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Sewing success? : employment, wages and poverty following the end of the multi-fibre arrangement

Author: Gladys Lopez Acevedo; Raymond Robertson; World Bank.
Publisher: Washington, DC : World Bank, ©2012.
Series: Directions in development (Washington, D.C.)., Poverty.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : International government publication : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:
The end of the MFA was followed by rising apparel exports, falling prices, and a reallocation of production and employment between countries. There were also significant changes within countries. The first main finding of this report is that export and employment patterns after the MFA/ATC did not necessarily match predictions. While many predicted that production would shift to low-wage countries, this book shows  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Sewing success?
Washington, DC : World Bank, ©2012
(DLC) 2011045979
(OCoLC)731913341
Material Type: Document, Government publication, International government publication, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Gladys Lopez Acevedo; Raymond Robertson; World Bank.
ISBN: 9780821389737 0821389734
OCLC Number: 783042110
Description: 1 online resource (xxxi, 497 pages) : illustrations.
Contents: Machine generated contents note: pt. 1 Employment, Wages, and Poverty after the End of the MFA --
ch. 1 Introduction --
Apparel as a Key Sector --
The Importance of the MFA/ATC --
Choosing the Focus Countries --
The Link between Apparel and Poverty (Motivating the Choice of Variables) --
Structure of the Book --
Notes --
References --
ch. 2 Theoretical Foundation and Empirical Approach --
Modeling Global Apparel Production Decisions --
Empirical Strategy --
Data --
Notes --
References --
ch. 3 Developments in the Global Apparel Industry after the MFA Phaseout --
Introduction --
Structure of the Apparel Industry --
Regulatory Context --
Implications of the MFA Phaseout --
Overview of Case Study Countries --
Conclusions --
Notes --
References --
ch. 4 Success and Upgrading after the End of the MFA --
Introduction --
Industry Evolution, Policies, and Post-MFA Development --
Empirical Results --
Final Remarks --
Annex --
Notes --
References and Other Sources --
Additional Readings. Ch. 5 The Challenge to Major Exporters after the MFA Phaseout --
Introduction --
Industry Evolution and Export Performance following the MFA Phaseout --
Employment and Intersector Reallocation --
Intrasector Reallocation --
Unit Values and Wages --
Working Conditions --
Conclusion --
Annex --
Notes --
References --
ch. 6 The Rise of Small Asian Economies in the Apparel Industry --
Introduction --
Apparel Sector Structure in Cambodia and Sri Lanka --
Employment --
Within-Industry Changes --
Wages --
Working Conditions --
Conclusions --
Annex --
Notes --
References --
ch. 7 Conclusions --
Apparel and Poverty --
Changes following the End of the MFA: Overview of Country-Level Results --
Main Findings and Policy Implications --
Directions for Future Work --
Annex --
Note --
References --
pt. 2 Summaries of the Country Case Studies on Apparel Industry Development, Structure, and Policies --
ch. 8 Bangladesh --
Overview --
Development of the Apparel Industry. Structure of the Apparel Industry --
Trade Regulations and Proactive Policies --
Notes --
References --
ch. 9 Cambodia --
Overview --
Development of the Apparel Industry --
Structure of the Apparel Industry --
Trade Regulations and Proactive Policies --
Notes --
References --
ch. 10 Honduras --
Overview --
Development of the Apparel Industry --
Overview of DR-CAFTA Countries --
Structure of the Apparel Industry --
Trade Regulations and Proactive Policies --
Notes --
References --
ch. 11 India --
Overview --
Development of the Apparel Industry --
Structure of the Apparel Industry --
Trade Regulations and Proactive Policies --
Proactive Policies --
Notes --
References --
ch. 12 Mexico --
Overview --
Development of the Apparel Industry --
Structure of the Apparel Industry --
Trade Regulations and Proactive Policies --
Notes --
References --
ch. 13 Morocco --
Overview --
Development of the Apparel Industry --
Overview of MENA-4 Countries. Structure of the Apparel Industry --
Trade Regulations and Proactive Policies --
Notes --
References --
ch. 14 Pakistan --
Overview --
Development of the Apparel Industry --
Structure of the Apparel Industry --
Trade Regulations and Proactive Policies --
Notes --
References --
ch. 15 Sri Lanka --
Overview --
Development of the Apparel Industry --
Structure of the Apparel Industry --
Trade Regulations and Proactive Policies --
Notes --
References --
ch. 16 Vietnam --
Overview --
Development of the Apparel Industry --
Structure of the Apparel Industry --
Trade Regulations and Proactive Policies --
Notes.
Series Title: Directions in development (Washington, D.C.)., Poverty.
Other Titles: World Bank e-Library.
Responsibility: editors, Gladys Lopez Acevedo, Raymond Robertson.

Abstract:

The end of the MFA was followed by rising apparel exports, falling prices, and a reallocation of production and employment between countries. There were also significant changes within countries. The first main finding of this report is that export and employment patterns after the MFA/ATC did not necessarily match predictions. While many predicted that production would shift to low-wage countries, this book shows that only 13 percent of variation in export changes post-MFA can be explained by the differences in wage levels. Second, changes in exports are usually, but not always, good indicators of what happens to wages and employment within countries. This is especially important for policy because it shows that simply using exports as a metric of 'success' in terms of helping the poor is not sufficient. Third, the Book identifies the specific ways that changes in the global apparel market affected earnings. The Book shows that wage premiums change in predictable ways: rising (in most cases) in countries that were proactive in adapting to the MFA phase-out and expanded their market shares, and falling in countries that failed to respond in a timely fashion to the changing environment. The Book shows that promoting 'upgrading' (defined as shifting to higher-value goods, shifting up the value chain, or 'modernizing' production techniques) seems to be necessary for sustainable competitiveness in the apparel sector but does not necessarily help the poor. Policies that support upgrading need to be complemented with targeted workforce development to make sure that the most vulnerable workers are not left behind. Having a vision for the evolution of the apparel sector that incorporates developing worker skills seems crucial. Otherwise, less-skilled workers could miss out on opportunities to gain valuable work experience in manufacturing.

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