ข้ามไปที่เนือ้หา
Sample preparation handbook for transmission electron microscopy : techniques แสดงตัวอย่างรายการนี้
ปิดแสดงตัวอย่างรายการนี้
ตรวจสอบ...

Sample preparation handbook for transmission electron microscopy : techniques

ผู้แต่ง: Jeanne Ayache
สำนักพิมพ์: New York : Springer, ©2010.
ครั้งที่พิมพ์/รูปแบบ:   หนังสืออีเล็กทรอนิกส์ : เอกสาร : ภาษาอังกฤษดูครั้งที่พิมพ์และรูปแบบ
ฐานข้อมูล:WorldCat
สรุป:

This is the second in a two-volume handbook on sample preparation for the transmission electron microscope. It describes 14 different preparation techniques, including 22 detailed protocols for  อ่านมากขึ้น…

คะแนน:

(ยังไม่ให้คะแนน) 0 กับความคิดเห็น - เป็นคนแรก

หัวเรื่อง
เพิ่มเติมเช่นนี้

 

ค้นหาสำเนาออนไลน์

เชื่อมโยงไปยังรายการนี้

ค้นหาสำเนาในห้องสมุด

&AllPage.SpinnerRetrieving; ค้นหาห้องสมุดที่มีรายการนี้

รายละเอียด

ประเภท/แบบฟอร์ม Electronic books
Handbooks, manuals, etc
รูปแบบทางกายภาพเพิ่มเติม Print version:
Sample preparation handbook for transmission electron microscopy.
New York : Springer, ©2010
(OCoLC)495781754
ขนิดวัสดุ: เอกสาร, ทรัพยากรอินแทอร์เน็ต
ประเภทของเอกสาร: แหล่งข้อมูลอินเทอร์เน็ต, ไฟล์คอมพิวเตอร์
ผู้แต่งทั้งหมด : ผู้แต่งร่วม Jeanne Ayache
ISBN: 9781441959744 1441959742 9781441959751 1441959750
OCLC Number: 663096121
คำอธิบาย: 1 online resource (xxv, 338 pages) : illustrations
สารบัญ: Note continued: 5.4. Spectroscopic Contrast Imaging Modes in TEM and TEM/STEM --
5.5. EDS Chemical Analysis Methods in TEM and TEM/STEM --
5.6. EELS Spectroscopic Analysis Modes in TEM and TEM/STEM --
6. Conclusion and Information Assessment --
Bibliography --
4. Materials Problems and Approaches for TEM and TEM/STEM Analyses --
1. Introduction --
2. Analyses Conducted Prior to TEM Analyses --
2.1. Macroscopic Characterization --
2.2. Microscopic Characterization --
2.3. Microscopic and Nanoscopic Characterization --
3. Approach for Beginning the Investigation of a Material --
4. Selection of the Type of TEM Analysis --
5. Analysis of Topography --
6. Structural Analysis in TEM --
6.1. Morphology and Structure of Materials --
6.2. Atomic Structure --
7. Crystallographic Analysis --
8. Analysis of Crystal Defects: 1D (Dislocations), 2D (Grain Boundaries and Interfaces), and 3D (Precipitates) --
9. EDS Chemical Analysis and EELS Spectroscopic Analysis --
9.1. Phase Identification and Distribution --
9.2. Concentration Profiles and Interface Analysis --
10. Structural Analyses Under Special Conditions --
10.1. In Situ Analyses --
10.2. Cryomicroscopy --
11. Study of Properties --
11.1. Optical Properties --
11.2. Electrical Properties --
11.3. Electronic Properties --
11.4. Magnetic Properties --
11.5. Mechanical Properties --
11.6. Chemical Properties --
11.7. Functional Properties --
12. Relationship Between Sample Thickness and Analysis Type in TEM and TEM/STEM --
13. Assessment of TEM Analyses --
5. Physical and Chemical Mechanisms of Preparation Techniques --
1. Introduction --
2. Mechanical Action --
2.1. Principles of a Material's Mechanical Behavior --
2.2. Abrasion Principle --
2.3. Rupture Principles --
