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Robust process development and scientific molding : theory and practice

Author: Suhas Kulkarni
Publisher: Munich : Hanser Publications ; Cincinnati : Hanser Publishers, ©2010.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Suhas Kulkarni
ISBN: 9781569905012 1569905010
OCLC Number: 655302034
Description: xv, 256 pages : illustrations (chiefly color) ; 25 cm
Contents: Machine generated contents note: 1.Introduction to Scientific Processing --
1.1.The Evolution and Progress of Injection Molding --
1.2.The Molding Process --
1.3.The Three Types of Consistencies Required in Injection Molding --
1.4.Scientific Processing --
1.5.The Five Critical Factors of Molding --
1.5.1.Part Design --
1.5.2.Material Selection --
1.5.3.Mold Design and Construction --
1.5.4.Machine Selection --
1.5.5.Molding Process --
1.6.Concurrent Engineering --
2.Introduction to Polymers and Plastics --
2.1.Polymers --
2.2.Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distribution --
2.3.Polymer Morphology (Crystalline and Amorphous Polymers) --
2.4.Role of Morphology in Injection Molding --
2.4.1.Differences in Shrinkage Between Amorphous and Crystalline Materials --
2.4.2.Melt Processing Range --
2.4.3.Mold Filling Speed --
2.4.4.Mold Temperatures --
2.4.5.Barrel Heat Profile --
2.4.6.Screw Recovery Speeds --
2.4.7.Nozzle Temperature Control --
2.4.8.Cooling Times --
2.4.9.Mechanical Properties --
2.4.10.Optical Clarity --
2.5.Thermal Transitions in Polymers --
2.6.Shrinkage in Polymers --
3.Polymer Rheology --
3.1.Viscosity --
3.2.Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Materials --
3.3.Viscosity in Polymer Melts --
3.4.Effect of Temperature on Viscosity --
3.5.Velocity and Shear Rate Profiles --
3.6.Application to Injection Molding --
3.6.1.Flow Imbalance in an 8-Cavity Mold --
3.6.2.Racetrack Effect in a Part with Constant Thickness --
3.6.3.Stress Build-Up in Molded Parts --
3.6.4.Warpage Difference Between Cavities --
3.7.Solving Flow Imbalances Using Melt Rotation Techniques --
3.8.Characterization of Polymer Viscosity --
4.Plastic Drying --
4.1.Problems in Melt Processing Related to the Presence of Moisture --
4.1.1.Degradation of Plastic --
4.1.2.Presence of Surface Defects --
4.2.Hygroscopic Polymers --
4.3.Drying of Plastics --
4.3.1.Drying Temperatures and Times --
4.3.2.Relative Humidity and Dewpoint --
4.3.3.Air Flow Rate --
4.4.Equipment for Drying Plastics --
4.4.1.Oven Dryers --
4.4.2.Hot Air Dryers --
4.4.3.Desiccant Dryers --
4.4.4.Classifications Based on the Location of the Dryer --
4.5.Determination of the Amount of Moisture --
4.5.1.The Glass Slide Technique (TVI Test) --
4.5.2.The Karl-Fischer Titration Method --
4.5.3.Electronic Moisture Analyzer --
4.5.4.Measurement of the Dew Point --
4.6.`Overdrying' or Overexposure to Drying Temperatures --
4.7.Cautions --
4.8.Prevention of Overexposure to Longer Drying Times --
4.9.Overdrying Controller 5.Common Plastic Materials and Additives --
5.1.Classification of Polymers --
5.2.Commercially Important Plastics --
5.2.1.Polyolefins --
5.2.2.Polymers from Acrylonitrile, Butadiene, Styrene, and Acrylate --
5.2.3.Polyamides (PA) --
5.2.4.Polystyrenes (PS) --
5.2.5.Acrylics --
5.2.6.Polycarbonates (PC) --
5.2.7.Polyesters --
5.2.8.Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) --
5.2.9.Polyoxymethylene (POM or Acetal) --
5.2.10.Fluoropolymers --
5.3.Additives --
5.3.1.Fillers --
5.3.2.Plasticizers --
5.3.3.Flame Retardants --
