## Find a copy online

### Links to this item

purl.access.gpo.gov Adobe Acrobat Reader required to view document

## Find a copy in the library

Finding libraries that hold this item...

## Details

Genre/Form: | Cross-cultural studies |
---|---|

Additional Physical Format: | Online version: TIMSS Videotape Classroom Study. [Washington, D.C.] : U.S. Dept. of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, [1999] (OCoLC)784652572 |

Material Type: | Government publication, National government publication, Internet resource |

Document Type: | Book, Internet Resource |

All Authors / Contributors: |
James W Stigler; Patrick Andrew Gonzales; Takako Kawanaka; Steffen Knoll; Ana Serrano; Eric Derghazarian; Gundula Huber; Fumiko Ichioka; Nicole Kersting; National Center for Education Statistics, |

OCLC Number: | 41868663 |

Notes: | "February 1999." "NCES 1999-074." |

Description: | xx, 161 pages : illustrations ; 29 cm. |

Contents: | Foreword -- Executive Summary -- Objectives -- Scope and Methods -- Findings -- How Lessons are Structured and Delivered -- What Kind of Mathematics is Presented -- The Kind of Mathematical Thinking in Which Students are Engaged -- Teachers and Reform -- Key Points -- Acknowledgments -- List of Figures -- Chapter 1. Introduction -- Studying Processes of Classroom Instruction -- Advantages and Disadvantages of Questionnaires for Studying Classroom Processes -- Advantages and Disadvantages of Live Observations for Studying Classroom Processes -- The Use of Video for Studying Classroom Instruction -- Enables Study of Complex Processes -- Increases Inter-Rater Reliability, Decreases Training Problems -- Amenable to Post-Hoc Coding, Secondary Analysis -- Amenable to Coding from Multiple Perspectives -- Facilitates Integration of Qualitative and Quantitative Information -- Provides Referents for Teachers' Descriptions -- Facilities Communication of the Results of Research -- Provides a Source of New Ideas for How to Teach -- Disadvantages -- Issues in Video Research -- Standardization of Camera Procedures -- The Problem of Observer Effects -- Minimizing Bias Due to Observer Effects -- Sampling and Validity -- Confidentiality -- Logistics -- Harnessing the Power of the Anecdote -- Chapter 2. Methods -- Sampling -- The Main Video Sample. The U.S. Sample -- The German Sample -- The Japanese Sample -- Sampling Time in the School Year -- Subsample for the Math Content Group -- Additional Tapes for Public Use -- Overview of Procedures -- Field Test -- Videotaping in Classrooms -- Basic Principles for Documenting Classroom Lessons -- The Exceptions: Three Difficult Situations -- How Close to Frame the Shot -- Moving from Shot to Shot -- Training Videographers -- Evaluating the Comparability of Camera Use -- Some Notes on Equipment -- Teacher Questionnaire -- Constructing the Multimedia Database -- Digitizing, Compression, and Storage on CD-ROM -- Transcription/Translation of Lessons -- Developing Codes -- Deciding What to Code -- Developing Coding Procedures -- Implementation of Codes Using the Software -- First-Pass Coding: The Lesson Tables -- Methods for Describing Mathematical Content -- The Math Content Group -- Coding of Discourse -- Public and Private Talk -- First-Pass Coding and the Sampling Study -- Second-Pass Coding of Discourse -- Statistical Analyses -- Weighting -- Comparison of Video Subsamples with Main TIMSS Samples -- Validity of the Video Observations -- Chapter 3. Mathematical Content of Lessons -- Content: A Place to Begin -- General Descriptions of Content -- How Advanced is the Content by International Standards? -- A Closer Look at Content -- Teacher's Goal for the Lesson. Number of Topics and Topic Segments per Lesson -- Concepts and Applications -- Were Concepts Stated or Developed? -- Did Applications Increase in Complexity? -- Alternative Solution Methods -- Principles, Properties, and Definitions -- Proofs -- Findings of the Math Content Group -- Methods of Analysis -- Analyses of the Directed Graphs -- Further Analyses of Nodes and Links -- Additional Coding of Tasks -- Global Ratings of Quality -- Chapter 4. The Organization of Instruction -- Characteristics of the Classroom -- Basic Characteristics of the Lesson -- Organization of the Lesson -- Classwork and Seatwork -- Activity Segments -- Time Spent in Other Activity -- Homework During the Lesson -- Teacher Talk/Demonstration -- Working On Tasks and Situations -- Setting Up and Sharing Tasks and Situations -- Chapter 5. Processes of Instruction -- Developing Concepts and Methods -- The Use of Instructional Materials -- Use of the Chalkboard -- Use of Manipulatives -- Processing During Seatwork -- Tasks and Situations During Seatwork -- Performance Expectations -- Classroom Discourse -- First-Pass Coding: Categorizing Utterances -- First-Pass Coding: Results of the Sampling Study -- Second-Pass Coding Categories -- Results of Second-Pass Coding -- Explicit Linking and the Coherence of the Lesson -- Chapter 6. Teachers and Reform -- General Evaluations. Evaluations of the Videotaped Lessons in Terms of Current Ideas -- U.S. Reform in Cross-Cultural Perspective -- Reform in the U.S. Classroom: Observational Indicators -- Organization of the Lesson -- Instructional Materials -- Reform in the Classroom: Qualitative Analyses -- Example 1: Airplane on a String (US-060) -- Example 2: The Game of Pig (US-071) -- Example 3: A Non-Reformer (US-062) -- Chapter 7. Discussion and Conclusions -- Typical Lessons: Germany, Japan, and the United States -- Germany -- Japan -- United States -- Comparing Lesson Scripts -- U.S. Lessons Reconsidered -- The Study of Teaching: Some Final Thoughts -- References -- Appendix A. Information Given to U.S. Teachers Prior to Videotaping -- Appendix B. Response Rates -- Appendix C. Personnel -- Appendix D. English Version of the Teacher Questionnaire -- Appendix E. Standard Errors -- Appendix F. Transcription Conventions. List of Figures -- Figure 1. German sample for the Videotape Classroom Study broken down by type of school -- Figure 2. Distribution of videotaping over time in each country -- Figure 3. Example of first-pass coding table for Japanese lesson (JP-012) -- Figure 4. Excerpt from the content description column of the lesson table for JP-012 -- Figure 5. Distributions of unweighted average mathematics achievement test scores for classrooms in the Main TIMSS samples and video subsamples from each country -- Figure 6. Teachers' reports of how nervous or tense they felt about being videotaped -- Figure 7. Teachers' rating of the quality of the videotaped lesson compared to lessons they usually teach -- Figure 8. Teachers' average ratings of the typicality of various aspects of the videotaped lesson -- Figure 9. Percentage of lessons in each country in which content belonged to each of the ten major content categories -- Figure 10. Average grade level of content by international standards -- Figure 11. Teachers' description of the content of the videotaped lesson on a continuum from "all review" to "all new" -- Figure 12. Teachers' responses, on the questionnaire, to the question, "What was the main thing you wanted students to learn from today's lesson?" -- Figure 13. Average number of topics and topic segments per videotaped lesson in each country -- Figure 14. Pictures of the chalkboard from GR-096 -- Figure 15. Average percentage of topics in each lesson that include concepts, applications, or both. Figure 16. Materials used in US-068 -- Figure 17. A view of the classroom in US-061 -- Figure 18. Average percentage of topics in eighth-grade mathematics