3. Chemical Action --
3.1. Principle of Chemical and Electrochemical Dissolution --
4. Ionic Action. Note continued: 4.1. Ionic Abrasion Principles --
4.2. Techniques Involving Ion Abrasion --
5. Actions Resulting in a State Change of Materials Containing an Aqueous Phase --
5.1. Elimination of the Aqueous Phase --
5.2. Freezing Principles --
5.3. Principle of Substitution, Infiltration, and Embedding in Cryogenic Mode --
5.4. Cryo-sublimation (or Freeze-Drying) Principle --
6. Actions Resulting in a Change in Material Properties --
6.1. Chemical Fixation Principles --
6.2. Dehydration Principles --
6.3. Infiltration Principles --
6.4. Embedding or Inclusion Principles --
6.5. "Positive-Staining" Contrast Principles --
7. Physical Actions Resulting in Deposition --
7.1. Physical Deposition --
7.2. Physics of the Coating Process --
7.3. Techniques Involving a Physical Deposition: Continuous or Holey Thin Film, Contrast Enhancement by Shadowing or Decoration, Replicas, and Freeze Fracture --
Bibliography --
Mechanical Action --
Chemical Action --
Ionic Action --
Actions Resulting in a State Change of Materials Containing an Aqueous Phase --
Actions Resulting in a Change in Material Properties --
Physical Actions Resulting in a Deposit --
6. Artifacts in Transmission Electron Microscopy --
1. Introduction --
2. Preparation-Induced Artifacts --
2.1. Mechanical Preparation-Induced Artifacts --
2.2. Ionic Preparation-Induced Artifacts --
2.3. Chemical Preparation-Induced Artifacts --
2.4. Physical Preparation-Induced Artifacts --
3. Artifacts Induced During TEM Observation --
3.1. Artifacts Not Linked to Thermal Damages --
3.2. Secondary Thermal Damage --
4. Examples of Artifacts --
4.1. Artifacts Induced by the Tripod Polishing Technique --
4.2. Artifacts Induced by the Ultramicrotomy Technique --
4.3. Artifacts Induced by the Freeze-Fracture Technique --
4.4. Artifacts Induced by Ion Milling or FIB. Note continued: 4.5. Artifacts Induced by the Substitution-Infiltration-Embedding Technique --
4.6. Artifacts Induced by Chemical Fixation --
4.7. Artifacts Induced by the Extractive-Replica Technique --
4.8. Artifacts Induced by the Shadowing Technique --
4.9. Artifacts Induced by the "Positive-Staining" Contrast Technique --
4.10. Artifacts Induced by the Cryofixation Technique --
4.11. Artifacts Induced by the Fine Particle Dispersion Technique --
4.12. Artifacts Induced by the Frozen-Hydrated-Film Technique --
4.13. Artifacts Induced by the "Negative-Staining" Contrast Technique --
4.14. Artifacts Induced by the Electron Beam --
5. Summary Tables --
Bibliography --
7. Selection of Preparation Techniques Based on Material Problems and TEM Analyses --
1. Introduction --
2. Classification of Preparation Techniques --
3. Characteristics of Preparation Techniques --
4. Criteria Used to Select a Preparation Technique --
5. Selection Criteria Based on Material Type --
6. Selection Criteria Based on Material Organization --
6.1. Bulk Materials --
6.2. Single-Layer or Multilayer Materials --
6.3. Fine Particles --
7. Selection Criteria Based on Material Properties --
