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Technical communication.

Author: John M Lannon; Laura J Gurak
Publisher: Boston : Pearson, [2015] ©2015
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : Thirteenth edition /; Global editionView all editions and formats

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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: John M Lannon; Laura J Gurak
ISBN: 9781292019567 1292019565
OCLC Number: 885515334
Description: 752 pages : illustrations (black and white, and colour) ; 24 cm
Contents: Preface PART 1 COMMUNICATING IN THE WORKPLACE 1. INTRODUCTION TO TECHNICAL COMMUNICATIONWhat Is Technical Communication?Technical Communication Is a Digital and a Human ActivityTechnical Communication Reaches a Global AudienceTechnical Communication Is Part of Most CareersTechnical Communicators Play Many Roles Main Features of Technical Communication Reader-CenteredAccessible and EfficientOften Produced by TeamsDelivered in Paper and Digital VersionsPurposes of Technical CommunicationDocuments that InformDocuments that InstructDocuments that PersuadePreparing Effective Technical DocumentsCase Providing Information Readers Can UseCase Being PersuasiveCase Considering the Ethical IssuesCase Working on Team and Thinking GloballyProjects 2. MEETING THE NEEDS OF SPECIFIC AUDIENCESAnalyze Your Document's Audience and PurposePrimary and Secondary AudiencesYour Relationship to Your ReadersPurpose of Your DocumentPrimary and Secondary PurposesIntended Use of the DocumentAssess the Audience's Technical BackgroundThe Highly Technical AudienceThe Semitechnical AudienceThe Nontechnical AudienceAudiences with Varying Technical BackgroundsCase Tailoring a Single Document for Multiple AudiencesWeb-Based Documents for Multiple AudiencesIdentify the Audience's Cultural BackgroundAnticipate Your Audience's PreferencesLength and DetailsFormat and MediumToneDue Date and TimingBudgetGuidelines for Analyzing Your Audience and Its Use of the DocumentDevelop an Audience and Use ProfileCase Developing an Audience and Use ProfileCheck Your Document for UsabilityChecklist UsabilityProjects 3. PERSUADING YOUR AUDIENCEIdentify Your Specific Persuasive GoalTry to Predict Audience ReactionExpect Audience ResistanceKnow How to Connect with the AudienceCase Connecting with the AudienceAllow for Give-and-TakeAsk for a Specific ResponseNever Ask for Too MuchRecognize All ConstraintsOrganizational ConstraintsLegal ConstraintsEthical ConstraintsTime ConstraintsSocial and Psychological ConstraintsConsider This People Often React Emotionally to Persuasive AppealsSupport Your Claims ConvincinglyOffer Convincing EvidenceAppeal to Common Goals and ValuesConsider the Cultural ContextGuidelines for PersuasionShaping Your ArgumentChecklist PersuasionProjects4. WEIGHING THE ETHICAL ISSUESRecognize Unethical Communication in the WorkplaceKnow the Major Causes of Unethical CommunicationYielding to Social PressureMistaking Groupthink for TeamworkUnderstand the Potential for Communication AbuseSuppressing Knowledge the Public NeedsHiding Conflicts of InterestExaggerating Claims about TechnologyFalsifying or Fabricating DataUsing Visual Images That Conceal the TruthStealing or Divulging Proprietary InformationMisusing Electronic InformationWithholding Information People Need for Their JobsExploiting Cultural DifferencesRely on Critical Thinking for Ethical DecisionsReasonable Criteria for Ethical JudgmentEthical DilemmasAnticipate Some Hard ChoicesCase A Hard ChoiceNever Depend Only on Legal GuidelinesLearn to Recognize PlagiarismBlatant versus Unintentional PlagiarismPlagiarism and the InternetPlagiarism and Your CareerConsider This Ethical Standards Are Good for BusinessDecide When and How to Report Ethical AbusesChecklist Ethical CommunicationGuidelines for Ethical CommunicationProjects 5. TEAMWORK AND GLOBAL CONSIDERATIONSTeamwork and Project Management Guidelines for Managing a Collaborative ProjectVirtual MeetingsFace-To-Face MeetingsGuidelines for Running a MeetingSources of Conflict in Collaborative GroupsInterpersonal DifferencesGender DifferencesCultural