5.3.4.Anti-Aging Additives, UV Stabilizers --
5.3.5.Nucleating Agents --
5.3.6.Lubricants --
5.3.7.Processing Aids --
5.3.8.Colorants --
5.3.9.Blowing Agents --
5.3.10.Other Polymers --
5.4.Closing Remarks --
6.Injection Molding --
6.1.The History of Injection Molding --
6.2.Injection Molding Machines and Their Classifications --
6.3.Machine Specifications --
6.3.1.Clamp Force (Tonnage) --
6.3.2.Shot Size --
6.3.3.Screw Diameter and L/D Ratio --
6.3.4.Plasticating Capacity --
6.3.5.Maximum Plastic Pressure --
6.4.The Injection Molding Screw --
6.5.Screw Designs --
6.6.The Check Ring Assembly --
6.7.Intensification Ratio (IR) --
6.8.Selecting the Right Machine for the Mold --
6.8.1.Physical Size of the Mold --
6.8.2.Tonnage of the Machine --
6.8.3.Percentage Shot Size Used --
6.8.4.Residence Time of the Material in the Barrel --
7.Scientific Processing and Scientific Molding --
7.1.Introduction --
7.1.1.Process Robustness --
7.1.2.Process Consistency --
7.2.Storage and Drying of Resin --
7.2.1.Plastic Drying --
7.3.Setting of the Melt Temperatures --
7.4.Setting Mold Temperatures --
7.5.The Injection Molding Cycle --
7.5.1.Speed and Pressure --
7.5.2.Pressure Limited Process --
7.5.3.Injection, Pack, and Hold --
7.5.4.Decoupled Molding SM --
7.5.5.Intensification Ratio (IR) --
7.5.6.Screw Speed --
7.5.7.Back Pressure --
7.6.Process Optimization - The 6-Step Study --
7.6.1.Step 1: Optimization of the Injection Phase - Rheology Study --
7.6.2.Step 2: Determining the Cavity Balance - Cavity Balance Study --
7.6.3.Step 3: Determining the Pressure Drop - Pressure Drop Studies --
7.6.4.Step 4: Determining the Process Window - Process Window Study --
7.6.5.Step 5: Determining the Gate Seal Time - Gate Seal Study --
7.6.6.Step 6: Determining the Cooling Time - Cooling Time Study --
7.6.7.Optimization of Screw Speed and Back Pressure --
7.6.8.Post-Mold Shrinkage Studies --
7.7.Recommended Mold Function Qualification Procedure --
7.8.Recommended Adjustments to Maintain Process Consistency and Robustness --
7.9.Process Documentation --
8.Design of Experiments for Injection Molding --
8.1.Parameters in Injection Molding --
8.2.Terminology --
8.2.1.Factor --
8.2.2.Response --
8.2.3.Level --
8.2.4.Designed Experiment --
8.3.Relationships Between the Number of Factors, Levels, and Experiments --
8.4.Balanced Arrays --
8.5.Interactions --
8.6.Confounding or Aliasing --
8.7.Randomization --
8.8.Factorial Experiments --
8.9.Data Analysis --
8.9.1.Tornado Charts --
8.9.2.Contour Plots --
8.9.3.Prediction Equation --
8.9.4.Process Sensitivity Charts --
8.10.Using the Results from DOE --
8.10.1.Process Selection --
8.10.2.Cavity Steel Adjustment --
8.10.3.Process Adjustment Tool --
8.10.4.Setting Process Change Tolerances --
8.10.5.Setting Alarm Limits --
8.10.6.Reducing Inspection --
9.The Aesthetic, the Dimensional, and the Control Process Window --
9.1.The Aesthetic Process Window (APW) --
9.2.The Dimensional Process Window (DPW) --
9.3.The Control Process Window (CPW) --
9.4.Multiple Dimensions --
9.5.Multiple Cavities --
9.6.Closing Remarks --
10.Mold Qualification Flowchart, Production Release, and Troubleshooting --
10.1.Mold Qualification Flowchart --
10.1.1.Mold Function Qualification Procedure --
10.1.2.Mold and Part Quality Qualification Procedure --
10.2.Mold Qualification Checklist --
10.3.Process Documentation --
10.3.1.Process Sheet --
10.3.2.Waterline Diagrams --
10.3.3.Mold Temperature Maps --
10.3.4.Setup Instructions --
10.3.5.Operator Instructions --
