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Temperature measurement

Author: L Michalski
Publisher: Chichester ; New York : J. Wiley, 2001.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 2nd edView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
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Material Type: Internet resource
Document Type: Book, Internet Resource
All Authors / Contributors: L Michalski
ISBN: 0471867799 9780471867791
OCLC Number: 44425424
Notes: Revised edition of: Temperature measurement / L. Michalski, K. Eckersdorf, and J. McGhee. c1991.
Description: xv, 501 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Contents: 1. Temperature Scales and Classification of Thermometers 1 --
1.1 Temperature --
Historical Background 1 --
1.2 Thermodynamic Temperature Scale 3 --
1.3 International Temperature Scales 6 --
1.3.1 From the Normal Hydrogen Scale to EPT-76 6 --
1.3.2 The International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) 9 --
1.4 Classification of Thermometers 12 --
1.4.1 Temperature measuring chains 12 --
1.4.2 General principles for thermometer classification 13 --
1.4.3 The non-electrical contacting temperature sensors 14 --
1.4.4 The electrical contacting temperature sensors 15 --
1.4.5 The non-contacting group of temperature sensors 15 --
1.4.6 Temperature measuring ranges of temperature sensors 17 --
2. Non-Electric Thermometers 19 --
2.1 Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers 19 --
2.2 Thermometers Using Expansion of Solids 23 --
2.2.1 Dilatation thermometers 23 --
2.2.2 Bimetallic thermometers 25 --
2.3 Manometric Thermometers 28 --
2.3.1 Liquid-filled thermometers 28 --
2.3.2 Vapour-pressure thermometers 31 --
2.3.3 Gas thermometers 32 --
2.3.4 Summary of properties of manometric thermometers 32 --
2.4 Temperature Indicators 32 --
3. Thermoelectric Thermometers 37 --
3.1 Physical Principles 37 --
3.1.1 Thermoelectric force 37 --
3.1.2 Law of the third metal 39 --
3.1.3 Law of consecutive metals 41 --
3.1.4 Law of consecutive temperatures 43 --
3.2 Thermocouples 44 --
3.2.2 Properties of commonly used thermocouples 46 --
3.2.3 Measuring junctions 50 --
3.3 Thermocouple Sensors 52 --
3.3.1 Construction 52 --
3.3.2 Sheath materials 53 --
3.3.3 Review of structures 57 --
3.4 High Temperature Thermocouples 65 --
3.5 Compensating Cables 67 --
3.6 Reference Temperature 72 --
3.6.1 Calculation of correction 72 --
3.6.2 Stabilisation and correction techniques 74 --
3.7 Measuring Circuits 76 --
3.7.2 Deflection type measuring circuits 77 --
3.7.3 Potentiometers 78 --
4. Resistance Thermometers 85 --
4.1 General and Historical Background 85 --
4.2 Physical Principles 86 --
4.3 Resistance Thermometer Detectors (RTDs) 88 --
4.3.2 Properties of different metals 89 --
4.3.3 Construction 90 --
4.4 Resistance Thermometer Sensors 94 --
4.5 Measuring Circuits 96 --
4.5.1 Voltage divider circuits 96 --
4.5.2 Bridge circuits 98 --
4.5.3 Quotient instruments 101 --
5. Semiconductor Thermometers 103 --
5.1 Classification of Semiconductor Thermometers 103 --
5.2 Thermistor Thermometers 104 --
5.2.1 Principles of operation 104 --
5.2.2 Thermistor sensors 109 --
5.2.3 Correction and linearisation of thermistor characteristics 111 --
5.2.4 Measuring circuits 112 --
5.3 Silicon Resistance Thermometers 114 --
5.4 Diode and Transistor Thermometers 116 --
