 Additional Resources 35 4 CONSTRAINTS TO EFFECTIVE RISK COMMUNICATION 37 Constraints on the Communicator 37 Organizational Constraints 38 Emotional Constraints 44 Constraints from the Audience 45 Hostility and Outrage 45 Panic and Denial 48 Apathy 48 Mistrust of Risk Assessment 49 Disagreements on the Acceptable Magnitude of Risk 50 Lack of Faith in Science and Institutions 50 Learning Diffi culties 51 Constraints for Both Communicator and Audience 51 Stigma 52 Stability of the Knowledge Base 52 Summary 53 References 53 Additional Resources 55 5 ETHICAL ISSUES 57 Social Ethics 58 The Sociopolitical Environment's Influence 58 The Use of the Risk Idiom 60 Fairness of the Risk 61 Consequences of Multiple Meanings 62 The Issue of Stigma 63 Organizational Ethics 63 Legitimacy of Representation 64 Designation of Primary Audience 65 Releasing Information 66 Attitude toward Compliance with Regulations 67 Personal Ethics 68 Using Persuasion 68 The Role of the Communicator 68 Organizational Ethics or Personal Ethics? 69 Summary 69 References 69 Additional Resources 70 6 PRINCIPLES OF RISK COMMUNICATION 71 Principles of Process 72 Know Your Communication Limits and Purpose 72 Whenever Possible, Pretest Your Message 73 Communicate Early, Often, and Fully 73 Remember That Perception Is Reality 74 Principles of Presentation 74 Know Your Audience 75 Do Not Limit Yourself to One Form or One Method 75 Simplify Language and Presentation, Not Content 75 Be Objective, Not Subjective 75 Communicate Honestly, Clearly, and Compassionately 76 Listen and Deal with Specifi c Concerns 76 Convey the Same Information to All Segments of Your Audience 77 Deal with Uncertainty 77 Principles for Comparing Risks 78 Use Analogies, but Do Not Trivialize 78 Use Ranges 79 Compare with Standards 79 Compare with Other Estimates of the Same Risk 80 Compare Traits 80 Do Not Compare Risks with Different Levels of Associated Outrage 80 Explain Reductions in Magnitude 81 Summary 81 References 81 Additional Resources 82 PART II PLANNING THE RISK COMMUNICATION EFFORT 7 DETERMINE PURPOSE AND OBJECTIVES 85 Factors That Influence Purpose and Objectives 86 Legal Issues 86 Organizational Requirements 86 The Risk Itself 87 Audience Requirements 88 Checklist for Determining Purpose and Objectives 89 Reference 90 Additional Resources 90 8 ANALYZE YOUR AUDIENCE 91 Begin with Purpose and Objectives 92 Choose a Level of Analysis 93 Determine Key Audience Characteristics 95 Determine How to Find Audience Analysis Information 95 Incorporate Audience Analysis Information into Risk Communication Efforts 101 Checklist for Analyzing Your Audience 103 References 103 Additional Resources 104 9 DEVELOP YOUR MESSAGE 105 Common Pitfalls 106 Information People Want 107 Mental Models 108 Message Mapping and Message Development Templates 111 Health Risk Communication 111 Crisis Communication 114 Checklist for Developing Messages 115 References 115 Additional Resource 116 10 DETERMINE THE APPROPRIATE METHODS 117 Information Materials 117 Visual Representation of Risk 118 Face-to-Face Communication 120 Working with the News Media 121 Stakeholder Participation 122 Technology-Assisted Communication 123 Social Media 125 Checklist for Determining Appropriate Methods 126 Additional Resources 127 11 SET A SCHEDULE 129 Legal Requirements 129 Organizational Requirements 130 The Scientific Process 130 Ongoing Activities 131 Audience Needs 131 Reference 132 Checklist for Setting Schedules 133 12 DEVELOP A COMMUNICATION PLAN 135 What to Include in a Communication Plan 136 Developing Risk Communication Strategies 138 Storyboarding as a Planning Tool 138 Communication Planning Using the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Approach 139 Using an Audience Focus 140 Strategic Planning for Risk Communication 142 Checklist for Developing a Communication Plan 143 References 143 Additional Resources 