DifferencesManaging Group ConflictOvercoming Differences by Active ListeningGuidelines for Active ListeningThinking CreativelyBrainstorm As a Way of Getting StartedBrainstorming with Digital TechnologiesMind-MappingStoryboardingReviewing and Editing Others' WorkGuidelines for Peer Reviewing and EditingEthical Abuses in Workplace CollaborationIntimidating One's PeersClaiming Credit for Others' WorkHoarding InformationGlobal Considerations When Working in Teams Interpersonal Issues in Global TeamsGuidelines for Communicating on a Global TeamChecklist Teamwork and Global ConsiderationsProjects 6. AN OVERVIEW OF THE TECHNICAL WRITING PROCESSCritical Thinking in the Writing ProcessA Sample Writing SituationWorking with the InformationPlanning the DocumentDrafting the DocumentRevising the DocumentMake Proofreading Your Final StepGuidelines for ProofreadingDigital Technology and the Writing ProcessChecklist ProofreadingProjects PART 2 THE RESEARCH PROCESS 7. THINKING CRITICALLY ABOUT THE RESEARCH PROCESSAsking the Right QuestionsCase Defining and Refining a Research QuestionExploring a Balance of ViewsAchieving Adequate Depth in Your SearchEvaluating Your FindingsInterpreting Your FindingsPrimary versus Secondary SourcesExploring Secondary SourcesWeb-Based Secondary SourcesLocating Secondary Sources Using GoogleLocating Secondary Sources Using WikipediaOther Web-based Secondary SourcesGuidelines for Researching on the InternetTraditional Secondary SourcesExploring Primary SourcesUnsolicited InquiriesInformational InterviewsGuidelines for Informational InterviewsSurveysGuidelines for SurveysObservations and ExperimentsConsider This Frequently Asked Questions about CopyrightProjects 8. EVALUATING AND INTERPRETING INFORMATION Evaluate the SourcesEvaluate the EvidenceInterpret Your FindingsIdentify Your Level of CertaintyExamine the Underlying AssumptionsBe Alert for Personal BiasConsider Other Possible InterpretationsConsider This: Standards of Proof Vary for Different Audiences and Cultural SettingsAvoid Distorted or Unethical ReasoningFaulty GeneralizationFaulty Casual ReasoningFaulty Statistical AnalysisAcknowledge the Limits of ResearchObstacles to Validity and ReliabilityFlaws in Research StudiesDeceptive ReportingGuidelines for Evaluating and Interpreting InformationChecklist The Research ProcessProjects 9. SUMMARIZING RESEARCH FINDINGS AND OTHER INFORMATION xxConsidering Audience and PurposeWhat Readers Expect from a SummaryGuidelines for Summarizing InformationA Situation Requiring a SummaryCreating a SummarySpecial Types of SummariesClosing SummaryInformative Abstract ("Summary")Descriptive Abstract ("Abstract")Executive AbstractEthical and Global Considerations in Summarizing InformationChecklist SummariesProjects PART 3 ORGANIZATION, STYLE, AND VISUAL DESIGN 10. ORGANIZING FOR READERSThe Typical Shape of Workplace DocumentsOutliningAn Outlining StrategyThe Formal OutlineGuidelines for OutliningStoryboardingParagraphingThe Support ParagraphThe Topic SentenceParagraph UnityParagraph CoherenceParagraph LengthChunkingProviding an OverviewOrganizing for Global AudiencesChecklist Organizing InformationProjects 11. EDITING FOR A PROFESSIONAL STYLE AND TONEEditing for ClarityAvoid Ambiguous Pronoun ReferencesAvoid Ambiguous ModifiersUnstack Modifying NounsArrange Word Order for Coherence and EmphasisUse Active Voice Whenever PossibleUse Passive Voice SelectivelyAvoid Overstuffed SentencesEditing for ConcisenessAvoid Wordy PhrasesEliminate RedundancyAvoid Needless RepetitionAvoid There Sentence OpenersAvoid Some It Sentence OpenersDelete Needless PrefacesAvoid Weak VerbsAvoid Excessive PrepositionsAvoid NominalizationsMake Negatives PositiveClean Out Clutter WordsDelete Needless QualifiersEditing for FluencyCombine Related IdeasVary Sentence Construction and LengthUse Short Sentences for Special EmphasisFinding the Exact WordsPrefer Simple and Familiar WordingAvoid Useless JargonUse Acronyms SelectivelyAvoid TritenessAvoid Misleading EuphemismsAvoid OverstatementAvoid Imprecise WordingBe Specific and ConcreteUse Analogies to Sharpen the ImageAdjusting Your ToneGuidelines