5.4.1 Principles of operation 116 --
5.4.2 Diode thermometers 118 --
5.4.3 Transistor thermometers 119 --
5.5 Integrated Circuit Thermometers 121 --
6. Fibre Optic Thermometers 125 --
6.1 Properties of Optical Fibres 125 --
6.2 Classification of Fibre Optic Thermometers 126 --
6.3 Extrinsic Sensing Thermometers 127 --
6.3.1 Thermometers with GaAs semiconductor sensors 127 --
6.3.2 Thermochromic thermometers 128 --
6.3.3 Fluorescent thermometers 129 --
6.3.4 Thermometers with black body sensors 132 --
6.3.5 Thermometers with Fabry-Perot sensors 133 --
6.3.6 Optical coupling thermometers 134 --
6.4 Intrinsic Sensing Thermometers 134 --
6.4.1 Raman scattering thermometers 134 --
6.4.2 Refractive index thermometers 135 --
7. Quartz, Ultrasonic and Noise Thermometers and Distributed Parameter Sensors 139 --
7.1 Quartz Thermometers 139 --
7.2 Ultrasonic Thermometers 140 --
7.3 Noise Thermometers 144 --
7.4 Distributed Parameter Sensors 148 --
8. Pyrometers Classification and Radiation Laws 151 --
8.1 Classification of Pyrometers 151 --
8.2 Radiation, Definitions and Laws 154 --
8.2.1 Absorption, reflection and transmission of radiation 154 --
8.2.2 Radiation laws 155 --
8.2.3 Total emissivity and spectral emissivity 159 --
8.2.4 Radiant heat exchange 160 --
9. Manually Operated Pyrometers 163 --
9.1 Disappearing Filament Pyrometers 163 --
9.1.1 Principle of operation 163 --
9.1.2 Red filter 164 --
9.1.3 Scale defining equation for black bodies 166 --
9.1.4 Temperature measurement of non-black bodies 167 --
9.1.5 Extension of measurement range 169 --
9.1.6 Applications and construction 170 --
9.2 Two-Colour Pyrometers 172 --
9.2.2 Scale defining equation 172 --
9.2.3 Temperature measurement of non-grey bodies 174 --
10. Automatic Pyrometers 177 --
10.1 Optical Systems 177 --
10.1.1 Lenses 177 --
10.1.2 Light guides 179 --
10.1.3 Mirrors 180 --
10.2 Radiation Detectors 181 --
10.2.1 Thermal detectors 181 --
10.2.2 Photoelectric detectors 182 --
10.3 Total Radiation Pyrometers 184 --
10.3.2 Scale defining equation for black bodies 185 --
10.3.3 Temperature measurement of non-black bodies 186 --
10.3.4 Influence of housing temperature 189 --
10.3.5 Influence of target distance 189 --
10.3.6 Extension of measurement range 189 --
10.3.7 Review of construction 190 --
10.4 Photoelectric Pyrometers 192 --
10.4.2 Scale defining equation for black bodies 195 --
10.4.3 Temperature measurement of non-black bodies 196 --
10.4.4 Review of construction 198 --
10.5 Two-Wavelength Pyrometers 201 --
10.5.2 Review of construction 202 --
10.6 Multi-Wavelength Pyrometers 204 --
10.6.2 Review of construction 206 --
11. Practical Applications of Pyrometers 209 --
11.2 Influence of Target Emissivity 210 --
11.2.1 Calculation of true temperature 210 --
11.2.2 Methods of approaching black-body conditions 212 --
11.3 Influence of Surrounding Walls 216 --
11.4 Influence of Atmosphere 220 --
11.4.1 Methods of eliminating and limiting the errors caused by atmosphere absorption 222 --
11.5 Influence of Other Factors 22 --
11.6 Summary of Properties and Applications 223 --
12. Conditioning of Temperature Sensor Output Signals 229 --
12.2 Methods of Signal Processing in Temperature Measurement 230 --
12.2.1 Transformation of signal nature 231 --
12.2.2 Transformation of signal scale 234 --
12.2.3 Transformation of signal shape 235 --
12.3 Transmission of Measured Signals 244 --