7.1. Based on the Physical State of the Material --
7.2. Based on the Chemical Phases in the Material --
7.3. Based on the Electrical Properties of the Material --
7.4. Based on the Mechanical Properties of the Material --
8. Selection Criteria Related to the Type of TEM Analysis --
8.1. Preparation Techniques --
9. Selection of the Orientation of the Sample Section --
9.1. Microstructure Geometry --
9.2. Defect Geometry --
10. Selection Criteria Related to Artifacts Induced by the Preparation Technique --
11. Adaptation of the Technique Based on Problems Related to Observation --
11.1. Reducing Sample Thickness --
11.2. Increasing Contrast --
11.3. Reducing Charge Effects. Note continued: 11.4. Limitation of Strain Hardening --
11.5. Removal of Surface Amorphization --
11.6. Removal of Surface Contamination --
11.7. Final Cleaning of the Thin Slice --
12. Conclusion --
Bibliography --
8. Comparisons of Techniques --
1. Introduction --
2. Examples Using Fine Particle Materials --
2.1. Comparison of Mechanical Preparations and Replicas --
2.2. Comparison of "Negative-Staining" Contrast and Freeze-Fracture Techniques --
2.3. Comparison of "Negative-Staining" and Decoration-Shadowing Contrast Techniques --
2.4. Comparison of "Positive-Staining" and Decoration Shadowing Contrast Techniques --
3. Examples Using Bulk or Multilayer Materials --
3.1. Comparison Between Different Mechanical Preparations --
3.2. Comparison Between Mechanical Preparations and Ionic Preparations --
3.3. Comparison Between Mechanical Preparations and Electrolytic Preparations --
3.4. Comparison Between Techniques Specific to Biology --
3.5. Comparison Between All Techniques That Can Be Used in Biology on One Example: Collagen --
Bibliography --
9. Conclusion: What Is a Good Sample? --
1. Techniques: General Introduction --
2. Preliminary Preparation Techniques --
1. Sawing --
1.1. Principle --
1.2. Operating Mode --
1.3. Variants --
1.4. Advantages --
1.5. Limitations --
1.6. Compatible Techniques --
1.7. Risks --
1.8. Conclusion --
2. Ultrasonic Cutting --
2.1. Principle --
2.2. Operating Mode --
2.3. Variants --
2.4. Advantages --
2.5. Limitations --
2.6. Compatible Techniques --
2.7. Risks --
2.8. Conclusion --
3. Mechanical Polishing --
3.1. Principle --
3.2. Operating Mode --
3.3. Variants --
3.4. Advantages --
3.5. Limitations --
3.6. Compatible Techniques --
3.7. Risks --
3.8. Conclusion --
4. Dimpling --
4.1. Principle --
4.2. Operating Mode --
4.3. Variants --
4.4. Advantages. Note continued: 4.5. Limitations --
4.6. Compatible Techniques --
4.7. Risks --
4.8. Conclusion --
5. Electropolishing --
5.1. Principle --
5.2. Operating Mode --
5.3. Variants --
5.4. Advantages --
5.5. Limitations --
5.6. Compatible Techniques --
5.7. Risks --
5.8. Conclusion --
6. Chemical Polishing --
6.1. Principle --
6.2. Operating Mode --
6.3. Variants --
6.4. Advantages --
6.5. Limitations --
6.6. Compatible Techniques --
6.7. Risks --
6.8. Conclusion --
7. Sandwich Technique --
7.1. Principle --
7.2. Operating Mode --
7.3. Variants --
7.4. Advantages --
