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Studies in crime and law enforcement in major metropolitan areas,

Author: Albert J Reiss; Donald J Black; United States. Office of Law Enforcement Assistance.; University of Michigan.; United States. President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice.
Publisher: [Washington], [For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off.], [1967]
Series: Field surveys, 3.
Edition/Format:   Book : National government publication : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:
V. 1. Section I. This report looks at the current systems of crime reporting contain some misconceptions about simple rates such as a crude crime rate. Proposals made for more specific measures of crime, on the need to identify the exposed population for which crime rates are calculated, the desirability of obtaining specific rates for both victims and offenders, and the need for developing statistical programs that  Read more...
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Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Reiss, Albert J.
Studies in crime and law enforcement in major metropolitan areas.
[Washington, For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1967]
(OCoLC)761238271
Material Type: Government publication, National government publication
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Albert J Reiss; Donald J Black; United States. Office of Law Enforcement Assistance.; University of Michigan.; United States. President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice.
OCLC Number: 712695
Notes: "Prepared under a grant by the Office of Law Enforcement Assistance ... to the University of Michigan."
Description: 2 volumes 26 cm.
Contents: v. 1. Section I. Measurement of the nature and amount of crime / Albert J. Reiss, Jr. Introduction --
Problems of measurement posed by an index of crime --
Criteria for measuring crime --
Some ways of measuring selected major crimes --
Criminal homicide --
Forcible rape --
Robbery --
Aggravated and simple assault --
Victims and offenders in offenses of rape, robbery, and assault --
Probability of becoming a victim of a major crime against the person --
Race and sex of offenders and their victims in major offenses against the person --
Modal types of victims, offenders, and victim-offender relationships in major crimes against the person --
Burglary --
Larceny : theft --
Auto theft --
A survey of crimes against businesses and organization --
Burglaries against businesses and organizations --
Robbery against businesses and organizations --
Shoplifting against businesses and organizations --
Entrepreneurial actions in dealing with shoplifting --
Passing bad checks --
Premises where victimization occurs in major crimes against the person, by race and sex of victims and offenders --
Forcible rape and assault with intent to rape --
Robbery and attempts to rob --
Major assaults with a dangerous weapon : assaults with a gun --
Assaults with a knife or other cutting instrument --
Assaults with other dangerous weapons --
Assaults with injury without a dangerous weapon and battery involving physical contact --
Threats with and without a dangerous weapon --
All major offenses against persons --
Victimization by offenders in each major offense against the person on street and residence premises --
The experience of while male victims --
The experience of white female victims --
The experience of negro male victims --
The experience of negro female victims --
Survey incidence of crime victimization --
Major problems in sample survey estimation of crime --
Estimating offense rates from victim information --
Comparison of police statistics and survey estimates --
Crime statistics on arrest --
Conclusion --
Section II. Public perceptions and recollections about crime, law enforcement, and criminal justice / Albert J. Reiss, Jr. Introduction --
Part I. Evaluations and images of owners and managers of businesses and organizations toward the police and police service --
Part II. Citizen perceptions and recollections about crime, law enforcement, an criminal justice --
Appendix A. Survey instrument for a study of crime against residents of metropolitan areas --
Appendix B. Survey instrument for a study of law enforcement contacts in metropolitan areas. --
v. 2. Section I. Patterns of behavior in police and citizen transactions / D.J. Black and A.J. Reiss, Jr. Introduction --
Mobilization of the police --
Empirical study of police and citizen transactions --
Profile of the citizen participants in encounters --
Some aspects of police-citizen interaction --
Conduct of officer and general emotional state of citizen --
Conduct of officer and general demeanor of citizen --
Conduct of officer and sobriety of citizen --
"Prejudice" in officer's behavior and general emotional state of citizen --
"Prejudice" in officer's behavior and citizen's demeanor --
"Prejudice of officer and sobriety of citizen --
Police-suspect transactions --
Personal and property searches --
Field interrogations --
Admissions or confessions --
The use of threats --
Citizen requests for consultation with a third party --
Apprising of rights --
Police attitudes toward negroes --
Section II. Career orientations, job satisfaction, and the assessment of law enforcement problems by police officers / Albert J. Reiss, Jr. Introduction --
Design of study --
Officer orientation to a police career and police morale --
Officer satisfaction with his job --
Officer satisfaction with his assignment --
Officer perceptions of relations between police and the public and changes in them --
Police and relations with local government and its legal system --
Officer perceptions of problems in law enforcement and in their relations with the system of justice --
Concluding note --
Appendix A. Survey instruments for a study of police attitudes.
Series Title: Field surveys, 3.
Other Titles: Crime and law enforcement in major metropolitan areas
Responsibility: by Albert J. Reiss, Jr.

Abstract:

V. 1. Section I. This report looks at the current systems of crime reporting contain some misconceptions about simple rates such as a crude crime rate. Proposals made for more specific measures of crime, on the need to identify the exposed population for which crime rates are calculated, the desirability of obtaining specific rates for both victims and offenders, and the need for developing statistical programs that provide information for the calculation of such rates are discussed. Statistics are given by way of illustration. -- Section II. Residents and business owners and managers were surveyed for their attitudes in two police districts of Boston, two in Chicago, and four in Washington, D.C. citizens who live in high crime rate areas do not perceive their neighborhoods as places where crime is a way of life. Their primary concern is with personal safety. This attitude overshadows their attitudes about police, which are generally positive. They repress crime rather than deal with its causes. They alter their behavior more than their attitudes and perceptions about the crime situation. Appendixes contain the survey instruments used. -- v. 2. Section I. This report looks at the determination of the extent to which certain factors influence the behavior of police officers and citizens toward one another. Factors related to the status and role of the citizen and the officer, their predispositions and behavior in encounters, the type of mobilization situation, and the department's policies and system of command and control were considered. Encounters in Boston, Chicago, and Washington, D.C., were observed for several weeks. The findings for both police-suspect and police-citizen encounters in terms of participant's race, social class, behavior, exhibited prejudice and demeanor are presented. Although officers maintained highly prejudicial attitudes towards blacks, they were not exhibited in encounters, but did affect the nature, formal or personal of the encounter. Policemen were constrained in acting out their feelings. -- Section II. In this report, empirical studies of police occupation and organization police themselves are empirically studied. Police officers orientation to their work and to the public with which they deal is reported. A study in perceptions and attitudes, not of actual behavior. Police officers in selected precincts in Boston, Chicago, and Washington, D.C., were surveyed for attitudes on the nature of police careers, of police work, and with their job, of their orientation toward their tasks in policing and their relationships and transactions with the public that is policed. Their perceptions of how organizations and systems that affect law enforcement have influenced or changed their work. Findings and survey instrument utilized are given.

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Linked Data


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