lessons that contained concepts that were stated or developed -- Figure 19. Drawing from chalkboard of first problem in US-018 -- Figure 20. Drawing from chalkboard of second problem in US-018 -- Figure 21. Average percentage of topics in each lesson that contained applications that increased in complexity vs. stayed the same or decreased over the course of the lesson -- Figure 22. (a) Percentage of lessons that included teacher-presented and student-presented alternative solution methods; (b) average number of teacher- and student-presented alternative solution methods presented per lesson -- Figure 23. Excerpt from chalkboard from JP-039, with English translation -- Figure 24. Average number of principles/properties and definitions in each German, Japanese, and U.S. eighth-grade mathematics lesson -- Figure 25. Directed graph representation of a Japanese lesson (JP-012) as constructed by the Math Content Group -- Figure 26. Additional example of directed graph produced by the Math Content Group -- Figure 27. Average number of nodes and links on the directed graph representations of lessons in each country -- Figure 28. (a) Percentage of lessons that included one, two, or more than two components; (b) percentage of lessons that included one, two, or more than two leaves -- Figure 29. Percentage of lessons with nodes coded to include illustrations, motivations, increase in complexity, and deductive reasoning. Figure 30. Percentage of lessons containing links coded as increase in complexity and necessary result/process -- Figure 31. Average number of codes per node and per link in German, Japanese, and U.S. lessons -- Figure 32. Percentage of lessons in each country containing mostly single-step, mostly multi-step, or equal numbers of the two types of tasks -- Figure 33. Percentage of lessons containing task controlled tasks, solver controlled tasks, or a combination of task and solver controlled tasks -- Figure 34. Percentage of lessons rated as having low, medium, and high quality of mathematical content -- Figure 35. Arrangement of desks in German, Japanese, and U.S. classrooms -- Figure 36. Percentage of lessons with at least one outside interruption -- Figure 37. Average number of organizational segments in German, Japanese, and U.S. lessons -- Figure 38. Average number of classwork and seatwork segments per lesson in each country -- Figure 39. Average percentage of time during the lesson spent in classwork and seatwork in each country -- Figure 40. Mean duration of classwork and seatwork segments in each country -- Figure 41. Percentage of seatwork time spent working individually, in groups, or in a mixture of individuals and groups -- Figure 42. Percentage of lessons in each country in which seatwork of various kinds occurred -- Figure 43. Overview of categories for coding lesson activity segments -- Figure 44. Mean number of activity segments in German, Japanese, and U.S. lessons. Figure 45. Time devoted to unrelated activities during the mathematics lesson: (a) as a percentage of total lesson time and (b) as percentage of lessons in which any activity is coded as "other" -- Figure 46. Percentage of lessons in which class works on and shares homework (not including assigning homework) -- Figure 47. Emphasis on teacher talk/demonstration as indicated by (a) percentage of lesson time, and (b) percentage of lessons in which such segments occur -- Figure 48. (a) Percentage of total lesson time spent in and (b) average duration of working on task/situation segments -- Figure 49. Average percentage of lesson time spent in (a) working on task/situation during classwork, and (b) working on task/situation during seatwork -- Figure 50. Average percentage of total lesson time spent in setting up and sharing task/situation -- Figure 51. Average percentage of topics including development that (a) include at least some seatwork and (b) include actual development of concepts during a seatwork segment -- Figure 52. Percentage of lessons in which chalkboard and overhead projector are used -- Figure 53. Percentage of lessons in which various instructional materials were used -- Figure 54. Percentage of lessons including (a) chalkboard or (b) overhead projector in which students come to the front and use it -- Figure 55. Example of chalkboard use from a Japanese lesson -- Figure 56. Percentage of tasks, situations, and PPDs (principles/properties/definitions) written on the chalkboard that were erased or remained on the chalkboard at the end of the lesson -- Figure 57. Average percentage of lessons where manipulatives were used in which the manipulatives were used by teacher, students, or both -- Figure 58. Excerpt from chalkboard of JP-007. Figure 59. Excerpt from textbook page used in GR-103 -- Figure 60. Problems from worksheet used in US-016 -- Figure 61. Average percentage of time in seatwork/working on task/situation segments spent working on four different patterns of tasks and situations in each country -- Figure 62. Excerpt from chalkboard in JP-034 -- Figure 63. Excerpt from computer monitor used in JP-012 -- Figure 64. Except from chalkboard in JP-012 -- Figure 65. Average percentage of seatwork time spent in three kinds of tasks -- Figure 66. Categories used for first-pass coding of utterances during public discourse -- Figure 67. Subcategories of content elicitations -- Figure 68. Subcategories of content elicitations -- Figure 69. Average percentage of utterances and words spoken by teachers in each country -- Figure 70. Average number of utterances (out of 30 sampled per lesson) coded into each of six teacher utterance categories -- Figure 71. Average number of utterances (out of 30 sampled) coded into each of five student utterance categories -- Figure 72. Average length of student responses as measured by number of words -- Figure 73. Average number of utterances (out of 30 sampled per lesson) coded into each of five categories of teacher elicitations -- Figure 74. Average number of utterances (out of 30 sampled) coded into each of three categories of content elicitations. Figure 75. Four subcategories of information and direction utterances -- Figure 76. The elicitation-response sequence -- Figure 77. (a) Average number of discourse codes per minute of classwork in the three countries; (b) average number of elicitation-response sequences per minute of classwork in the three countries -- Figure 78. Average percentage of initiating elicitations of elicitation-response sequences in each country: Content-related elicitations seeking facts -- Figure 79. Average percentage of initiating elicitations of elicitation-response sequences in each country: Content-related elicitations seeking individual ideas -- Figure 80. Percentage of lessons that include explicit linking by the teacher (a) to ideas or events in a different lesson, and (b) to ideas or events in the current lesson -- Figure 81. Teachers' ratings of how aware they are of current ideas about the teaching and learning of mathematics -- Figure 82. Teachers' responses when asked where they get information regarding current ideas about the teaching and learning of mathematics -- Figure 83. Teachers' perceptions regarding the extent to which the videotaped lesson was in accord with current ideas about the teaching and learning of mathematics -- Figure 84. Percentage of lessons among Reformers and Non-Reformers in the United States in which seatwork of various kinds occurred -- Figure 85. Frames from the video of US-060 -- Figure 86. Comparison of steps typical of eighth-grade mathematics lessons in Japan, Germany, and the United States. |