7.5. Limitations --
7.6. Compatible Techniques --
7.7. Risks --
7.8. Conclusion --
8. Embedding --
8.1. Principle --
8.2. Operating Mode --
8.3. Variants --
8.4. Advantages --
8.5. Limitations --
8.6. Compatible Techniques --
8.7. Risks --
8.8. Conclusion --
9. Substitution-Infiltration-Embedding at Room Temperature --
9.1. Principle --
9.2. Operating Mode --
9.3. Variants --
9.4. Advantages --
9.5. Limitations --
9.6. Compatible Techniques --
9.7. Risks --
9.8. Conclusion --
10. Substitution-Infiltration-Embedding at Low Temperatures --
10.1. Principle --
10.2. Operating Mode --
10.3. Variants --
10.4. Advantages --
10.5. Limitations --
10.6. Compatible Techniques --
10.7. Risks --
10.8. Conclusion --
11. Chemical Fixation --
11.1. Principle --
11.2. Operating Mode --
11.3. Variants --
11.4. Advantages --
11.5. Limitations --
11.6. Compatible Techniques --
11.7. Risks --
11.8. Conclusion --
12. Physical Fixation: Cryo-fixation --
12.1. Principle --
12.2. Operating Mode --
12.3. Variants --
12.4. Advantages --
12.5. Limitations --
12.6. Compatible Techniques --
12.7. Risks --
12.8. Conclusion --
13. Continuous Support Films --
13.1. Principle. Note continued: 13.2. Operating Mode --
13.3. Variant --
13.4. Advantages --
13.5. Limitations --
13.6. Compatible Techniques --
13.7. Risks --
13.8. Conclusion --
14. Holey Support Films --
14.1. Principle --
14.2. Operating Mode --
14.3. Variant --
14.4. Advantages --
14.5. Limitations --
14.6. Compatible Techniques --
14.7. Risks --
14.8. Conclusion --
Bibliography --
3. Thinning Preparation Techniques --
1. Twin-Jet Electrolytic Thinning --
1.1. Principle --
1.2. Operating Mode --
1.3. Variants --
1.4. Advantages --
1.5. Limitations --
1.6. Artifacts --
1.7. Type of Analysis --
1.8. Risks --
1.9. Conclusion --
2. Full-Bath Electrolytic Thinning ("Window Technique") --
2.1. Principle --
2.2. Operating Mode --
2.3. Variants --
2.4. Advantages --
2.5. Limitations --
2.6. Artifacts --
2.7. Type of Analysis --
2.8. Risks --
2.9. Conclusion --
3. Twin-Jet Chemical Thinning --
3.1. Principle --
3.2. Operating Mode --
3.3. Variants --
3.4. Advantages --
3.5. Limitations --
3.6. Artifacts --
3.7. Type of Analysis --
3.8. Risks --
3.9. Conclusion --
4. Full-Bath Chemical Thinning ("Window Technique") --
4.1. Principle --
4.2. Operating Mode --
4.3. Variants --
4.4. Advantages --
4.5. Limitations --
4.6. Artifacts --
4.7. Type of Analysis --
4.8. Risks --
4.9. Conclusion --
5. Ion Milling --
5.1. Principle --
5.2. Operating Mode --
5.3. Variants --
5.4. Advantages --
5.5. Limitations --
5.6. Artifacts --
5.7. Type of Analysis --
5.8. Risks --
5.9. Conclusion --
6. Focused Ion Beam Thinning (FIB) --
6.1. Principle --
6.2. Operating Mode --
6.3. Variants --
6.4. Advantages --
6.5. Limitations --
6.6. Artifacts --
6.7. Type of Analysis --
6.8. Risks --
6.9. Conclusion --
Bibliography --
4. Mechanical Preparation Techniques. Note continued: 1. Crushing --
1.1. Principle --
1.2. Operating Mode --
1.3. Variants --
1.4. Advantages --
1.5. Limitations --
1.6. Artifacts --
1.7. Type of Analysis --
1.8. Risks --