10.4.Documentation Books --
10.5.Qualification Production Runs --
10.6.Mold Specific Troubleshooting Guide --
10.7.Molding Startup and Shutdown --
10.7.1.Purging --
10.7.2.Startup of a Molding Machine --
10.7.3.Shutdown of a Molding Machine --
10.8.Troubleshooting --
10.9.Important Equipment and Tools for Qualifications and Troubleshooting --
10.10.Common Defects, Their Cause, and Prevention --
11.Miscellaneous Topics Affecting the Process - Mold Cooling, Venting, and Regrind Management --
11.1.Mold Cooling --
11.1.1.Number of Cooling Channels --
11.1.2.Reynolds Number of the Coolant Flow --
11.1.3.Type of Coolant --
11.1.4.Series and Parallel Cooling --
11.2.Venting --
11.2.1.Dimensions of the Vent --
11.2.2.Primary Vent Depths --
11.2.3.Location of Vents --
11.2.4.Forced Venting or Vacuum Venting --
11.3.Regrind --
11.3.1.Effect of the Molding Process on the Part Properties --
11.3.2.Using Regrind --
11.3.3.Batch and Continuous Processes of Incorporating Regrind --
11.3.4.Estimating the Amount of Regrind from different Generations --
11.3.5.Effect of Regrind on Processing --
11.3.6.Closing Remarks --
12.Related Technologies and Topics --
12.1.Cavity Pressure Sensing Technology --
12.1.1.Sensors and Output graphs --
12.1.2.Types and Classification of Pressure Sensors --
12.1.3.Use of Information from the Pressure Graphs --
12.1.4.Controlling the Process with Cavity Pressure Sensors --
12.1.5.Sensor Locations --
12.2.Building a Knowledge Base --
12.3.Concurrent Engineering in Injection Molding --
12.3.1.The Product Designer --
12.3.2.The Tooling Engineer --
12.3.3.The Mold Designer and Mold Maker --
12.3.4.The Material Supplier --
12.3.5.The Process Engineer --
12.3.6.The Quality Engineer --
12.3.7.The Sales Team at the Molder --
12.3.8.Mandatory for All Departments --
12.3.9.Implementing Concurrent Engineering.
Responsibility: Suhas Kulkarni.

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   schema:datePublished "2010" ;
   schema:description "6.Injection Molding -- 6.1.The History of Injection Molding -- 6.2.Injection Molding Machines and Their Classifications -- 6.3.Machine Specifications -- 6.3.1.Clamp Force (Tonnage) -- 6.3.2.Shot Size -- 6.3.3.Screw Diameter and L/D Ratio -- 6.3.4.Plasticating Capacity -- 6.3.5.Maximum Plastic Pressure -- 6.4.The Injection Molding Screw -- 6.5.Screw Designs -- 6.6.The Check Ring Assembly -- 6.7.Intensification Ratio (IR) -- 6.8.Selecting the Right Machine for the Mold -- 6.8.1.Physical Size of the Mold -- 6.8.2.Tonnage of the Machine -- 6.8.3.Percentage Shot Size Used -- 6.8.4.Residence Time of the Material in the Barrel -- 7.Scientific Processing and Scientific Molding -- 7.1.Introduction -- 7.1.1.Process Robustness -- 7.1.2.Process Consistency -- 7.2.Storage and Drying of Resin -- 7.2.1.Plastic Drying -- 7.3.Setting of the Melt Temperatures -- 7.4.Setting Mold Temperatures -- 7.5.The Injection Molding Cycle -- 7.5.1.Speed and Pressure -- 7.5.2.Pressure Limited Process -- 7.5.3.Injection, Pack, and Hold -- 7.5.4.Decoupled Molding SM -- 7.5.5.Intensification Ratio (IR) -- 7.5.6.Screw Speed -- 7.5.7.Back Pressure -- 7.6.Process Optimization - The 6-Step Study -- 7.6.1.Step 1: Optimization of the Injection Phase - Rheology Study -- 7.6.2.Step 2: Determining the Cavity Balance - Cavity Balance Study -- 7.6.3.Step 3: Determining the Pressure Drop - Pressure Drop Studies -- 7.6.4.Step 4: Determining the Process Window - Process Window Study -- 7.6.5.Step 5: Determining the Gate Seal Time - Gate Seal