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Shadow education : private supplementary tutoring and its implications for policy makers in Asia

Author: Mark Bray; Chad Lykins; Asian Development Bank,
Publisher: Mandaluyong, Philippines : Asian Development Bank, 2012. ©2012
Series: CERC monograph series in comparative and international education and development, no. 9.
Edition/Format:   eBook : Document : EnglishView all editions and formats
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Genre/Form: Electronic books
Additional Physical Format: Print version:
Bray, Mark, 1952-
Shadow education : private supplementary tutoring and its implications for policy makers in Asia.
Mandaluyong, Philippines : Asian Development Bank, ©2012
xi, 100 pages
Material Type: Document, Internet resource
Document Type: Internet Resource, Computer File
All Authors / Contributors: Mark Bray; Chad Lykins; Asian Development Bank,
ISBN: 9290926597 9789290926597
OCLC Number: 891384542
Description: 1 online resource (113 pages) : illustrations.
Contents: Cover; Contents; Lists of Figures, Tables, and Boxes; Preface; Acknowledgments; Abbreviations and Acronyms; Executive Summary; Introduction; Mapping the Landscape; Enrollment Rates; Intensity and Demographic Variations; Subjects and Modes; Costs; Demand and Supply; Drivers of Demand; Diversity of Supply; Impact of Shadow Education; Academic Achievement; Broader Skills and Values; Efficiencies and Inefficiencies; Inequalities and Social Cohesion; Implications for Policy Makers; Securing Data and Monitoring Trends; Reforming Assessment and Selection Systems; Changing the Curriculum. Harnessing TechnologyDevising and Implementing Regulations; Finding Partners; Learning from the Shadow; Conclusions; Driving Forces; Diversity in Patterns; Inequalities and Inefficiencies; The Way Ahead; Appendix: Regulations on Private Tutoring; References; Notes on the Authors; CERC Monograph Series in Comparative and International Education and Development; Figures; 1. Average Monthly Household Expenditures on Shadow Education, Republic of Korea, 1997-2010; 2. Different Forms of Shadow Education in the Republic of Korea, 2010. 3. Overlap of Commercial and Educational Law in Regulation of Private TutoringTables; 1. Shadow Education Participation by Region and Level of Education, Republic of Korea, 2008; 2. Subjects in which Grade 10 Students Received Private Tutoring, Sri Lanka, 2009; 3. Subjects in which Senior Secondary Students Received Private Lessons, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan, 2005/06; 4. Proportions of Children Aged 3-16 Receiving Private Tutoring by Income Quintile, Rural India (2007/08) and Rural Pakistan (2010); 5. Household Expenditures on Tutoring by Ethnic Group, Malaysia, 2004/05. 6. Shadow Education Participation and Expenditure by Income Group and Level of Education, Republic of Korea, 20087. Household Costs for Secondary Schooling, Bangladesh, 2005; 8. Yearly Costs per Person for Private Tutoring, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, and Tajikistan; 9. Reasons for Receiving Private Tutoring, Sri Lanka, 2009; 10. Factors that Contributed to "Heating up" of Juku Attendance, Japan (Parents' Response Rates); 11. Teachers' Views of the Influence of Cram Schools on Children's Mathematics Learning, Taipei, China. 12. Proportions of Households with Positive Expenditures on Tutoring, Sri Lanka13. Proportions of Students Receiving Private Tutoring, Viet Nam, 1997/98; Boxes; 1. Cross-National Indicators of Private Tutoring; 2. A Longstanding Concern; 3. Alarm about the Expansion of Private Tutoring in India; 4. Dazzling Work Ethic, Gritty Faith, and Financial Realities in Viet Nam; 5. Culture and the Tiger Mothers; 6. Finding the Right Tutor in Singapore; 7. More Tutoring, Less Learning; 8. Limiting the Duration of Shadow Education in the Republic of Korea; 9. Shadow Education as a Positional Good.
Series Title: CERC monograph series in comparative and international education and development, no. 9.
Responsibility: Mark Bray and Chad Lykins ; Asian Development Bank.

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