1.9. Conclusion --
2. Wedge Cleavage --
2.1. Principle --
2.2. Operating Mode --
2.3. Variants --
2.4. Advantages --
2.5. Limitations --
2.6. Artifacts --
2.7. Type of Analysis --
2.8. Risks --
2.9. Conclusion --
3. Tripod Polishing --
3.1. Principle --
3.2. Operating Mode --
3.3. Variants --
3.4. Advantages --
3.5. Limitations --
3.6. Artifacts --
3.7. Type of Analysis --
3.8. Risks --
3.9. Conclusion --
4. Ultramicrotomy --
4.1. Principle --
4.2. Operating Mode --
4.3. Variants --
4.4. Advantages --
4.5. Limitations --
4.6. Artifacts --
4.7. Type of Analysis --
4.8. Risks --
4.9. Conclusion --
5. Cryo-ultramicrotomy --
5.1. Principle --
5.2. Operating Mode --
5.3. Variants --
5.4. Advantage --
5.5. Limitations --
5.6. Artifacts --
5.7. Type of Analysis --
5.8. Risks --
5.9. Conclusion --
Bibliography --
5. Replica Techniques --
1. Direct Replica Technique --
1.1. Principle --
1.2. Operating Mode --
1.3. Variants --
1.4. Advantages --
1.5. Limitations --
1.6. Artifacts --
1.7. Type of Analysis --
1.8. Risks --
1.9. Conclusion --
2. Indirect Replica --
2.1. Principle --
2.2. Operating Mode --
2.3. Variants --
2.4. Advantages --
2.5. Limitations --
2.6. Artifacts --
2.7. Type of Analysis --
2.8. Risks --
2.9. Conclusion --
3. Extractive Replica --
3.1. Principle --
3.2. Operating Mode --
3.3. Variants --
3.4. Advantages --
3.5. Limitations --
3.6. Artifacts --
3.7. Type of Analysis --
3.8. Risks --
3.9. Conclusion --
4. Freeze Fracture --
4.1. Principle --
4.2. Operating Mode --
4.3. Variants --
4.4. Advantages. Note continued: 4.5. Limitations --
4.6. Artifacts --
4.7. Type of Analysis --
4.8. Risks --
4.9. Conclusion --
Bibliography --
6. Techniques Specific to Fine Particles --
1. Dispersion of Fine Particle Materials --
1.1. Principle --
1.2. Operating Mode --
1.3. Variants --
1.4. Advantages --
1.5. Limitations --
1.6. Artifacts --
1.7. Type of Analysis --
1.8. Risks --
1.9. Conclusion --
2. Frozen Hydrated Film of Single Particles --
2.1. Principle --
2.2. Operating Mode --
2.3. Variants --
2.4. Advantages --
2.5. Limitations --
2.6. Artifacts --
2.7. Type of Analysis --
2.8. Risks --
2.9. Conclusion --
Bibliography --
7. Contrast Enhancement and Labeling Techniques --
1. Decoration Shadowing --
1.1. Principle --
1.2. Operating Mode --
1.3. Variants --
1.4. Advantages --
1.5. Limitations --
1.6. Artifacts --
1.7. Type of Analysis --
1.8. Risks --
1.9. Conclusion --
2. Negative Staining --
2.1. Principle --
2.2. Operating Mode --
2.3. Variants --
2.4. Advantages --
2.5. Limitations --
2.6. Artifacts --
2.7. Type of Analysis --
2.8. Risks --
2.9. Conclusion --
3. Positive Staining --
3.1. Principle --
3.2. Operating Mode --
3.3. Variants --
3.4. Advantages --
3.5. Limitations --
3.6. Artifacts --
3.7. Type of Analysis --
3.8. Risks --
3.9. Conclusion --
4. Immunolabeling --
4.1. Principle --
4.2. Operating Mode --
4.3. Variants --
4.4. Advantages --
4.5. Limitations --
4.6. Artifacts --
4.7. Type of Analysis --
4.8. Risks --
4.9. Conclusion --
Bibliography.
ความรับผิดชอบ: Jeanne Ayache [and others] ; foreword by Ron Anderson.

