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Scientific procedures; a contribution concerning the methodological problems of scientific concepts and scientific explanation.

Author: Ladislav Tondl
Publisher: Dordrecht, Boston, D. Reidel Pub. Co. [1973]
Series: Synthese library; Boston studies in the philosophy of science, v. 10.
Edition/Format:   Book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Tondl, Ladislav.
Scientific procedures.
Dordrecht, Boston, D. Reidel Pub. Co. [1973]
(OCoLC)608922148
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Ladislav Tondl
ISBN: 9027701474 9789027701473
OCLC Number: 811850
Description: xiii, 268 pages 23 cm.
Contents: I. The Concept of 'Science' as Cognitive Activity.- 1. Aspects of the Concept of Science.- 2. The Goals of Science as Cognitive Activity sui generis.- 3. Scientific Cognition as the Solution of Problems.- II. On the Approach to Models of Scientific Procedures.- 1. Scientific Procedures as Operations with Data.- 2. The Metatheoretical Character of the Analysis of Scientific Procedures.- 3. The Finitistic Approach.- III. The Empirical Basis and the Analysis of 'Universe of Discourse'.- 1. Schemata of the Analysis.- (a) External Specification of the Universe.- (b) Internal Analysis of the Universe.- 2. The Communication Model and the Problem of Scientific Empiricism.- (a) The Communication Model of Cognitive Activity.- (b) The Communication Model and the Problem of Semantic Analysis.- (c) The Problem of Levels.- (d) The Communication Model and the Concept of 'Experience'.- 3. The Universe and the Language Used.- (a) The Entities of the Universe.- (b) The Language Devices Used.- IV. Concepts of The Language of Science.- 1. Names, Descriptions and Statements.- (a) Singular and Divided Reference.- (b) Proper Names and Descriptions.- (c) Singular and General Statements.- 2. Predicates.- (a) The Linguistic Form of Predicates.- (b) Interpretations of Predicates.- (c) A Criticism of the Nominalistic Interpretation of Predicates.- (d) 'Primary' and 'Secondary' Qualities.- 3. The Classification of Predicates in the Language of Science: Qualitative, Comparative and Quantitative Predicates.- (a) Qualitative Predicates.- (b) Comparative Predicates.- (c) Quantitative Predicates.- 4. The Classification of Predicates: Empirical, Dispositional and Theoretical Predicates.- (a) Empirical and Dispositional Predicates.- (b) Theoretical Predicates.- 5. Similarity and Identification of Objects.- (a) Semantic Background.- (b) The Finitistic Conception of Identification.- (c) Similarity of Objects.- (d) The Problems of Reduction in Identification Procedures.- V. Scientific Explanation.- 1. Problem-Solving Situations and Questions in Science.- (a) The Concept of 'Problem-Solving Situation' and the Role of Questions in Problem-Solving Situations.- (b) Problem-Solving Situations Based on Whether-Questions.- (c) Problem-Solving Situations Based on Which-Questions.- (d) Why-Questions and the Problem of Scientific Explanation.- 2. The Concepts of 'Explanation' and 'Scientific Explanation'.- (a) Requirements Imposed on Explanation.- (b) Scientific Explanation and Description.- (c) The Most Important Kinds of Explanation.- 3. The Typology of Scientific Explanation.- (a) The Commonest Typologies.- (b) Classificational Criteria of the Typology of Scientific Explanation.- (c) Classification Based on the Nature of the Explanandum.- (d) Classification Based on the Nature of Laws.- (e) Classification Based on the Relations Between Explanandum and Explanans.- (f) Classification from the Viewpoint of Pragmatic Requirements.- 4. Scientific Laws and Their Evaluation.- (a) Laws: General Statement or Rules of Inference? A Criticism of Instrumentalism.- (b) Scientific Laws and Accidental Generalizations.- (c) The Measure of Explanatory and Predictive Power as a Criterion of Qualification of Scientific Laws.- 5. Scientific Explanation and Decision-Making.- (a) Deductive Models of Scientific Explanation.- (b) Statistical Models of Scientific Explanation.- (c) The Decision Model.- 6. Explanation and Prediction.- (a) The Scientific Basis of Prognostic Statements and the Thesis of the Structural Identity of Explanation and Prediction.- (b) Prognostic Statements and Problems of the Time Factor.- (c) Justified Prognostic Statements and Their Evaluation.
Series Title: Synthese library; Boston studies in the philosophy of science, v. 10.
Responsibility: Translated from the Czech by David Short.
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