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Tissue hypoxia and ischemia

Author: Martin Reivich; University of Pennsylvania. Respiratory Physiology Group.
Publisher: New York : Plenum Press, ©1977.
Series: Advances in experimental medicine and biology, v. 78.
Edition/Format:   Print book : Conference publication : EnglishView all editions and formats
Database:WorldCat
Summary:
This monograph was held at the Annenberg Center of the University of Pennsylvania on August 13 and 14, 1976. The symposium was jointly sponsored by the following groups at the University of Pennsylvania: the Respiratory Physiology Group of the Department of Physiology, the Cardiopulmonary Section of the Department of Medicine, the Johnson Research Foundation, the Cerebrovascular Research Center of the Department of  Read more...
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Genre/Form: Conference papers and proceedings
Congresses
Additional Physical Format: Online version:
Tissue hypoxia and ischemia.
New York : Plenum Press, ©1977
(OCoLC)610178161
Material Type: Conference publication
Document Type: Book
All Authors / Contributors: Martin Reivich; University of Pennsylvania. Respiratory Physiology Group.
ISBN: 0306390787 9780306390784
OCLC Number: 2646248
Notes: Proceedings of a symposium held at the Annenberg Center of the University of Pennsylvania Aug. 13-14 1976; sponsored by the Respiratory Physiology Group, Dept. of Physiology, School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, and others.
Description: xiv, 385 pages : illustrations ; 26 cm.
Contents: The Biochemistry Of Physiologic Oxygen Sensors / Chairman: B. Chance --
What is a molecular oxygen sensor? What is a transduction process? / F.F. Jobsis --
The oxygen sensing characteristics of microsomal enzymes / R. W. Estabrook and J. Werringloer --
Oxygen sensing heme proteins: monoxygenases, myoglobin and hemoglobin / I.C. Gunsalus, S.G. Sligar, T. Nordlund and H. Frauenfelder --
Peroxisomal enzymes and oxygen metabolism in liver / H. Sies --
Mitochondrial production of superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide / A. Boveris --
Mechanism Of Oxygen Sensing In Tissues / Chairman: R.F. Coburn --
Chemoreception and transduction on neuronal models / N. Chalazonitis --
Oxygen tension sensors in vascular smooth muscle / R.F. Coburn --
Comments on: oxygen tension sensors in vascular smooth muscle / R. J. Paul --
Mechanism of oxygen induced contraction of ductus arteriosus / F.S. Fay, P. Nair and W.J. Whalen --
Prostaglandins and the control of muscle tone in the ductus arteriosus / F. Coceani, P.M. Olley, I. Bishai, E. Bodach, J. Heaton, M. Nashat and E. White --
The sensing of oxygen tension in the pulmonary circulation / A. P. Fishman --
The sensing of oxygen tension in the pulmonary circulation. Discussion / N.C. Staub --
Circulatory effects of tissue oxygen tension sensors / R.M. Berne and R. Rubio --
Bioassay and pharmacologic evaluation of the adenosine hypothesis / F . J. Haddy --
Mechanism Of Oxygen Sensing In Tissues / Chairman: S. Lahiri --
Introductory remarks: oxygen linked response of carotid chemoreceptors / S. Lahiri --
Convergence of stimuli in arterial chemoreceptors / R.W. Torrance --
Intracellular studies of carotid body cells: effects of temperature, "natural" stimuli and chemical substances / C. Eyzaguirre, M. Baron and R. Gallego --
Tissue PO2 in the cat carotid body and related functions / W.J. Whalen and P. Nair --
Some aspects of localization, depletion, uptake and turnover of catecholamines by glomus cells of the rat carotid body / A. Hess --
Catecholamines and 3' ,5' cyclic amp in carotid body chemoreception in the cat / R.S. Fitzgerald, E.M. Rogus and A. Dehghani --
Circulatory And Metabolic Aspects Of Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia / Chairman: M. Reivich --
Metabolic aspects of cerebral hypoxia-ischemi / B.X. Siesjo, C.-H. Nordstrom and S. Rehncrona --
Discussion: metabolic aspects of cerebral hypoxia-ischemia / T.E. Duffy and D.E. Levy --
Regional changes in metabolism in hypoxia-ischemia / F.A. Welsh, M.J. O'Connor, W. Rieder and V.R. Marcy --
Changes in PO2 and ion fluxes in cerebral hypoxia-ischemia / I.A. Silver --
Comments on: changes in PO2 and ion fluxes in cerebral hypoxia-ischemia / M. O'Connor --
Events marking irreversible injury / J .H. Halsey, Jr --
Cerebral hemodynamic and metabolic alterations in stroke / M. Reivich, M.D. Ginsberg, R. Slater, P.G. Tuteur, H.I. Goldberg, N.S. Cherniack and J. Greenberg Cerebral hemodynamic and metabolic alterations in stroke: formal discussion of paper by Dr. Martin Reivich, et al. {T.M. Sundt, Jr} --
Cerebral hemodynamic and metabolic alterations in hypovolemic shock / A. G. B. Kovach --
Altered mitochondrial metabolism in circulatory shock / L. Mela --
Discussion of Presentation by A.G.B. Kovach / J .A. Spath, Jr.
Series Title: Advances in experimental medicine and biology, v. 78.
Responsibility: edited by Martin Reivich [and others].

