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Thermal engineering

Author: Ajoy Kumar; G N Sah
Publisher: Oxford : Alpha Science International, 2010.
Edition/Format:   Print book : English : 2nd edView all editions and formats
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Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Ajoy Kumar; G N Sah
ISBN: 9781842654408 1842654403
OCLC Number: 629877104
Notes: Originally published: Pangbourne, U.K. : Alpha Science International, ©2004.
Description: xviii, 945 pages : illustrations ; 25 cm
Contents: Machine generated contents note: 1. Sources of Energy --
Introduction --
Energy and Man --
Energy Sources --
Measurement of Energy --
Energy Demand --
Estimated Energy Reserves of the World --
Direct Solar Energy --
Introduction --
Solar Energy Calculations --
Solar Radiation at Earth's Surface --
Terms related with Earth's Geometry --
Solar Energy Collection System --
Solar Energy Collectors --
Flat Plate Solar collectors --
Focussing type collector --
Fossil Fuels --
Hydraulic Power --
Wind Power --
Up-dates of Wind Power Produced in India and the World --
Classification of Wind Mills --
Tidal Power, Geothermal Power --
2. Basic Concepts and Definitions of Thermodynamics --
Thermodynamics --
Macroscopic and Microscopic View Point --
Continuum --
Thermodynamic Equilibrium --
System --
Property --
State --
Path --
Process --
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics --
Temperature and Temperature Scale --
Comparison of Temperature Scale --
Devices used for the Measurement of Temperature --
The Constant Volume Gas Thermometer --
Heat and Work --
Heat --
Work --
Types of Work --
Some Important Points about Heat and Work --
Internal Energy, Thermodynamic Equilibrium, Quasi Static Process and Reversible Process --
Shaft Work --
Work Done During a Non-Flow Reversible Process --
Flow Work or Flow Energy --
Enthalpy --
Total Energy --
Work Done in a Flow Process --
Units and Dimensions --
Force --
Density --
Specific Weight --
Pressure --
Manometer and Pressure Gauge --
Solved Problems --
Exercises --
3. The First Law of Thermodynamics --
Introduction --
Joule's Experiment --
First Law of Thermodynamics --
Internal Energy is a Property --
Applications of First Law of Thermodynamics --
Application on closed Systems --
Definitions of Specific Heat at Constant Volume --
Application of First Law to Steady Flow system --
Continuity Equation --
Solved Problems --
Exercises --
4. The Second Law of Thermodynamics --
Limitations of the First Law and Introduction to Second Law --
Statements of Second Law of Thermodynamics --
Equivalence of Planck's Statement and Clausius Statement --
Perpetual Motion Machine of The second kind --
Efficiency and C.O.P. --
CARNOT cycle --
Corallaries of The Second Law of Thermodynamics --
Entropy --
Physical Interpetation of Entropy --
Temperature entropy diagram --
Solved Problems --
Exercises --
5. The Perfect Gases --
The Perfect Gas --
Laws of Perfect Gas --
Boyle's Law --
Charle's Law --
Characteristic Gas Equation --
Avogadro's Hypothesis and Universal gas constant --
Joule's Law --
Relation of Specific Heats of Gases with Gas Constant --
Reversible Non-Flow Processes of a Perface Gas --
Calculation of Entropy Change of Different Processes --
Different Non-Flow Reversible Processes as Special case of the Polytropic Processes --
Free Expansion and Throttling Processes of a Perfect Gas --
Vander Waals Equation for Real Gases --
Determination of Constants of Vander Waals Equation --
Limitations of Vander Waals Equation --
Compressibility Factor and Compressibility Chart --
Beattie --
Bridgeman Equation --
Virial Equation of State --
P-V Diagram for Real Substance --
P-T Diagram for Real Substance --
P-V-T Surface for Real Substance --
Solved Problems --
Exercises --
6. The Gas Power Cycle --
Introduction --
Terms used in Piston Cylinder Arrangement --
Mean Effective Pressure --
Air Standard Cycles --
Carnot Cycle Air Standard Efficiency --