for Deciding about ToneConsider Using an Occasional ContractionAddress Readers DirectlyUse I and We When AppropriatePrefer the Active VoiceEmphasize the PositiveAvoid an Overly Informal ToneAvoid Personal BiasAvoid Sexist UsageGuidelines for Nonsexist UsageAvoid Offensive Usage of All TypesGuidelines for Inoffensive UsageConsidering the Global ContextLegal and Ethical Implications of Word ChoiceStyle, Tone, and Email Using Digital Editing Tools EffectivelyChecklist StyleProjects 12. DESIGNING VISUAL INFORMATIONWhy Visuals MatterWhen to Use VisualsTypes of Visuals to ConsiderHow to Choose the Right VisualsTablesGraphsBar GraphsLine GraphsGuidelines for Creating Tables and GraphsChartsPie ChartsOrganization ChartsFlowchartsTree ChartsGantt and PERT ChartsPictogramsGuidelines for Creating ChartsGraphic IllustrationsDiagramsMapsGuidelines for Creating Graphic IllustrationsPhotographsGuidelines for Using PhotographsVideosGuidelines for Using VideosSoftware and Downloadable ImagesUsing the SoftwareUsing Symbols and IconsUsing Web Sites for Graphics SupportUsing ColorGuidelines for Incorporating ColorEthical ConsiderationsPresent the Real PicturePresent the Complete PictureDon't Mistake Distortion for EmphasisGuidelines for Obtaining and Citing Visual MaterialCultural ConsiderationsGuidelines for Fitting Visuals with TextChecklist VisualsProjects 13. DESIGNINGN PAGES AND DOCUMENTSPage Design in Workplace DocumentsHow Page Design Transforms a DocumentDesign Skills Needed in Today's WorkplaceDesktop PublishingElectronic PublishingUsing Style Sheets and Company Style GuidesCreating a Design that Works for Your ReadersShaping the PageGuidelines for Shaping the PageStyling the Words and LettersGuidelines for Styling the Words and LettersAdding EmphasisGuidelines for Adding EmphasisUsing Headings for Access and OrientationGuidelines for Using HeadingsAudience Considerations in Page DesignDesigning Digital DocumentsWeb PagesOnline HelpAdobe Acrobat and PDF FilesCDs and Other MediaChecklist Page DesignProjects Part 4 Specific Documents And Applications 14. MEMOSConsidering Audience and PurposeMemo Parts and FormatMemo ToneCommon Types of MemosTransmittal MemoSummary or Follow-up MemoRoutine Miscellaneous MemoGuidelines for MemosChecklist MemosProjects 15. EMAIL AND TEXT MESSAGINGEmail Parts and FormatConsidering Audience and PurposeEmail Style, Tone, and EtiquetteInterpersonal Issues and EmailUsing the Right Tool for the SituationUsing Visuals with EmailEthical and Legal Issues When Using EmailCopyright IssuesPrivacy IssuesGlobal Considerations When Using EmailGuidelines for Writing and Using EmailGuidelines for Choosing Email Versus Paper, Telephone, or FaxText MessagingGuidelines for Text MessagingChecklist Email and Text MessagesProjects 16. WORKPLACE LETTERSConsidering Audience and PurposeLetter Parts, Format, and Design ElementsStandard PartsOptional PartsFormats and Design FeaturesLetter ToneEstablish and Maintain a "You" PerspectiveBe Polite and TactfulUse Plain EnglishDecide on a Direct or Indirect Organizing PatternGlobal and Ethical ConsiderationsGuidelines for Letters in GeneralConveying Bad or Unwelcome NewsGuidelines for Conveying Bad NewsCommon Types of LettersInquiry LettersGuidelines for Inquiry LettersClaim LettersGuidelines for Claim LettersSales LettersGuidelines for Sales LettersAdjustment LettersGuidelines for Adjustment LettersChecklist LettersProjects 17. RESUMES AND OTHER JOB-SEARCH MATERIALSAssessing Your Skills and AptitudesResearching the Job MarketPlan Your StrategyFocus Your SearchExplore Online ResourcesLearn to NetworkResumesParts of a ResumeResumes from a TemplateOrganizing Your ResumeGuidelines for Hard-Copy ResumesElectronic ResumesGuidelines for Emailed and Scannable ResumesGuidelines for Online ResumesApplication LettersSolicited Application LettersUnsolicited Application LettersGuidelines for Application LettersConsider This How Applicants Are Screened for Personal QualitiesDossiers, Portfolios, and WebfoliosDossiersPortfolios and WebfoliosGuidelines for Dossiers, Portfolios, and WebfoliosInterviews and Follow-Up LettersInterviewsFollow-Up