รีวิว

ความคิดเห็นของบรรณาธิการ

สรุปความของสำนักพิมพ์

From the reviews: "This textbook is the combined result ... of four French microscopists and one Swiss microscopist who use similar TEM techniques for the study of quite different specimens; this อ่านมากขึ้น…

 
ความคิดเห็นผู้ที่ใช้งาน
กำลังค้นคืน รีวิว GoodReads…
ค้นคืน DOGObooks บทวิจารณ์

แท็ก

เป็นคนแรก.
ยืนยันคำขอนี้

คุณอาจะร้องขอรายการนี้แล้. โปรดเลือก ตกลง ถ้าคุณต้องการดำเนินการคำขอนี้ต่อไป.

เชิ่อมโยงข้อมูล


Primary Entity

<http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/663096121> # Sample preparation handbook for transmission electron microscopy techniques
    a schema:Book, schema:CreativeWork, schema:MediaObject ;
    library:oclcnum "663096121" ;
    library:placeOfPublication <http://dbpedia.org/resource/New_York_City> ; # New York
    library:placeOfPublication <http://id.loc.gov/vocabulary/countries/nyu> ;
    schema:about <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85087970> ; # Mounting of microscope specimens
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1155233602#Topic/science> ; # Science
    schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1154861> ; # Transmission electron microscopy--Technique
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1155233602#Topic/technology_&_engineering_material_science> ; # TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING--Material Science
    schema:about <http://dewey.info/class/570.2825/e22/> ;
    schema:about <http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1028396> ; # Mounting of microscope specimens
    schema:about <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1155233602#Topic/transmission_electron_microscopy_technique> ; # Transmission electron microscopy--Technique
    schema:bookFormat schema:EBook ;
    schema:contributor <http://viaf.org/viaf/49291698> ; # Jeanne Ayache
    schema:copyrightYear "2010" ;
    schema:datePublished "2010" ;
    schema:exampleOfWork <http://worldcat.org/entity/work/id/1155233602> ;
    schema:genre "Electronic books"@en ;
    schema:genre "Handbooks, manuals, etc."@en ;
    schema:inLanguage "en" ;
    schema:isSimilarTo <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/495781754> ;
    schema:name "Sample preparation handbook for transmission electron microscopy techniques"@en ;
    schema:productID "663096121" ;
    schema:publication <http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/663096121#PublicationEvent/new_york_springer_2010> ;
    schema:publisher <http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1155233602#Agent/springer> ; # Springer
    schema:url <http://swb.eblib.com/patron/FullRecord.aspx?p=603093> ;
    schema:url <http://public.eblib.com/choice/publicfullrecord.aspx?p=603093> ;
    schema:url <http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&scope=site&db=nlebk&db=nlabk&AN=337952> ;
    schema:url <http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4419-5975-1> ;
    schema:url <http://site.ebrary.com/id/10395403> ;
    schema:url <http://swbplus.bsz-bw.de/bsz430902107cov.htm> ;
    schema:workExample <http://worldcat.org/isbn/9781441959751> ;
    schema:workExample <http://worldcat.org/isbn/9781441959744> ;
    wdrs:describedby <http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/663096121> ;
    .


Related Entities

<http://dbpedia.org/resource/New_York_City> # New York
    a schema:Place ;
    schema:name "New York" ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1155233602#Topic/technology_&_engineering_material_science> # TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING--Material Science
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:name "TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING--Material Science"@en ;
    .

<http://experiment.worldcat.org/entity/work/data/1155233602#Topic/transmission_electron_microscopy_technique> # Transmission electron microscopy--Technique
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:hasPart <http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh93001918> ;
    schema:name "Transmission electron microscopy--Technique"@en ;
    .

<http://id.loc.gov/authorities/subjects/sh85087970> # Mounting of microscope specimens
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:name "Mounting of microscope specimens"@en ;
    .

<http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1028396> # Mounting of microscope specimens
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:name "Mounting of microscope specimens"@en ;
    .

<http://id.worldcat.org/fast/1154861> # Transmission electron microscopy--Technique
    a schema:Intangible ;
    schema:name "Transmission electron microscopy--Technique"@en ;
    .

<http://viaf.org/viaf/49291698> # Jeanne Ayache
    a schema:Person ;
    schema:birthDate "1951" ;
    schema:familyName "Ayache" ;
    schema:givenName "Jeanne" ;
    schema:name "Jeanne Ayache" ;
    .

<http://worldcat.org/isbn/9781441959744>
    a schema:ProductModel ;
    schema:isbn "1441959742" ;
    schema:isbn "9781441959744" ;
    .

<http://worldcat.org/isbn/9781441959751>
    a schema:ProductModel ;
    schema:description "ebk." ;
    schema:isbn "1441959750" ;
    schema:isbn "9781441959751" ;
    .

<http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/495781754>
    a schema:CreativeWork ;
    rdfs:label "Sample preparation handbook for transmission electron microscopy." ;
    schema:description "Print version:" ;
    schema:isSimilarTo <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/663096121> ; # Sample preparation handbook for transmission electron microscopy techniques
    .

<http://www.worldcat.org/title/-/oclc/663096121>
    a genont:InformationResource, genont:ContentTypeGenericResource ;
    schema:about <http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/663096121> ; # Sample preparation handbook for transmission electron microscopy techniques
    schema:dateModified "2015-07-07" ;
    void:inDataset <http://purl.oclc.org/dataset/WorldCat> ;
    .


Content-negotiable representations

Close Window

กรุณาลงชื่อเข้าสู่ระบบ WorldCat 

ยังไม่มีบัญชีผู้ใช้? คุณสามารถสร้างได้อย่างง่ายดาย สร้างบัญชีผู้ใช้ฟรี.