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The science of chocolate

Author: S T Beckett; Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain)
Publisher: Cambridge, UK : RSC Publishing, ©2008.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 2nd edView all editions and formats
Summary:
From the Publisher: The second edition of this international best seller has been fully revised and updated describing the complete chocolate making process, from the growing of the beans to the sale in the shops. The Science of Chocolate takes the reader on the journey of chocolate, to discover how confectionery is made and the way in which basic science plays a vital role. The reader is shown how, apart from  Read more...
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Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: S T Beckett; Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain)
ISBN: 9780854049707 0854049703 9781847558053 1847558054
OCLC Number: 180473557
Notes: First ed. published: 2000.
Description: xii, 240 pages : illustrations (some color), graphs, tables ; 24 cm
Contents: The history of chocolate. Chocolate as a drink ; Eating chocolate (Chocolate crumb ; White chocolate) ; Chocolate marketing in the UK ; Chocolate is good for you --
Chocolate ingredients. Cocoa beans (Cocoa trees ; Commercial cocoa-producing countries ; Cocoa pods ; Fermentation [Fermentation procedure ; Microbial and chemical changes] ; Drying ; Storage and transport) ; Sugar and sugar substitutes (Sugar and its production ; Crystalline and amorphous sugar ; Lactose ; Glucose and fructose ; Sugar alcohols ; Polydextrose) Milk and other dairy components (Milk fat ; Milk proteins ; Milk powders ; Whey and lactose powders) ; Chocolate crumb --
Cocoa bean processing. Beam cleaning ; Roasting and winnowing (The problem of bean size variation ; Winnowing ; Bean roasting ; Nib and liquor roasting ; Roasters ; Chemical changes during roasting ; Maillard reaction) ; Grinding cocoa nib (Cocoa mills [Impact mills ; Disc mills ; Ball mills] ; Cocoa butter and cocoa powder production (Alkalising (dutching) ; Cocoa butter ; Cocoa powder) --
Liquid chocolate making. Chocolate milling (Separate ingredient grinding mills ; Combined milling) ; Chocolate conching (Chemical changes ; Physical changes ; Viscosity reduction ; Conching machines [The long conche ; Rotary conches ; Continuous low volume machines] ; The three stages of conching --
Controlling the flow properties of liquid chocolate. Viscosity ; Particle size (Particle size [Particle size distribution data ; Effect of particle size on viscosity] ; Effect of fat additions on viscosity ; Moisture and chocolate flow ; Emulsifiers and chocolate viscosity (Lecithin ; Polyglycerol polyricinoleate ; Other emulsifiers) ; Degree of mixing --
Crystallising the fat in chocolate. Structure of cocoa butter ; Different crystalline forms ; Pre-crystallisation or tempering ; Mixing different fats (fat eutectics) ; Chocolate fat bloom ; Some types of non-cocoa vegetable fat [Cocoa butter equivalents ; Enzyme interesterification ; Lauric fat cocoa butter replacers ; Non-lauric fat cocoa butter replacers ; Low calorie fats --
Manufacturing chocolate products. Tempering (Liquid chocolate storage ; Tempering machines ; Hand tempering ; Temper measurement) ; Moulding (Solid tablets ; Chocolate shells) ; Enrobers (Maintaining tempered chocolate) ; Solidifying the chocolate (Coolers) ; Panning (Chocolate coating ; Sugar panning --
Analytical techniques. Particle size measurement ; Moisture determination ; Fat content measurement ; Viscosity determination (Simple factory techniques ; The standard method) ; Flavour ; Texture monitoring ; Crystallisation amount and type (Nuclear magnetic resonance ; Differential scanning calorimetry) --
Different chocolate products. Special recipes (Ice-cream coatings) ; Shape-retaining chocolate (Modifying the fat phase ; Transparent coatings ; Water --
Building a framework of solid particles ) ; Air bubbles in chocolate (Factors affecting bubble size ; Water evaporation bubbles) ; Cream eggs and other filled chocolate shapes ; Multiple chocolates and centres --
Legislation, shelf life and packaging. Legislation ; Shelf life ; Packaging (Foil and paper wrap ; Flow wrap ; Biopolymers ; Robotic packing) --
Nutrition and health. Nutrition (Fats ; Carbohydrates ; Proteins) ; Obesity ; Tooth decay (Anti-caries factor in cocoa ; Tooth-friendly milk proteins ; Oxalic acid ; Oral acid ; Oral clearance) ; Other alleged negative reactions (Migraine and headaches ; Acne ; Allergies) ; Positive health effects ; Psychoactive compounds --
Experiments with chocolate and chocolate products. Amorphous and crystalline sugar ; Particle separation ; Fat migration ; Cocoa butter separation ; Chocolate viscosity ; Particle size of chocolate ; Effect of lecithin ; Changing the continuous phase ; Chocolate temper ; Hardness measurement ; Chocolate composition and product weight control ; Distributions and probabilities ; Chromatography of colours ; Effectiveness of different packaging materials ; Viscosity and flavour ; Heat-resistance testing ; Coefficient of expansion ; The Maillard reaction --
Glossary --
Subject index.
Responsibility: Stephen T. Beckett.

Abstract:

This book takes the reader on the journey of chocolate, to discover how confectionery is made and will appeal to those with a fascination for chocolate.  Read more...

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