LettersGuidelines for Interviews and Follow-Up LettersChecklist ResumesChecklist Application LettersChecklist Supporting MaterialsProjects 18. TECHNICAL DEFINITIONSConsidering Audience and PurposeLegal, Ethical, Societal, and Global ImplicationsTypes of DefinitionParenthetical DefinitionsSentence DefinitionsExpanded DefinitionsMethods for Expanding DefinitionsEtymologyHistoryNegationOperating PrincipleAnalysis of PartsVisualsComparison and ContrastRequired ConditionsExamplesSituations Requiring DefinitionsAn Expanded Definition for Semitechnical ReadersAn Expanded Definition for Nontechnical ReadersPlacing Definitions in a DocumentGuidelines for DefinitionsChecklist DefinitionsProjects 19. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTIONS, SPECIFICATIONS, AND MARKETING MATERIALSConsidering Audience and PurposeTypes of Technical DescriptionsObjectivity in Technical DescriptionsElements of a Usable DescriptionClear and Limiting TitleAppropriate Level of Detail and TechnicalityVisualsClearest Descriptive SequenceAn Outline for Product DescriptionA Situation Requiring Product DescriptionA Mechanism Description for a Nontechnical AudienceAn Outline for Process DescriptionA Situation Requiring Process DescriptionA Process Description for a Nontechnical AudienceGuidelines for DescriptionsSpecificationsTypes of SpecificationsConsidering Audience and PurposeGuidelines for SpecificationsTechnical Marketing MaterialsGuidelines for Technical Marketing MaterialsChecklist Technical DescriptionsChecklist SpecificationsChecklist Technical Marketing MaterialsProjects 20. INSTRUCTIONS AND PROCEDURESConsidering Audience and PurposeFormats for Instructional DocumentsFaulty Instructions and Legal LiabilityElements of Effective InstructionsClear and Limiting TitleInformed ContentVisualsAppropriate Level of Detail and TechnicalityGuidelines for Providing Appropriate DetailLogically Ordered StepsNotes and Hazard NoticesReadabilityEffective DesignGuidelines for Designing InstructionsAn Outline for InstructionsIntroductionBody: Required StepsConclusionA Situation Requiring InstructionsA Complete Set of Instructions for a Nontechnical AudienceDigital and Online InstructionsVideo InstructionsScripting Online VideosProceduresEvaluating the Usability of Instructions and ProceduresUsability and the Goals of Your ReadersApproaches for Evaluating a Document's UsabilityChecklist Instructions and ProceduresProjects 21. INFORMAL REPORTSInformational versus Analytical ReportsProgress ReportsGuidelines for Progress ReportsPeriodic Activity ReportsGuidelines for Periodic Activity ReportsTrip ReportsGuidelines for Trip ReportsMeeting MinutesGuidelines for Meeting MinutesFeasibility ReportsGuidelines for Feasibility ReportsRecommendation ReportsGuidelines for Recommendation ReportsJustification ReportsGuidelines for Justification ReportsPeer Review ReportsGuidelines for Peer Review ReportsChecklist Informal ReportsProjects 22. FORMAL ANALYTICAL REPORTSConsidering Audience and PurposeTypical Analytical ProblemsCausal Analysis: "Why Does X Happen?"Case The Reasoning Process in Causal AnalysisComparative Analysis: "Is X or Y Better for Our Needs?"Case The Reasoning Process in Comparative AnalysisFeasibility Analysis: "Is This a Good Idea?"Case The Reasoning Process in Feasibility AnalysisCombining Types of AnalysisElements of an Effective AnalysisClearly Identified Problem or PurposeAdequate But Not Excessive DataAccurate and Balanced DataFully Interpreted DataSubordination of Personal BiasAppropriate VisualsValid Conclusions and RecommendationsSelf-AssessmentAn Outline and Model for Analytical ReportsIntroductionBodyConclusionFront Matter and End Matter SupplementsFront MatterLetter of TransmittalText of the ReportEnd MatterA Situation Requiring an Analytical ReportA Formal ReportGuidelines for Reasoning through an Analytical ProblemChecklist Analytical ReportsProjects 23. PROPOSALS Considering Audience and PurposeThe Proposal ProcessCase Submitting a Competitive ProposalTypes of ProposalsPlanning ProposalsResearch ProposalsSales ProposalsElements of a Persuasive ProposalA Forecasting Title