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Scanning probe lithography

Autore: Hyongsok T Soh; Kathryn Wilder Guarini; Calvin F Quate
Editore: Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers, ©2001.
Serie: Microsystems (Series), v. 7.
Edizione/Formato:   Libro : EnglishVedi tutte le edizioni e i formati
Banca dati:WorldCat
Sommario:

Describes advances in the field of scanning probe lithography, a high resolution patterning technique that uses a sharp tip in close proximity to a sample to pattern nanometer-scale features on the  Per saperne di più…

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Tipo materiale: Risorsa internet
Tipo documento: Book, Internet Resource
Tutti gli autori / Collaboratori: Hyongsok T Soh; Kathryn Wilder Guarini; Calvin F Quate
ISBN: 0792373618 9780792373612
Numero OCLC: 46866288
Descrizione: xxiii, 195 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.
Contenuti: 1.1 Scanning Probe Microscope 1 --
1.1.1 Scanning Tunneling Microscope 2 --
1.1.2 Atomic Force Microscope 3 --
1.1.3 Innovations Through Integration 4 --
1.2 High-Resolution Patterning Using Scanning Probes 6 --
1.2.2 Mechanical & Thermomechanical Patterning 7 --
1.2.3 Local Oxidation 8 --
1.2.4 Electron Exposure of Resist 9 --
1.3 Semiconductor Lithography 9 --
Chapter 2 SPL by Electric-Field-Enhanced Oxidation 23 --
2.1 Field-Enhanced Oxidation of Silicon 23 --
2.2 Amorphous Silicon as a Resist Material 24 --
2.3 Fabrication of a 100 nm nMOSFET 26 --
Chapter 3 Resist Exposure Using Field-Emitted Electrons 37 --
3.1 Field-Emitted Electron Exposure 37 --
3.2 Current-Controlled Exposures in Contact Mode 48 --
3.3 Current-Controlled Exposures in Noncontact Mode 60 --
3.3.2 Patterning in the Noncontact Mode 62 --
3.3.3 Line Width Control 65 --
3.3.4 Comparison of Contact and Noncontact Mode Results 66 --
3.3.5 Summary of Noncontact Mode SPL 67 --
3.4 Simulations of Electron Field Emission and Electron Trajectories 67 --
3.4.1 Initial Beam Size in the Contact Configuration 68 --
3.4.2 Comparison of Contact and Noncontact Configurations 71 --
3.4.3 Beam Spreading 75 --
3.4.4 Summary of Simulation Results 75 --
Chapter 4 SPL Linewidth Control 81 --
4.1 Exposure Tools and Samples 81 --
4.2 Sensitivity and Exposure Latitude 84 --
4.3 Energy Density Distribution in the Resist 85 --
4.4 Patterning Linearity Using a Pixel Writing Scheme 88 --
4.5 Proximity Effects 91 --
4.6 Exposure Mechanisms of High- and Low-Energy Electrons 97 --
Chapter 5 Critical Dimension Patterning Using SPL 103 --
5.1 100 nm pMOSFET Device Fabrication 103 --
5.2 Gate Level Lithography Using SPL 105 --
5.2.1 Overlay Registration 106 --
5.2.2 Patterning Over Topography 106 --
5.3 PMOSFET Device Characteristics 110 --
5.4 Summary of "Mix and Match" Lithography 112 --
Chapter 6 High Speed Resist Exposure With a Single Tip 115 --
6.1 High Speed Patterning of Siloxane SOG 115 --
6.1.1 Mechanism of Exposure 115 --
6.1.2 Experimental Procedure 117 --
6.1.3 Results of SOG Patterning 118 --
6.2 Current-Controlled SPL at High Speeds 119 --
6.2.1 Control of the Tip-Sample Force or Spacing at High Speeds 120 --
6.2.2 Control of the Emission Current at High Speeds 121 --
6.2.3 High Speed Lithography 125 --
6.2.4 Summary of High Speed SPL Using a Single Tip 126 --
Chapter 7 On-Chip Lithography Control 131 --
7.1 Background and Motivation 131 --
7.2 MOSFET Design Considerations 132 --
7.2.1 Saturation Current 134 --
7.2.2 Threshold Voltage 134 --
7.2.3 Junction Breakdown 135 --
7.2.4 Off Current 136 --
7.2.5 Switching Speed 137 --
7.3 Cantilever and Tip Design Parameters 138 --
7.4 Fabrication Process 140 --
7.4.1 Tip Formation and Cantilever Definition 142 --
7.4.2 Front-End Transistor Fabrication 143 --
7.4.3 Back-End Transistor Fabrication 144 --
7.4.4 Cantilever Release 144 --
7.5 Device Characteristics 146 --
7.6 Lithography with Integrated Transistor for Exposure Dose Control 148 --
Chapter 8 Scanning Probe Tips for SPL 153 --
8.1 Silicon and Metal-Coated Tips 153 --
8.2 Post-Processed Silicon Tips 155 --
8.3 Carbon Nanotubes as Scanning Probe Tips 156 --
8.3.1 Direct Synthesis on Silicon Pyramidal Tips 157 --
Chapter 9 Scanning Probe Arrays for Lithography 163 --
9.1 Current-Controlled Lithography With Two Tips 163 --
9.1.1 High-Voltage Current Preamplifier 164 --
9.1.2 Independent Parallel Lithography 166 --
9.1.3 Summary of Progress on Parallel Lithography 167 --
9.2 Massively Parallel Arrays for Lithography 167 --
9.2.1 Exposure Time for Different Size Arrays 168 --
9.2.2 SPL Throughput Using Cantilever Arrays 170 --
9.3 Integrated Current Control for Arrays 172 --
9.4 Two Dimensional Arrays: Process Development 173 --
9.4.1 Enabling Technologies 173 --
9.4.2 Anisotropic Through Wafer Etching 174 --
9.4.3 Through-Wafer Via Process 175 --
9.5 Two Dimensional Arrays: Integration 178 --
9.5.1 Introduction to the Piezoresistive Cantilever 178 --
9.5.2 Design and Modeling 178 --
9.5.3 Processing 181 --
9.6 Imaging With the 2D Array 187.
Titolo della serie: Microsystems (Series), v. 7.
Responsabilità: by Hyongsok T. Soh, Kathryn Wilder Guarini, Calvin F. Quate.
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