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The tectonic setting and origin of cretaceous batholiths within the North American cordillera : the case for slab failure magmatism and its significance for crustal growth

Author: R S Hildebrand; Joseph Bruce Whalen; Geological Society of America,
Publisher: Boulder, Colorado : The Geological Society of America, 2017. ©2017
Series: Special papers (Geological Society of America), 532.
Edition/Format:   Print book : EnglishView all editions and formats
Summary:
"Boulder, Colo., USA: Earth has two types of crust: oceanic crust is relatively young, dense, and made at mid-oceanic spreading centers, whereas continental crust is buoyant, old, and believed to be created in magmatic arcs. However, making continental crust in arcs is problematic because arc magmas are basaltic with 48-50% silica, yet continental crust has ~60% silica and less magnesium than arc basalts.  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Geological maps
Graphs
Maps
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: R S Hildebrand; Joseph Bruce Whalen; Geological Society of America,
ISBN: 9780813725321 0813725321
OCLC Number: 1002693051
Notes: Folded sheet featuring enlarged color reproductions of three maps from figures 28, 31, and 50 is laid in.
Description: iv, 113 pages : color illustration, color maps ; 28 cm + 1 sheet (99 x 68 cm, folded to 22 x 28 cm).
Contents: Arcs --
Slab failure --
Peninsular Ranges Batholith: Setting, geochemistry, and proof of concept --
Sierra Nevada batholith --
Idaho-Montana --
Cascades-Coast plutonic complex --
Salinia --
Mid-Cretaceous Oregonian event --
Cordilleran ribbon continent and westerly subduction --
Cordilleran fold-and-thrust belt --
Sevier fold-and-thrust belt --
Sevier hinterland --
Plutons of the Sevier event --
Laramide event --
Thick-skinned deformation --
Laramide orogenic hinterland --
Involvement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle? --
Crustal input: Fact or fiction? --
Depth of melting and interactions with lithospheric mantle --Zoned intrusive complexes and the absence of crustal input --
Granodiorites from the mantle? --
Slab window magmatism and adakites --
Origin of Archean TTG suites --
Formation and growth of continental crust --
Mineralization.
Series Title: Special papers (Geological Society of America), 532.
Responsibility: by Robert S. Hildebrand, Joseph B. Whalen, Geological Survey of Canada.

Abstract:

"Boulder, Colo., USA: Earth has two types of crust: oceanic crust is relatively young, dense, and made at mid-oceanic spreading centers, whereas continental crust is buoyant, old, and believed to be created in magmatic arcs. However, making continental crust in arcs is problematic because arc magmas are basaltic with 48-50% silica, yet continental crust has ~60% silica and less magnesium than arc basalts. Paradoxically, how scientists think crust is created doesn't match the composition of the continental crust. In their latest contribution, Robert Hildebrand and Joseph Whalen examine the geochemistry and tectonic setting of large granitic bodies in the Cordillera of North America and use their findings to resolve the continental crust paradox. They conclude that most of the granitic bodies, called plutons, were not formed beneath arcs but instead were emplaced during and after collisions between arcs and continents. The plutons contain 60-70% silica and were derived from the mantle. During collision, arc magmatism shuts down and the leading edge of the continental mass is pulled beneath the arc by the dense oceanic plate. Because continents are buoyant, they resist being pulled completely into the mantle, so the ocean floor, along with the leading edge of the continent, tears off and sinks into the mantle. Fresh mantle upwells through the tear and new magmas, termed 'slab failure magmas,' containing 60-70% silica, are generated. The slab failure magmas rise into the collision zone where they constitute a significant volume of new continental crust. The authors note that magmas of similar composition can be traced back in time at least 3.6 billion years, which suggests to them that both subduction and slab failure have been long-lived processes that combined to create the continents we live on"--Provided by publisher.

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