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T cells

Author: Osias Stutman
Publisher: New York : Plenum Press, ©1977.
Series: Contemporary topics in immunobiology, v. 7.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Osias Stutman
ISBN: 0306378078 9780306378072
OCLC Number: 2797777
Description: xv, 386 pages : illustrations ; 24 cm.
Contents: 1 Two Main Features of T-Cell Development: Thymus Traffic and Postthymic Maturation.- I. Introduction.- II. Postthymic Precursor Cells.- A. Effects of Late Treatment on Thymectomized Mice.- B. Restoration of Nude Mice.- C. Characterization of a Postthymic Precursor Cell.- D. T-Cell Subsets.- E. In Vitro Induction.- F. A Matter of Terminology.- III. Traffic.- A. A Brief Description of Methods.- B. Migration of Hemopoietic Precursors to Thymus.- C. Need of Yolk Sac Cells for an Additional "Step" before Thymus Migration.- D. Time of Intrathymic Residence.- E. Emigration from the Thymus.- F. Unidirectional Emigration of Postthymic Cells.- G. Short- and Long-lived Emigrant Lymphocytes.- H. Steroid Resistance and Sensitivity.- I. Generation of Competent T Cells Through Thymus Traffic.- IV. Epilogue.- V. References.- 2 Regulation of the Immune Response by T-Cell Subclasses.- I. Introduction.- II. Properties of Three Major T-Cell Subclasses.- A. TH (Ly1) Subclass.- B. TC/S (Ly23) Cells.- C. Development of and Functional Relationship between TH (Ly1) and TC/S (Ly23) Cells.- D. TE (Ly123) Cells.- E. Role of T-Cell Subclasses in the Response to "Modified-Self".- F. Regulatory Effects of H-2 Activated T-Cell Subclasses on Antibody Responses.- G. Some Implications of These Data.- III. Possible Mechanisms of TC/S Suppression.- IV. Definition of Other (Non-T) Lymphocyte Subclasses Expressing Distinctive Cell-Surface Components.- A. Identification of Natural Killer Cells.- B. Serologic Definition of a Component on a Subclass of B Cells That Is Directly Involved in Antigen-Dependent B-Cell Triggering.- V. References.- 3 Antigen Receptors of T Helper Cells.- I. Introduction.- II. Functional Specificity and Heterogeneity of Helper-T-Cell Receptors.- A. The Experimental System.- B. Cross-Reactions at the Helper-Cell Level and at the Level of Humoral Antibody.- C. Heterogeneity of Helper-Cell Receptors and Humoral Antibody.- III. Idiotypic Properties of Helper and Suppressor T-Cell Receptors.- A. The Experimental System.- B. Stimulation of Helper T Cells by Antiidiotypic Antibody.- C. Stimulation of Suppressor T Cells by Antiidiotypic Antibody.- IV. Ir Gene Control of Specific Helper Function.- V. Properties of Isolated Antigen-Binding Receptors of Putative T-Cell Origin.- A. Specific Isolation of Antigen Receptors from T and B Lymphocytes.- B. Properties of Isolated Receptor Molecules.- VI. Discussion.- A. General Considerations: One Class or Several Classes of T-Cell Receptors?.- B. Variable Portion of T-Cell Receptors.- C. Constant Part of T-Cell Receptor.- D. Possible Structure of the T-Cell-Receptor Molecule.- VII. References.- 4 Antigen-Binding, Idiotypic T-Lymphocyte Receptors.- I. Introduction.- II. Methods and Materials Used in the Induction and Analysis of Antiidiotypic Antibodies.- III. Induction and Characteristics of Antiidiotypic Antibodies Raised Against T- or B-Cell Receptors for Antigen.- A. Induction of Antiidiotypic Antibodies.- B. Demonstration of the Antiidiotypic Nature of the Present Antisera.- C. Relationships Between Idiotypic Determinants Present on B- or T-Cell Receptors with Specificity for the Same Antigen.- IV. Inhibition of T-Cell Functions by Antiidiotypic Antibodies.- A. Inhibition of T-Cell Function in Vivo (Graft-vs.-Host Reaction).- B. Inhibition of T-Cell Function in Vitro (Mixed Leukocyte Culture).- V. Direct Visualization of Idiotype-Positive T Lymphocytes Using Fluorescent Antibody Techniques, Autoradiography, or Electronmicroscopy Measurements.- VI. Specific Accumulation and Purification of Idiotype-Positive T Lymphocytes.- A. Specific Accumulation of Idiotype-Positive Lymphocytes in Lymph Nodes Draining a Corresponding Skin Graft.- B. Trapping of Idiotype-Positive T Lymphocytes in Popliteal Lymph Nodes Draining an Allograft.- C. Cytolytic Activity and Idiotypic Expression on Allograft-Infiltrating Cells.- D. Purification of Alloantigen-Reactive T Lymphocytes by the Use of Antiidiotypic Antibodies.- VII. Demonstration and Characteristics of Naturally Occurring, Idiotypic, Antigen-Binding Molecules Derived from T and B Lymphocytes and Present in Normal Serum.- VIII. Specific Transplantation Tolerance Resulting from Autoimmunity Against Naturally Occurring Idiotype-Positive Receptor Molecules..- A. Evidence for Induction of Autoantiidiotypic Antibodies.- B. Evidence That Autoantiidiotype Antibody Production Results in the Specific Elimination of Functional T Lymphocytes (Equivalent to a State of Specific Immune Tolerance).- IX. General Discussion.- X. References.- 5 Major Transplantation Antigens, Viruses, and Specificity of Surveillance T Cells.