or Subject LineBackground InformationStatement of the ProblemDescription of SolutionA Clear Focus on BenefitsHonest and Supportable ClaimsAppropriate DetailReadabilityA Tone That Connects with ReadersVisualsAccessible Page DesignSupplements Tailored for a Diverse AudienceProper Citations of Sources and ContributorsAn Outline and Model for ProposalsIntroductionBodyConclusionGuidelines for ProposalsA Situation Requiring a Formal ProposalA Formal ProposalChecklist ProposalsProjects 24. ORAL PRESENTATIONS AND WEBINARSAdvantages and Drawbacks of Oral PresentationsAvoiding Presentation PitfallsPlanning Your PresentationAnalyze Your Audience and PurposeAnalyze Your Speaking SituationSelect a Type of PresentationSelect a Delivery MethodPreparing Your PresentationResearch Your TopicAim for Simplicity and ConcisenessAnticipate Audience QuestionsOutline Your PresentationPlanning and Creating Your VisualsDecide Which Visuals to Use and Where to Use ThemCreate a StoryboardDecide Which Visuals You Can Realistically CreatePrepare Your VisualsGuidelines for Readable and Understandable VisualsChoosing the Right Visual MediumUsing Presentation SoftwareEthics and the Use of Presentation SoftwareCase PowerPoint and the Space Shuttle Columbia DisasterGuidelines for Using Presentation SoftwareDelivering Your PresentationRehearse Your DeliveryCheck the Room and Setting BeforehandCultivate the Human LandscapeKeep Your Listeners OrientedPlan for How You Will Use Any Non-Computer Visual AidsGuidelines for Presenting VisualsManage Your Presentation StyleManage Your Speaking SituationGuidelines for Managing Listener QuestionsGuidelines for Delivering Oral PresentationsConsider This Cross-Cultural Audiences May Have Specific ExpectationsWebinars and Distance PresentationsWebinarsSlide Sharing and Other ToolsGuidelines for Webinars and Distance PresentationsChecklist Oral PresentationsProjects 25. WEB PAGESConsidering Audience and PurposeHow People Read Web PagesWriting for the WebGuidelines for Writing Web PagesDesigning Web PagesGuidelines for Designing Web PagesTechniques and Technologies for Creating Web SitesPlanning Web Sites Using StoryboardingTeamwork When Creating Web SitesCreating Web Pages Using Word Processing and Other SoftwareGlobal Issues and Web PagesGuidelines for Addressing Global AudiencesEthical and Legal ConsiderationsEthical ConsiderationsLegal ConsiderationsChecklist Writing and Designing Web PagesProjects 26. SOCIAL MEDIAConsidering Audience and Purpose Audience As ContributorUsing Social Media for Technical Communication Blogs WikisGuidelines for Writing and Using Blogs and Wikis Social Networking Sites Job and Professional Networking SitesGuidelines for Writing and Using Social Networks Customer Review Sites Twitter Feeds Ethical and Legal ConsiderationsChecklist: Social MediaProjects PART 5 RESOURCES FOR TECHNICAL WRITERS 675 APPENDIX A: A QUICK GUIDE TO DOCUMENTATIONTaking NotesGuidelines for Recording Research FindingsQuoting the Work of OthersGuidelines for Quoting the Work of OthersParaphrasing the Work of OthersGuidelines for ParaphrasingWhat You Should DocumentHow You Should DocumentMLA Documentation StyleMLA Parenthetical ReferencesMLA Works Cited EntriesMLA Sample Works Cited PagesAPA Documentation StyleAPA Parenthetical ReferencesAPA Reference List EntriesAPA Sample Reference ListCSE and Other Numbered Documentation StylesCSE In-Text CitationsCSE Reference List Entries APPENDIX B: A QUICK GUIDE TO GRAMMAR, USAGE, AND MECHANICSGrammarSentence FragmentsRun-On SentencesComma SplicesFaulty Agreement-Subject and VerbFaulty Agreement-Pronoun and ReferentDangling and Misplaced ModifiersFaulty ParallelismFaulty CoordinationFaulty SubordinationFaulty Pronoun CasePunctuationPeriodQuestion MarkExclamation PointSemicolonColonCommaApostropheQuotation MarksEllipsesBracketsItalicsParenthesesDashesMechanicsAbbreviationHyphenationCapitalizationNumbers and NumeralsSpellingUsageTransitionsUse Transitional ExpressionsRepeat Key Words and PhrasesUse Forecasting StatementsListsEmbedded ListsVertical Lists Works CitedIndex


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