Study -- 7.6.6.Step 6: Determining the Cooling Time - Cooling Time Study -- 7.6.7.Optimization of Screw Speed and Back Pressure -- 7.6.8.Post-Mold Shrinkage Studies -- 7.7.Recommended Mold Function Qualification Procedure -- 7.8.Recommended Adjustments to Maintain Process Consistency and Robustness -- 7.9.Process Documentation -- 8.Design of Experiments for Injection Molding -- 8.1.Parameters in Injection Molding -- 8.2.Terminology -- 8.2.1.Factor -- 8.2.2.Response -- 8.2.3.Level -- 8.2.4.Designed Experiment -- 8.3.Relationships Between the Number of Factors, Levels, and Experiments -- 8.4.Balanced Arrays -- 8.5.Interactions -- 8.6.Confounding or Aliasing -- 8.7.Randomization -- 8.8.Factorial Experiments -- 8.9.Data Analysis -- 8.9.1.Tornado Charts -- 8.9.2.Contour Plots -- 8.9.3.Prediction Equation -- 8.9.4.Process Sensitivity Charts -- 8.10.Using the Results from DOE -- 8.10.1.Process Selection -- 8.10.2.Cavity Steel Adjustment -- 8.10.3.Process Adjustment Tool -- 8.10.4.Setting Process Change Tolerances -- 8.10.5.Setting Alarm Limits -- 8.10.6.Reducing Inspection --"@en ;
   schema:description "9.The Aesthetic, the Dimensional, and the Control Process Window -- 9.1.The Aesthetic Process Window (APW) -- 9.2.The Dimensional Process Window (DPW) -- 9.3.The Control Process Window (CPW) -- 9.4.Multiple Dimensions -- 9.5.Multiple Cavities -- 9.6.Closing Remarks -- 10.Mold Qualification Flowchart, Production Release, and Troubleshooting -- 10.1.Mold Qualification Flowchart -- 10.1.1.Mold Function Qualification Procedure -- 10.1.2.Mold and Part Quality Qualification Procedure -- 10.2.Mold Qualification Checklist -- 10.3.Process Documentation -- 10.3.1.Process Sheet -- 10.3.2.Waterline Diagrams -- 10.3.3.Mold Temperature Maps -- 10.3.4.Setup Instructions -- 10.3.5.Operator Instructions -- 10.4.Documentation Books -- 10.5.Qualification Production Runs -- 10.6.Mold Specific Troubleshooting Guide -- 10.7.Molding Startup and Shutdown -- 10.7.1.Purging -- 10.7.2.Startup of a Molding Machine -- 10.7.3.Shutdown of a Molding Machine -- 10.8.Troubleshooting -- 10.9.Important Equipment and Tools for Qualifications and Troubleshooting -- 10.10.Common Defects, Their Cause, and Prevention -- 11.Miscellaneous Topics Affecting the Process - Mold Cooling, Venting, and Regrind Management -- 11.1.Mold Cooling -- 11.1.1.Number of Cooling Channels -- 11.1.2.Reynolds Number of the Coolant Flow -- 11.1.3.Type of Coolant -- 11.1.4.Series and Parallel Cooling -- 11.2.Venting -- 11.2.1.Dimensions of the Vent -- 11.2.2.Primary Vent Depths -- 11.2.3.Location of Vents -- 11.2.4.Forced Venting or Vacuum Venting -- 11.3.Regrind -- 11.3.1.Effect of the Molding Process on the Part Properties -- 11.3.2.Using Regrind -- 11.3.3.Batch and Continuous Processes of Incorporating Regrind -- 11.3.4.Estimating the Amount of Regrind from different Generations -- 11.3.5.Effect of Regrind on Processing -- 11.3.6.Closing Remarks -- 12.Related Technologies and Topics -- 12.1.Cavity Pressure Sensing Technology -- 12.1.1.Sensors and Output graphs -- 12.1.2.Types and Classification of Pressure Sensors -- 12.1.3.Use of Information from the Pressure Graphs -- 12.1.4.Controlling the Process with Cavity Pressure Sensors -- 12.1.5.Sensor Locations -- 12.2.Building a Knowledge Base -- 12.3.Concurrent Engineering in Injection Molding -- 12.3.1.The Product Designer -- 12.3.2.The Tooling Engineer -- 12.3.3.The Mold Designer and Mold Maker -- 12.3.4.The Material Supplier -- 12.3.5.The Process Engineer -- 12.3.6.The Quality Engineer -- 12.3.7.The Sales Team at the Molder -- 12.3.8.Mandatory for All Departments -- 12.3.9.Implementing Concurrent Engineering."@en ;