Series Title: | Research and development report (National Center for Education Statistics) |

Responsibility: | James W. Stigler, Patrick Gonzales, Takako Kawanaka, Steffen Knoll, and Ana Serrano ; with the assitance of Eric Derghazarian, Gundula Huber, Fumiko Ichioka, and Nicole Kersting. |

## Reviews

*User-contributed reviews*

Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers.
Be the first.

Add a review and share your thoughts with other readers.
Be the first.

## Tags

Add tags for "The TIMSS Videotape Classroom Study : methods and findings from an exploratory research project on eighth-grade mathematics instruction in Germany, Japan, and the United States".
Be the first.

## Similar Items

### Related Subjects:(13)

- Mathematics -- Study and teaching (Middle school) -- United States -- Evaluation.
- Mathematics -- Study and teaching (Middle school) -- Japan -- Evaluation.
- Mathematics -- Study and teaching (Middle school) -- Germany -- Evaluation.
- Mathematics -- Study and teaching (Middle school) -- Cross-cultural studies.
- Mathematics -- Study and teaching (Middle school) -- Evaluation.
- Mathematical ability -- Cross-cultural studies.
- Comparative education.
- Middle school teaching.
- Mathematical ability.
- Mathematics -- Study and teaching (Middle school)
- Germany.
- Japan.
- United States.