12.4 Multi-Channel Temperature Measurements 245 --
12.5 Transmitters 247 --
12.6 Indicating Instruments and Recorders 250 --
12.6.1 Indicating instruments 250 --
12.6.2 Recorders 252 --
12.7 Temperature Controllers 256 --
13. Computerised Temperature Measuring Systems 259 --
13.1 Trends in Process Instrumentation 259 --
13.2 Hardware for Computerised Measurement 260 --
13.2.1 External measuring modules 260 --
13.2.2 Plug-in data acquisition cards 264 --
13.3 Software for Computerised Measurement 269 --
14. Imaging of Temperature Fields of Solids 273 --
14.2 Surfacial Systems 273 --
14.3 Linear Systems 276 --
14.4 Applications 277 --
15. Dynamic Temperature Measurement 279 --
15.1.1 Dynamic errors 280 --
15.1.2 Dynamic properties of temperature sensors 281 --
15.2 Idealised Sensor 284 --
15.2.1 Transfer function 285 --
15.2.2 Measurement of time varying temperature 287 --
15.3 Real Sensors 291 --
15.3.1 Sensor design 291 --
15.3.2 Changing heat transfer coefficient 293 --
15.3.3 Equivalent transfer function 294 --
15.3.4 Calculation of dynamic properties of sensors 296 --
15.4 Experimental Determination of the Dynamic Properties of Sensors 299 --
15.4.1 Classification and application of the methods 299 --
15.4.2 External input, time domain testing with convective heat transfer 300 --
15.4.3 External input, frequency domain testing with convective heat transfer 307 --
15.4.4 External input with radiative heat transfer 308 --
15.4.5 Internal input method 311 --
15.5 Dynamic Properties of Chosen Sensors 313 --
15.6 Correction of Dynamic Error s 320 --
15.6.1 Principles of correction 320 --
15.6.2 Analogue correction 321 --
15.6.3 Digital correction 325 --
16. Temperature Measurement of Solid Bodies by Contact Method 333 --
16.2 Theory of the Contact Method 333 --
16.2.1 Disturbing temperature field 334 --
16.2.2 Heat flux entering the sensor 338 --
16.2.3 Method errors and their reduction 342 --
16.2.4 Influence of thermal properties of bodies on errors 347 --
16.3 Sensors for Surface Temperature Measurement --
16.3.1 Portable contact sensors 348 --
16.3.2 Fixed contact sensors 351 --
16.3.3 Performance comparison of different sensors 352 --
16.4 Quasi-Contact Method 354 --
16.5 Extrapolation Method 355 --
16.6 Measurement of Internal Temperature of Solid Bodies 357 --
17. Temperature Measurement of Fluids 361 --
17.1 Low Velocity Gas 361 --
17.1.1 Contact sensors 361 --
17.1.2 Methods of reducing errors in contact measurements 365 --
17.1.3 Indirect pyrometric measurements 371 --
17.1.4 Direct pyrometric measurements 371 --
17.2 High Velocity Gas 372 --
17.3 Still Air 374 --
17.4 Liquids 375 --
17.5 High Temperature Gas and Plasma 375 --
18. Temperature Measurement of Transparent Solid Bodies 381 --
18.1 Pyrometric, Contactless Method 381 --
18.2 Contact Methods 386 --
19. Temperature Measurement of Moving Bodies 387 --
19.2 Pyrometric Contactless Methods 387 --
19.3 Sliding Contact Method 390 --
19.4 Inductive Circuits 390 --
19.5 Wireless Systems 391 --
19.6 Friction Sensors and 'Quasi-Contactless' Method 392 --
19.7 Other Methods 394 --
20. Temperature Measurement in Industrial Appliances 397 --
20.2 Chamber Furnaces 397 --
20.2.1 Internal furnace temperature 398 --
20.2.3 Charge temperature 399.
Responsibility: L. Michalski [and others].
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