143 PART III PUTTING RISK COMMUNICATION INTO ACTION 13 INFORMATION MATERIALS 147 Constructing Information Materials 147 Information to Be Included 147 Organizing Material for Information Materials 150 Language for Information Materials 150 Narrative Style in Information Materials 152 Guidelines for Specifi c Types of Information Materials 153 Newsletters 153 Pamphlets, Booklets, and Fact Sheets 154 Posters, Advertisements, and Displays 154 Articles 155 Technical Reports 156 Checklist for Information Materials 157 References 158 Additional Resources 158 14 VISUAL REPRESENTATIONS OF RISKS 159 Design Visuals for Specifi c Audiences and Uses 160 Match the Visual Portrayal to the Information to be Conveyed 162 Pretest Graphics with Those Who Will Use Them 164 Using Visuals to Personalize Risk Information 166 Comparing Risks in Visual Formats 167 Static versus Interactive Visuals 170 Depicting Probability and Uncertainty 172 Presenting Probability 172 Presenting Uncertainty 176 Probability plus Uncertainty 177 Warning Labels 180 Consider Using Action Levels 183 Ethical Portrayal of Risk Information 183 Using Visual Information in Group Decision Making 187 Checklist for Visual Representation of Risk 188 References 188 Additional Resources 190 15 FACE-TO-FACE COMMUNICATION 193 Constructing Face-to-Face Messages 194 Choose the Appropriate Spokesperson 194 Give the Audience Something to Take Away 197 Reinforce Your Message with Visual Aids 197 Speak in the Language of the Audience 197 Do Not Promise What You Cannot Deliver 197 Guidelines for Specifi c Types of Face-to-Face Communication 198 Speaking Engagements 198 Speakers Bureaus 199 Tours and Demonstrations 200 Video Presentations 201 Audience Interviews 203 Information Fairs 203 Training 204 Checklist for Face-to-Face Communication 205 References 206 Additional Resource 206 16 WORKING WITH THE NEWS MEDIA 207 The Roles of the News Media in Risk Communication 207 News Media Contrasted with Other Stakeholders 209 Productive Interaction, Not Polarization 209 Understanding "Cultural" Differences 210 The News Media Are Event Focused 211 Certain Kinds of Risks Get More Coverage 211 Journalistic Independence and Deadlines Affect Content 211 The Need for Balance Invites Opposing Views 212 Information Is Condensed, Simplified, and Personalized 212 Guidelines for Interacting with the News Media 213 Develop Relationships with Local and Regional News Media Representatives 213 Know When to Approach Media Representatives or When They May Approach You 214 Prepare Messages and Materials Carefully 214 Know Where to Draw the Line 216 Put Your Message in Terms That the Reporter's Audience Can Understand 216 Put the Risk in Perspective 217 Respect the Reporter's Deadlines 218 Maintain Ethical Standards of Disclosure 218 Take Action When Inaccurate or Misleading Material Is Published or Aired 219 Evaluate News Media Coverage 219 Using Technology 220 Distribution Services 220 Video and Audio News Releases 221 Public Service Announcements 221 Telebriefings 222 Social Media 223 Checklist for Working with the News Media 223 References 224 Additional Resources 225 17 STAKEHOLDER PARTICIPATION 227 Requirements for Stakeholder Participation 228 Organizational Requirements for Successful Stakeholder Participation 228 Stakeholder Requirements for Successful Participation 229 Guidelines for Specific Types of Stakeholder Participation Activities 230 The Formal Hearing 231 Group Interactions 232 Interactions Involving Risk Assessment 237 Interactions Involving Decision Making 238 Interactions Involving Risk Management 243 Evaluating Stakeholder Participation Based on Your Situation 245 Checklist for Stakeholder Participation 246 References 248 Additional Resources 249 18 TECHNOLOGY-ASSISTED COMMUNICATION 251 Choosing Technology-Based Applications 252 Workplace Risk Communication 253 Computer-Based Training 