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Sensor technologies : healthcare, wellness, and environmental applications

Author: Michael J McGrath, Ph.D.; Cliodhna Ní Scanaill
Publisher: [Berkeley, CA?] : Apress Open ; New York : Distributed worldwide by Springer Science+Business Media, [2014] ©2014
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Michael J McGrath, Ph.D.; Cliodhna Ní Scanaill
ISBN: 9781430260134 1430260130
OCLC Number: 857711973
Description: xxv, 302 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm
Contents: Chapter One: Introduction Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the key challenges and drivers for sensor application development. The reader should also understand how sensor technologies can play a role in addressing some of the key challenges facing global society in the short to medium term. 1. Book overview 2. Drivers for Sensor Applications (Infrastructure Growth in Developing Countries, Advances in Energy Harvesting, New Applications, Cost reduction, Real-time monitoring of situations to avoid unplanned downtime, Security (personal and national), the internet of things). 3. Challenges for Sensor Applications (Power, Efficient Operation in Harsh Environments, Number of Deployable Nodes, Safety and Regulations, High Cost of Installation, Security and Reliability, sensor management) 4. Global Megatrends and the opportunities for sensing technologies o Water and Food Constraints o Aging Demographics o Public Health o Pandemics o Security Chapter 2: Sensing and Sensor Fundamentals Chapter Goal: Reader should understand existing sensor technologies, which can be used in healthcare, wellness, and environmental domains. They should also understand the role of smart sensors and smart phones as mobile sensing platforms and aggregators. 1. Sensing Modalities (Mechanical, MEMS, Optical, ISFET, TAS) 2. Sensing Domains (Air, Water, Noise, Bacterial, Chemical, Kinematic, DNA, Physiological) 3. Functional Characterisation of Sensors o Communication methods - discrete, wired, wireless o Smart Sensors and Sensor Platforms MSP430 (SHIMMER and telosB motes) ATmega PIC 4. Smart Phones as mobile sensor platforms 5. Selecting and specifying sensors Chapter 3 Key Sensor Technology Components - Hardware and Software Overview Chapter Goal: Reader should have a high level understanding of the key hardware and software components, which are necessary for the development of sensors systems and why technologies are selected for specific applications. 1. Overview - Sensor systems 2. MCU's (TI MSP430, ATmega, PIC) a. ADCs b. Interrupts c. Real-time Clocks 3. Sensor Interfaces a. Digital b. Analog c. I2C 4. Communications - wired and wireless interfaces RS232/485, USB, Ethernet, FieldbusProprietary Short Range Wireless Protocols (e.g. ANT, BodyLAN, Sensium)Standard Short Range Protocols i. IEEE 802.15.6 ii. Bluetooth/Smart Bluetooth iii. 802.15.4 iv. UWB Medium Range i. Wi-Fi 5. Data storage (EEPROM, sd card, data forwarding) 6. Power management and Energy Harvesting 7. Operating Systems and Software Development Environments (SDK's) Chapter 4 Sensor Network Architectures Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the various approaches to the design of sensor network architectures; scaling from body worn systems, to ambient sensing, to city-scale deployments. The reader should also understand the advantages and disadvantages of current and evolving sensor network architectures. 1. Sensor network architectures o Discrete Sensor o Sensor to aggregator o PAN/WPAN/smart clothing o Pervasive/Ambient sensor networks o Wide area networks (city-wide, country wide) 2. Challenges in developing and deploying sensor networks 3. Current and Proposed Solutions o Remote sensor management o Edge Processing o Power harvesting o New communication standards Chapter 5: Adding Vibrancy to Sensor Data Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the various methods to interpret and display sensor data to the user. They will understand the importance of creating a data analysis plan from the outset, and the different types of data analysis throughout the application stack. 1. Data Literacy - How can we intuitively answer questions with sensor data and contextualise answers 2. Data Quality a. Calibration b. Trust and Repudiation 3. Sensor Fusion - combining sensory data from disparate sources 4. Data Mining 5. Data Visualisation 6. Openness, data integration, virtual sensors 7. Exploiting the power of the cloud Chapter 6: Regulation and Standards Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the key technologies, which impact or influence the development of sensor deployment and applications including the emerging standards and regulatory considerations. 