Otto Cycle or Constant Volume Cycle --
Diesel Cycle --
Brayton or Joule Cycle --
Some Important Points --
Solved Problems --
Exercises --
7. Properties of Steam and Processes --
Introduction --
Phase Transformation at Constant Pressure --
Effect of Pressure on Saturation Temperature --
Critical Temperature --
Triple Point --
Generation of Steam --
Quality of Steam --
Thermodynamic Properties of Steam --
Steam Table --
Steam Property Charts --
Thermodynamic Processes --
Methods of Determining of Dryness Fraction of Steam --
Solved Problems --
Exercises --
8. Steam Power Cycles --
Introduction --
Carnot Cycle --
Limitation of Carnot Cycle using Vapour as Working substance --
Rankine Cycle --
Specific Steam Consumption --
Relative Efficiency --
Rankine Engine --
Thermodynamic Variables Affecting Efficiency and Out put of Rankine Cycle --
Modified Rankine Cycle --
Desirable properties of on Ideal Fluid used in a Vapour Power Cycle --
Reheat Cycle --
Regenerative Cycle --
Binary Vapour Cycle --
Combined Reheat Regenerative Cycle --
Exercises --
9. Boiler --
Introduction --
Essentials of a Good Boiler --
Classification of Boilers --
Boilers Parts --
Distinction between Fire Tube and Water Tube Boilers --
Boiler Mountings --
Boiler Accessories --
Basic Types of Steam Generators --
Description of some Important Boilers --
Boiler Draught (Draft) --
Boiler Performance --
10. Air Compressor --
Introduction and General Classification --
Reciprocating Compressor --
Positive Displacement Rotary Compressors --
Turbine Vs. Compressor Blades --
Nonpositive Displacement of steady --
Flow Rotary Compressors --
Centrifugal Compressor --
Axial Flow Compressor --
Surging and Choking of Compressors --
Difference between Centrifugal and axial Flow Compressor --
Static and Total Head (or Satagnation) Quantities in Rotary Compressors --
Isentropic Efficiency in Rotary Compressor --
11. Refrigeration and Air Conditioning --
Fundamentals --
Standard Rating of a Refrigeration Machine --
Heat Engine, Refrigeration and Heat Pump --
Selection of Operating Temperatures --
Ideal Refrigerating Cycle (Reversed Carnot Cycle) --
Air Refrigeration System --
Vapour Compresssion Refrigeration System --
Household Refrigerator --
Water Cooler --
Multistage of Compound Compression System --
Vapour Absorption System --
Refrigerants --
Air Conditioning --
Psychometric Terms --
Psychometric Chart --
Psychometric Process --
Room (or Conditioned Space) Sensible Heat Factor (RSHF) --
Grand Sensible Heat Factor (GSHF) --
Effective Surface Temperature --
Cooling and Humidification --
Humidifying Efficiency --
Other Processes: Air Washer --
Water Injection --
Steam Injection --
Evaporative Cooling --
By Pass Factor --
Summer Air-conditioning Systems --
Winter Air Conditioning --
Year-Round Air-conditioning --
Purpose of Ventilation During Airconditioning --
12. Steam Engine --
Introduction --
Classification of Steam Engine --
Steam Engine Parts and their Functions --
Terms used in Steam Engine --
Operation of Steam Engine --
Actual Indicator Diagram --
Theoretical Work Done and Mean Effective pressure --
Cylinder Dimensions and Indicated Power --
Efficiencies of Steam Engine. Steam Consumption from Indicator Diagram and Missing Quantity --
Solved Problems --
Exercises --
13. Steam Condensers and Cooling Water Supply --
Introduction --
Advantages of a Condenser in a Steam Power Plant --
Elements of a Condensing Plant --
Types of Condensers --
Jet Condensers --
Surface Condensers --
Advantages and Disadvantages of Jet Condensers --
Advantages and Disadvantages of Surface Condensers --
Sources of air in the Condenser and its Effects --
Condenser Vacuum and its Measurement --
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure --
Condenser Efficiency --
Thermodynamic Analysis of Condenser --
Air Pumps --
Cooling Water Supply --
Cooling Pond --
Cooling Towers --
Hyperbolic Cooling Towers --
Solved Problems --
Exercises --
14. Steam Nozzles --
Introduction --