253 Informing Employees about Risks 255 Web-Delivered and Stand-Alone Multimedia Programs 257 Online Multimedia Tools 258 Mobile Platforms 259 Web and Satellite Broadcasts 260 Traditional Electronic Forums 262 Interactive Multimedia Programs in Public Places 263 Technology in Care Communication 265 Technology in Consensus Communication 269 Websites 269 Local Area Networks, Extranets, and Bulletin Boards 270 Tracking and Analyzing Comments and Responses 271 Facilitating Group Decision Making 272 Technology in Crisis Communication 273 Websites, Wired, and Wireless Technologies 273 Emergency Planning and Training Tools 274 Checklist for Technology-Assisted Communication 278 References 278 Additional Resources 279 19 SOCIAL MEDIA 281 General Principles on Participating in Social Media to Communicate Risk 282 Determining Audience for Social Media 283 Organizational Barriers to Social Media Adoption 284 Sharing Content via Social Media 287 Engaging with Stakeholders 288 Monitoring Changes in Perception via Social Media 289 Guidelines for Specific Types of Social Media 290 Social Networking Sites 290 Microblogging 292 Blogging and Podcasts 293 Video-, Image-, and File-Sharing Sites 294 Mapping 294 Mobile Phones 295 Evaluating Social Media Effectiveness 295 Checklist for Social Media 296 References 296 Additional Resources 297 PART IV EVALUATING RISK COMMUNICATION EFFORTS 20 EVALUATION OF RISK COMMUNICATION EFFORTS 301 Why Evaluate Risk Communication Efforts? 301 The Meaning of Success 302 Types of Evaluations 304 Conducting the Evaluation 306 Checklist for Evaluating Risk Communication Efforts 308 References 309 Additional Resources 310 PART V SPECIAL CASES IN RISK COMMUNICATION 21 EMERGENCY RISK COMMUNICATION 313 Understanding Emergency Risk Communication 314 Emotions and Public Actions 315 Credibility and Trust 316 Planning for the Unexpected 318 Preparing Your Organization 318 Teaming with Other Organizations 322 Working with Communities in Advance 323 Determining Appropriate Communication Methods 324 Developing an Emergency Risk Communication Plan 328 Communicating during an Emergency 333 Emergency Operation Centers 336 Working with the Media in an Emergency 337 Hotlines 340 Communicating after an Emergency 342 Checklist for Emergency Risk Communication 344 References 345 Additional Resources 348 22 INTERNATIONAL RISK COMMUNICATION 349 Recognize the Similarities 350 Account for Cultural Differences 350 Look for "Your" Risk in Other Countries 352 Plan for Cross-Country Communication 353 Checklist for International Risk Communication 355 References 356 Additional Resources 357 23 PUBLIC HEALTH CAMPAIGNS 359 Understand Your Goals 360 Use Research to Design Campaigns 360 Use Multiple Methods to Reach People 361 News Media 361 Paid Placements and Independent Coverage 362 Online Interventions and Social Media 363 Other Methods 364 Evaluate Success 364 Checklist for Public Health Campaigns 366 References 366 Additional Resources 367 RESOURCES 369 General Risk Communication Resources 369 Environmental Risk Communication Resources 370 Safety Risk Communication Resources 371 Health Risk Communication Resources 371 Care Communication Resources 372 Consensus Communication Resources 372 Crisis Communication Resources 373 GLOSSARY 375 INDEX 379
Responsibility: Regina E. Lundgren, Andrea H. McMakin.

Abstract:

This fully-updated fifth edition includes real-life examples of current events such as the Japanese tsunami, the Gulf oil disaster, and Hurricane Irene, along with lessons learned from these events.  Read more...

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"Even though this is written specifically for an American audience, it is a proper handbook with many checklists, references and examples which should help anyone who may need to communicate risk to Read more...

 
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