Abstract:

This monograph was held at the Annenberg Center of the University of Pennsylvania on August 13 and 14, 1976. The symposium was jointly sponsored by the following groups at the University of Pennsylvania: the Respiratory Physiology Group of the Department of Physiology, the Cardiopulmonary Section of the Department of Medicine, the Johnson Research Foundation, the Cerebrovascular Research Center of the Department of Neurology, the Head Injury Center of the Department of Neurosurgery, the Institute for Environmental Medicine, and the International Society on Oxygen Transport to Tissues. Its purpose was to promote an interdisciplinary discussion of oxygen sensors in various tissues and their mechanism of action as well as to examine the deleterious effects of hypoxia and ischemia with special reference to the brain. There were four sessions, one on the biochemistry of physiologic oxygen sensors, two on the mechanism of oxygen sensing in tissues and one on the circulatory and metabolic aspects of cerebral hypoxia and ischemia. In the first session, conceptual problems concerning what constitutes a molecular oxygen sensor and the transduction process were considered. In addition, the oxygen sensing characteristics of microsomal enzymes were discussed as well as microsomal oxygenase reactions, in particular those in which cytochrome P-450 plays a central role. The role of hydrogen peroxide formation in oxidation-reduction reactions involving the microsomes was explored. Other molecules which were considered as possible oxygen sensors were monoxygenases, myoglobin and hemoglobin. The reactions and kinetics of these oxygenated hemeproteins were examined. There was also discussion of the peroxisomal enzymes; catalase and three oxidases (urate, L-a-hydroxyacid and D-aminoacid oxidases) with emphasis on their properties which are important under physiologic conditions. Mitochondrial production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide, the oxygen dependence of this production and the physiologic relevance of these substances at the cellular level were considered. The second session dealt with the mechanism of oxygen sensing. Data concerning the bioelectric activity of chetnoreceptors and the effect of acetylcholine release on chemoreceptor function was presented. Oxygen tension sensors of vascular smooth muscle were examined and a hypothesis to explain the production of oxygen dependent mechanical tension in vascular smooth muscle was put forth. Evidence was presented that the effect of hypoxia may be mediated by a mechanism other than inhibition of aerobic energy production. The mechanism of oxygen induced contraction of the ductus arteriosus and the roles of ATP, calcium ion and prostaglandins in this system were discussed. The sensing of oxygen tension in the pulmonary circulation and the circulatory effects of tissue oxygen sensors, particularly in regard to coronary blood flow, were considered. The adenosine hypothesis for the regulation of blood flow in cardiac and skeletal muscle was critically examined. In the third session the examination of the mechanism of oxygen sensing in tissues was continued. The oxygen linked response of the carotid chemoreceptors and the interaction of hypoxic and hypercapnic stimuli were discussed. Data from microelectrode studies of the effects of changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide tension, temperature and osmolarity on carotid body cells were presented and the mechanism by which the chemoreceptors sense changes in arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide tension were examined. The role of catecholamines and cyclic AMP in the chemoreception process of the carotid body was considered. The fourth session was concerned with the circulatory and metabolic aspects of cerebral hypoxia and ischemia. The characteristic metabolic features of hypoxic hypoxia both at normal and reduced perfusion pressures as well as of incomplete and complete ischemia and how these metabolic changes relate to irreversible neuronal damage was discussed. Data demonstrating the presence of increased energy consumption and glucose metabolism in the brain following ischemia of transient duration was presented. Regional changes in energy metabolism and glycolysis in incomplete ischemia were also considered. The effects of ischemia of the cerebral cortex on other regions of the brain and spinal cord were examined in regard to cyclic nucleotide levels. The changes in tissue P02, ion fluxes and redox state produced by cerebral hypoxia and ischemia were discussed. Consideration was given to intracellular events possibly marking irreversible level jury following ischemia. The cerebral hemodynamic and metabolic alterations that occur in patients with cerebrovascular accidents in animal models of strokes were examined. The effects of hypovolemic shock on cerebral blood flow and its regulation as well as on brain metabolism and mitochondrial function were discussed.

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