This dissertation examines the new subjects and spaces created through the institutional framework of charter schools, which is part of the neoliberalization of public education in the United States. Neoliberal ideology suggests a retrenchment of the state, where free-market mechanisms and individual freedoms are viewed as the ideal solution for the distribution of resources. Charter schools, as neoliberal institutions, are exemplars of new state-citizen relations in that many charter schools have intensely local governance structures, where the schools are managed by private individuals. As such, charter schools provide spaces for new social citizenship rights to be practiced, with the potential to reconfigure sociospatial relations. Using the case study of the creation of the Neighborhood Charter School in an intown neighborhood of Atlanta, Georgia, I examine both new practices of citizenship and the way in which charter schools have the potential to transform neighborhoods and cities. The analysis of the formation of the Neighborhood Charter School in the Grant Park- Ormewood Park neighborhoods of Atlanta, which included an examination of archival sources, interviews, participant observation, and a survey, points to three conceptual findings that contribute to theoretical understandings of neoliberalism, citizenship, and socio-spatial relations. First, charter schools illustrate a neoliberalizing and hybridizing state. The state is both present and transformed in the charter-school framework as compared to traditional public-school structures. Second, the state has changed the provision of social citizenship, by asking citizens to perform activities previously conducted by the state. Connected to the shifting meanings of social citizenship is the construction of subject-citizens, who are tasked to perform community. Third, this research further demonstrates how new institutions such as charter schools are instrumental to the reorganization of spatial relations at the urban and neighborhood scales. I find that charter schools function as local institutions, but their impact has the potential to extend to broader urban areas through their connection to urban regimes. Charter schools, then, by reshaping the activities of citizens in public education, illustrate the new subjects and spaces constructed by a neoliberalizing, yet still supervising, state. As such, charter schools bring into question the coherency of the neoliberal project.