1. Regulatory Standards (US, EU, Japan) : why, which, and how standards impact your application 2. Regulatory Issues: Certification 3. Smartphones Considerations o Privacy and data security 4. Standards Bodies and Industry Groups o Continua Healthcare Alliance o ISO/IEEE 11073 5. Wearable Wireless Health Communication Standards Chapter 7: Biosensing in Everyday Life - Driving Biocontextual Aware Computing Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the social relationships that create opportunities and barriers for widespread, consumer-based biosensing. The reader should understand how the social world is shifting from sensor technologies of "should" to sensor technologies of "could" to facilitate new understandings of health and wellness and drive new methods and practices of personal data sharing. 1. Data Security and Ownership - Sharing and Managing Personal Data 2. Game Changing Pressure for Affordable Healthcare 3. Continuous, Personal Data is Improving Lives 4. Emerging Tech-Empowered Citizens 5. Sensing for Self-Discovery, Culture and Play 6. User feedback/Supporting sustainable human behaviours - leveraging the gaming culture Chapter 8: Development and Deployment of Sensor Technologies for Home and Community Settings Chapter Goal: Reader should understand how to design a sensor deployment for a home or community. The chapter informs the reader how to formulate the research question the deployment will address, how to develop prototypes, and manage and deploy them successful. The chapter will finish with exemplar case studies of real world sensor deployments. Study Design - The Right QuestionHome Deployment ElementsHome Deployment ManagementThe Prototyping Design ProcessCase Studies Chapter 9: Body Worn and Ambient Sensor Applications for Assessment, Monitoring, and Diagnostics Chapter Goal: Reader should at the end of this chapter have an understanding of the key characteristics of how body worn and ambient sensor applications, and how they vary according to the domain in which they are deployed. The reader will be presented with the key challenges faced in each domain, and emerging solutions for these challenges. 1. Drivers and Inhibitors (Incidence of chronic diseases, aging demographics, Adjusting provider compensation, prevention, medical work practice changes) 2. Hospital based sensing for assessment and diagnosis 3. Supervised Assessment and Monitoring in Community Settings 4. Home Based Applications o Clinical grade sensing for patient monitoring o Body worn sensing (e.g. PERS) for monitoring and alerting o Passive sensing for monitoring and alerting (e.g. ADL's) 5. Key challenges Chapter 10: Wellness, Fitness and Lifestyle Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the key trends in how people use body worn sensors to manage their fitness and wellbeing. Key applications include: sensors for measuring activities in sports performance, activity/weight management and sleep tracking, 1. Drivers and Inhibitors 2. Sports and fitness applications (running, walking cycling, field sports) Vital signs and physiological parameters Fitness gaming - Wii Fit, Kinect muscle movement, body stress levels, speed, distance, location Fitness Statistics and Analysis 3. Outdoor Activities o Pressure (mountaineer and paragliding) o GPS (hiking, cycling, golf) 4. Obesity and weight management 5. Sleep o Baby Monitoring o Sleep Quality - health and social impacts o Sleep Apnoea Chapter 11: Environmental Monitoring for Health and Wellness Chapter Goal: Reader should understand how sensors and sensor networks are used for environmental monitoring, one of the key emerging applications domains. Apart from disaster monitoring, sensing also has the potential for air quality, weather monitoring, pollution etc.; with benefits for both urban and rural dwellers. 1. Drivers and Inhibitors o Correlations to health impacts 2. Home Sensing o Carbon Monoxide o Smoke Detectors o Passive Infrared (PIR) o Temperature o Sound o Sustainable Living 3. Smart Environments 4. Environmental Parameters (Noise, Water, Bacteria, Air Quality, Radiation, Urban Heat Islands) 5. Weather - Exceptional Event and Disaster Management Intelligence Chapter 12: Conclusions and Future Directions Chapter Goal: Reader should understand the key conclusions that the authors have outlined in the previous chapters. The reader should also gain an understanding of the key trends which will affect future sensor applications and how people will utilise these novel applications in their everyday lives. 1. Summary of the overall conclusions 2. Future Directions for Sensing o Use Centred Healthcare o Citizen centric sensing o Influence of urbanisation on health, wellness and lifestyle choices. o Sustainable human behaviour change
Responsibility: Michael J. McGrath, Cliodhna Ní Scanaill.

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