LIBANIUS (A.D. 314-393) was one of the last great publicists and educators of Greek paganism. His story, as presented in his 'Autobiography' (Oration I) and the 'Life' by Eunapius, is supplemented by information from a correspondence of over 1500 items (dated A.D. 355-365 and A.D. 388-393) and 64 extant orations. Sophistic works of various types, including the 'Hypotheses of Demosthenes' Orations', complete the corpus of his works. He was born in Antioch of respectable municipal family and, after study at Athens, began his teaching career in Constantinople in 340, but soon had to retire to Nicomedeia, where he became acquainted with St. Basil and influential in the development of Julian's paganism. After a second tenure at Constantinople he returned home to become professor in Antioch in 354, a position which he held through many vicissitudes, for the rest of his life. His views and prejudices caused him to react sharply against many contemporary trends. As sophist of Antioch and a devoted exponent of the traditional Hellenic system of education, he remained deliberately and contemptuously unacquainted with Latin, and deplored its increasing influence. Naturally humane in outlook and sympathizing with the local bouregoisie, he criticized bitterly the encroachments and oppressions of the central administration, and the general cruelty of his day. Sincerely pagan in an increasingly aggressive Christian society, he became an influential mouthpiece of protest against religious persecution, official or unofficial. Illness and professional and family disappointments sharpen these criticisms in his later years. The orations upon Julian, to whose memory he remained devoted all his life, were composed between 362 and 365, and present Libanius with a positive role and a congenial subject, revealing him at the height of his powers and influence. They were used by the Church historians, and this, coupled with his relations with Basil and with Chrysostom, his pupil in Antioch, lent them respectability enough to make his works, despite their consistent criticisms of the Christian religion, acceptable to Byzantine piety.