   schema:description "Machine generated contents note: 1.Introduction to Scientific Processing -- 1.1.The Evolution and Progress of Injection Molding -- 1.2.The Molding Process -- 1.3.The Three Types of Consistencies Required in Injection Molding -- 1.4.Scientific Processing -- 1.5.The Five Critical Factors of Molding -- 1.5.1.Part Design -- 1.5.2.Material Selection -- 1.5.3.Mold Design and Construction -- 1.5.4.Machine Selection -- 1.5.5.Molding Process -- 1.6.Concurrent Engineering -- 2.Introduction to Polymers and Plastics -- 2.1.Polymers -- 2.2.Molecular Weight and Molecular Weight Distribution -- 2.3.Polymer Morphology (Crystalline and Amorphous Polymers) -- 2.4.Role of Morphology in Injection Molding -- 2.4.1.Differences in Shrinkage Between Amorphous and Crystalline Materials -- 2.4.2.Melt Processing Range -- 2.4.3.Mold Filling Speed -- 2.4.4.Mold Temperatures -- 2.4.5.Barrel Heat Profile -- 2.4.6.Screw Recovery Speeds -- 2.4.7.Nozzle Temperature Control -- 2.4.8.Cooling Times -- 2.4.9.Mechanical Properties -- 2.4.10.Optical Clarity -- 2.5.Thermal Transitions in Polymers -- 2.6.Shrinkage in Polymers -- 3.Polymer Rheology -- 3.1.Viscosity -- 3.2.Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Materials -- 3.3.Viscosity in Polymer Melts -- 3.4.Effect of Temperature on Viscosity -- 3.5.Velocity and Shear Rate Profiles -- 3.6.Application to Injection Molding -- 3.6.1.Flow Imbalance in an 8-Cavity Mold -- 3.6.2.Racetrack Effect in a Part with Constant Thickness -- 3.6.3.Stress Build-Up in Molded Parts -- 3.6.4.Warpage Difference Between Cavities -- 3.7.Solving Flow Imbalances Using Melt Rotation Techniques -- 3.8.Characterization of Polymer Viscosity -- 4.Plastic Drying -- 4.1.Problems in Melt Processing Related to the Presence of Moisture -- 4.1.1.Degradation of Plastic -- 4.1.2.Presence of Surface Defects -- 4.2.Hygroscopic Polymers -- 4.3.Drying of Plastics -- 4.3.1.Drying Temperatures and Times -- 4.3.2.Relative Humidity and Dewpoint -- 4.3.3.Air Flow Rate -- 4.4.Equipment for Drying Plastics -- 4.4.1.Oven Dryers -- 4.4.2.Hot Air Dryers -- 4.4.3.Desiccant Dryers -- 4.4.4.Classifications Based on the Location of the Dryer -- 4.5.Determination of the Amount of Moisture -- 4.5.1.The Glass Slide Technique (TVI Test) -- 4.5.2.The Karl-Fischer Titration Method -- 4.5.3.Electronic Moisture Analyzer -- 4.5.4.Measurement of the Dew Point -- 4.6.`Overdrying' or Overexposure to Drying Temperatures -- 4.7.Cautions -- 4.8.Prevention of Overexposure to Longer Drying Times -- 4.9.Overdrying Controller 5.Common Plastic Materials and Additives -- 5.1.Classification of Polymers -- 5.2.Commercially Important Plastics -- 5.2.1.Polyolefins -- 5.2.2.Polymers from Acrylonitrile, Butadiene, Styrene, and Acrylate -- 5.2.3.Polyamides (PA) -- 5.2.4.Polystyrenes (PS) -- 5.2.5.Acrylics -- 5.2.6.Polycarbonates (PC) -- 5.2.7.Polyesters -- 5.2.8.Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) -- 5.2.9.Polyoxymethylene (POM or Acetal) -- 5.2.10.Fluoropolymers -- 5.3.Additives -- 5.3.1.Fillers -- 5.3.2.Plasticizers -- 5.3.3.Flame Retardants -- 5.3.4.Anti-Aging Additives, UV Stabilizers -- 5.3.5.Nucleating Agents -- 5.3.6.Lubricants -- 5.3.7.Processing Aids -- 5.3.8.Colorants -- 5.3.9.Blowing Agents -- 5.3.10.Other Polymers -- 5.4.Closing Remarks --"@en ;
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