- I. Introduction.- II. Virus-Specific Cytotoxic T Cells in Vitro.- A. Experimental Model and Cellular Parameters.- B. Apparent Requirement for H-2 Compatibility for Virus-Specific Cytolytic Interactions in Vitro.- C. Association of Specificity with Structures Coded in K or D of H-2.- D. Roles of the H-2I Region and Non-H-2 Genes in Regulating Cytotoxic Immune Responses to Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus.- E. Specificity of Cytotoxic T Cells from H-2K Mutant Mice.- III. Restriction of Virus-Specific Effector-T-Cell Functions in Vivo by H-2K or H-2D.- A. Adoptive Induction of Acute Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis.- B. Antiviral Protection by LCMV-Immune T Cells.- C. Adoptive Transfer of LCMV-Specific DTH.- IV. Analysis of the H-2 Compatibility Requirement for Cytolytic T-Cell Interactions.- A. Antibody Blocking Experiments.- B. Cold Target Competitive Inhibition Experiments in Vitro.- C. Selective Proliferation Experiments in Vivo.- D. H-2 Mutant Mice.- E. Virus-Specific Cytotoxicity Across the H-2 Barrier.- F. The Nature of Altered-Self and Experimental Evidence from Other H-2-Restricted Cytotoxic T-Cell Models.- V. Major Transplantation Antigens and Immunosurveillance.- A. Enhanced Generation of Cell-Mediated Immunity in H-2 Heterozygotes.- B. A Possible Explanation for Polymorphism of Major Antigens.- VI. Conclusions.- VII. References.- 6 Significance of the Major Histocompatibility Complex As Assessed by T-Cell-Mediated Lympholysis Involving Syngeneic Stimulating Cells.- I. The Murine Major Histocompatibility Complex.- II. Requirement of Serologically Detectable Region Homology for Cytotoxicity in Chemically Modified Autologous Systems.- A. Generation of Cytotoxic Effector Cells to Chemically Modified Autologous Cells.- B. Intra-H-2 Mapping of the Homology Required.- C. Analysis of the Mechanisms of the H-2 Homology Requirement.- III. Role of H-2-Linked Immune Response Genes.- IV. Conclusions and Speculation.- V. References.- 7 T-Cell-Mediated Cytolysis: An Overview of Some Current Issues.- I. Introduction.- II. Stages in the Lytic Cycle.- A. Cell-Cell Interactions.- B. Events Following Cell-Cell Interaction.- C. The Lytic Event: Destruction of the Target-Cell Membrane.- III. Overview and Some Possible Future Directions.- IV. References.- 8 Mechanism of T-Cell-Mediated Cytolysis: The Lethal Hit Stage.- I. Introduction.- II. The Three Stages of T-Cell-Mediated Cytolysis.- A. Two-Stage Subdivision into Recognition and Lytic Stages.- B. Two-Stage Subdivision into Effector-Cell-Dependent and -Independent Stages.- C. Three-Stage Subdivison into Recognition, Lethal Hit, and Target-Cell-Disintegration Stages.- III. Recognition.- IV. Lethal Hit.- A. Introduction.- B. Polarity.- C. Metabolic Complexity: A Study Using an Analytical Ca2+ Pulse Method.- D. Discussion.- V. Target-Cell Disintegration.- VI. Summary and Conclusions.- VII. References.- 9 Mechanism of Specific Tumor-Cell Lysis by Alloimmune T Lymphocytes: Resolution and Characterization of Discrete Steps in the Cellular Interaction.- I. Introduction.- A. Overview.- B. Nature of Cytolytic Thymus-Derived Lymphocytes (CTLs).- C. Nature of Target Cells.- D. Mechanism of Killing by CTLs.- E. Importance of CTLs in Vivo.- II. Technical Considerations in the Assay of T-Lymphocyte-Mediate d Specific Lysis (TSL).- A. Assay Container.- B. Nature and Limitations of Radiochromium Release.- III. Resolution of TSL into Steps.- A. Other Methods of Resolution.- B. Resolution by Detachment and Dispersion.- IV. Characteristics of Adhesion.- A. Rapidity.- B. Temperature-Dependence.- C. Role of Divalent Cations in Adhesion.- V. Characteristics of Programming for Lysis.- A. Rapidity.- B. Temperature-Dependence.- C. Concomitant Electrolyte Permeability Increase.- D. Loss of Cloning Ability vs. Programming for Lysis.- E. Role of Divalent Cations in Programming for Lysis.- VI. Characteristics of Killer-Cell-Independent Lysis (KCIL).- A. Timing and Temperature-Dependence.- B. Irreversibility.- C. Role of Colloid Osmotic Lysis in KCIL.- VII. Sites of Action of Drugs Inhibiting TSL.- A. Previous Information.- B. A General Method for Investigating Sites of Drug Action.- C. Recent Results with Selected Drugs.- VIII. Concluding Remarks.- A. Stages in TSL.- B. Mechanism of Damage.- IX. References.- 10 Functional Analysis of Distinct Human T-Cell Subsets Bearing Unique Differentiation Antigens.- I. Introduction.- II. Surface Properties of Human Lymphocyte Subsets.- III. Methods for the Isolation of Human T Cells and Their Subsets.- IV. Functional Properties of Isolated Human Lymphocyte Subsets.- A. Proliferative Responses to Soluble and Cellular Antigens: Role of TH1+ and TH1- Subsets.- B. Mediator Production by T-Cell Subsets.- C. Cell-Mediated Lympholysis.- V. Conclusions.- VI. References.
Series Title: Contemporary topics in immunobiology, v. 7.
Responsibility: edited by Osias Stutman.


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