Flow of Steam Through Nozzle --
General Relationship between Area, Velocity and Pressure in the, Nozzle Flow --
Mass of Discharge Through Nozzle --
Throat Pressure for Maximum Discharge --
Physical Explanation of Critical Pressure --
Nozzle Operating in the off-Design Condition --
Effect of Friction on Nozzle Performance --
Length of Nozzle --
Supersaturated Flow Through Nozzle --
Steam Injector --
Solved Problems --
Exercises --
15. Steam Turbine --
Introduction --
Comparison of Steam engine and Turbine --
Working Principle of Turbine --
Classification of Steam Turbine --
Difference Between Impulse and Reaction Turbine --
Compounding of Impulse Turbine --
Velocity Diagram --
Work Developed on Turbine Blades and Efficiencies --
Condition for Maximum Efficiency of Impulse Turbine --
Velocity Diagram for Velocity Compounds Impulse Turbine --
Most Economical Ratio of Blade Speed to Steam Speed for a Two Row Velocity Compounded Impulse Wheel --
Blade Height --
Velocity Triangle for Reaction Turbine --
Degree of Reaction --
Efficiency of a Reaction Turbine --
Blade Height in Reaction Turbine --
Losses in Steam Turbine --
Steam Turbine Performance --
Maximum Gross Stage Efficiency of a 50% Parson Reaction Turbine --
Solved Problems --
Exercises --
16. Fuels and Combustion --
Introduction --
Classification of Fuels --
Combustion --
Composition of Air --
Theoretical Air Fuel Ratio --
Minimum Air Required in kg of Solid or Liquid Fuel --
Theoretical Air Fuel Ratio for Hydrocarbon --
Mass Balance --
Combustion Control Throgh Flue gas Analysis --
Conversion From Volumetric Analysis into Mass Analysis --
Conversion From Mass Analysis into Volumetric Analysis --
Calorific value of Fuel --
Energy Release in Combustion --
Enthalpy of Formation --
Adiabatic Flame Temperature --
Solved Problems --
Exercises --
17. Heat and Mass Transfer --
Introduction --
Modes of heat Transfer --
Fourier's Law of Heat conduction --
Effect of Temperature on Thermal Conductivity Note continued: One Dimensional Heat Conductions Through a Plane Wall --
Radial Heat Conduction Through a Hollow Cylinder --
Radial Heat Flow Through a Spherical Wall --
Newton's Law of Cooling --
Heat Conduction Through Composite Structure --
Overall Heat Transfer Co-efficient --
Critical Thickness of Insulation for Pipes --
Effect of non-uniform Thermal Conductivity --
Convection --
Introduction --
Energy Transfer Mechanism and fluid Flow --
Boundary Layer Theory --
Boundary Layer and Nusselt Number --
Evaluation of Convective Heat Transfer Co-efficients --
Dimensional Analysis --
Correlations For Convective Heat Transfer --
Boundary Layer Equations on a Flat Plate --
Colburn Analogy --
Convection --
Radiation --
Definitions --
Heat Transfer with Change in Phase --
Correlation For Pool Boiling --
Dropwise and Filmwise Condensation --
Mass Transfer --
Introduction --
Analogy between Heat and Mass Transfer --
Modes of Mass Transfer --
Mass Transfer by Molecular Diffusion --
Convective Mass Transfer --
Analogy Between Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer --
Solved Problems --
Exercises --
18. Direct Energy Conversion --
Introduction --
Thermoelectric Converters --
Thermionic Convertors --
Fuel Cells --
Magneto Hydroelectric Generator --
Photo Voltaic Systems (Solar Cells) --
Losses in the Solar Cell --
Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar Cells --
Solar Cell Materials --
Efficiency of Solar Cell and Rating --
Exercises --
19. Conversion of Nuclear Energy --
Introduction --
Nuclear Physics --
Nuclear Fission --
Nuclear Fusion --
Chain Reaction --
Thermal Neutrons --
Nuclear Reactor --
Layout of Nuclear Power Plant --
Neutron Multiplication Factor --
Nuclear Reactors --
Nuclear Power Station in India --
Power of a Nuclear Reactor --
Advantages of Nuclear Power Plants --
Summary of Materials for Nuclear Power Reactors --
Solved Problems --
Exercises.
Responsibility: Ajoy Kumar, G.N. Sah.

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